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Meaning and Definition
 "Personality" is a dynamic and organized set
of characteristics possessed by a person that
unique...
Meaning and Definition
 Personality is a dynamic organisation within
the individual of those psycho-physical
systems that...
Types/Theories of Personality
 The earliest attempt to categories personality was made
by Hippocrates a Greek Physician (...
Types of Personality
 Recently, psychologists have attempted to
study personality in their own way.
 They have formulate...
Type Theories
 Type theorists have explained personality on
the basis of physique and temperament.
Temperament refers to ...
Jung’s Classification
 CG Jung has classified personality on the
basis of sociability character as Introverts and
Extrave...
Jung’s Classification
 Extraverts share a tendency to be outgoing,
friendly, talkative, and social in nature. They
prefer...
Jung’s Classification
Kretschmer’s Classification:
 From his studies on mental patients, he found
that certain body types are associated with
p...
Kretschmer’s Classification:
 Athletic type: These people will have strong
body. They are more energetic and aggressive.
...
Kretschmer’s Classification:
Sheldon’s Classification
 He has divided people into three types:
 Endomorphic: These people will have soft, fat and
rou...
Sheldon’s Classification
Friedman’s & Rosenman’s Classification
 Type A and Type B personality theory describes two
contrasting personality types....
Friedman’s & Rosenman’s Classification
 Type B personality, by definition, are noted to live at
lower stress levels. They...
Trait Theories
 In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional
theory) is an approach to the study of
human perso...
Allport Trait Theory
 Gordon Allport was one of the first modern trait theorists
and he organized these traits into a hie...
Allport Trait Theory
 Central traits come next in the hierarchy. These are
general characteristics found in varying degre...
Allport Trait Theory
 Central traits come next in the hierarchy. These are
general characteristics found in varying degre...
Cattell’s Trait Theories
 The most recent advanced theory of personality based
on trait approach has been developed by Ca...
Cattell’s Trait Theories
 Catell began to obtain a complete list of human traits
and he for med a list of 17000 traits.
...
Type cum Trait Theories
 This has both the characteristics features of type
approach as well as trait approach. Hence it ...
Type cum Trait Theories
a. At the third level we have organization of habitual
acts into traits. In the given example the ...
Developmental Theories: Freud
 Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of
personality argues that human behavior is the
res...
Developmental Theories: freud
 The id, the most primitive of the three structures, is
concerned with instant gratificatio...
Developmental Theories: Freud
 Freud believed that the nature of the conflicts
among the id, ego, and superego change ove...
Developmental Theories: Adler’s
 Adler's Personality Theory was created by Alfred Adler
(1870 - 1937).
 Adler called his...
Developmental Theories: Adler’s
 An inferiority complex brings an exaggerated feeling of
inferiority on the sufferer and ...
Developmental Theories: Adler’s
Adler also had 4 different psychological types that
described people based off of their e...
Developmental Theories: Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologist who
agreed with the main assumptions of Abr...
Developmental Theories: Carl Rogers
Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of
both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and
m...
Developmental Theories: Carl Rogers
If you say that you are a handsome person, you
tend to include in the concept of your...
Developmental Theories: Learning Theories
According to Dollard and Miller the Freud’s concept of
pleasure seeking is subs...
Developmental Theories: Learning Theories
Bandura & Waletr’s : This theory emphasizes that
what one represents through hi...
Developmental Theories: Learning Theories
The people around the child will respond to the
behaviour it imitates with eith...
PSYCHOMETRIC
ASSESSMENT
OF
PERSONALITY
SOME IMPORTANT TECHNIQUES
OBSERVATION
SITUATIONAL TESTS.
QUESTIONNAIRE.
PERSONALITY INVENTORY.
RATING SCALE.
INTERVI...
OBSERVATION
 Observational skills play an important part in most asses
sment procedures.
 The things that we observe con...
SITUATIONAL TESTS.
 The situation is artificially created in which an individual
is expected to perform acts related to t...
QUESTIONNAIRE.
 A group of questions are made related to personality
characteristics may be printed or written.
 In this...
PERSONALITY INVENTORY.
 It resembles questionnaire in so many aspects like
administration, scoring, interpretation, etc.
...
PERSONALITY INVENTORY. MMPI
 I have a good appetite.
 I wake up fresh & rested most mornings.
 I think I would like the...
RATING SCALE
 A rating scale is a procedure in which the observer
is asked to make judgments that place the person
somewh...
INTERVIEW
 The interview is most commonly used procedure
in psychological assessment.
 Interviews provide an opportunity...
PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
 These are methods to understand the covert or
unconscious behaviour which is more significant.
 T...
RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST
 The Rorschach test is a psychological test in
which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are
record...
RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST
 The test consists of 10 cards on which there are
ink blots.
 Five of them are black & white and...
RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST
RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST
 The scoring is based on four components such as
location, contents, originality and determinants...
RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST
 The number of Ws are greater than d or D then the
person is said to be mature, intelligent.
 Mo...
TAT Thematic Apperception TEST
 This test consists of perception of certain pictures in a
thematic manner.
 It consists ...
TAT Thematic Apperception TEST
 In making up the story the subject unconsciously
projects so many characteristics of pers...
TAT Thematic Apperception TEST
TAT Thematic Apperception TEST
CAT Child Apperception TEST
 It is similar to TAT.
 It consists of 10 cards
 The cards have pictures of animals instead...
CAT Child Apperception TEST
WORD ASSOCIATION TEST
 In this technique there are a number of selected words.
The subject is told that:-
 The examiner ...
WORD ASSOCIATION TEST
 Work: hard work is the key to success.
 Country: I love my country.
 Company: I have good friend...
SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST
 Sentence completion tests are a class of semi-
structured projective techniques.
 Sentence com...
SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST
 I am worried over ............................
 My hope is .............................
 I f...
Projective techniques
 In addition to projective techniques mentioned
so far the following practices are also used for
me...
ALTERATION IN PERSONALITY
 Although the personality of a person considered
as somewhat stable and enduring organization o...
The significant personality changes are;
 Irritable and ill-tempered behaviour may be shown to
staff nurses or others by ...
Unit 5 personality
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Unit 5 personality

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Unit 5 personality

  1. 1. Meaning and Definition  "Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, cognitions, emotions, motivatio ns, and behaviors in various situations.  The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask.  According to Watson Personality is the sum of activities that can be discovered by actual observations over a long enough period of time to give reliable information.
  2. 2. Meaning and Definition  Personality is a dynamic organisation within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment.
  3. 3. Types/Theories of Personality  The earliest attempt to categories personality was made by Hippocrates a Greek Physician (400 BC).  He categorised people on the basis of body elements such as pitt (bile), vata(wind) and kufa (mucus) and prominent personality characteristics associated with them such as:
  4. 4. Types of Personality  Recently, psychologists have attempted to study personality in their own way.  They have formulated various theories to explain personality.  These are divided into two types, viz., types and traits theories.  Both these theories of personality focus on people’s personal characteristics.  However, ‘type’ theorists and ‘trait’ theorists differ in the ways they use characteristics to describe people.
  5. 5. Type Theories  Type theorists have explained personality on the basis of physique and temperament. Temperament refers to emotional aspect of the personality like changes in mood, tensions, excitement, etc. A ‘type’ is simply a class of individuals said to share a common collection of characteristics.  Three important ‘Type theories’ of personality are explained here: 1. Jung’s Classification 2. Kretschmer’s Classification 3. Sheldon’s Classification 4. Friedman’s & Rosenman’s Classification
  6. 6. Jung’s Classification  CG Jung has classified personality on the basis of sociability character as Introverts and Extraverts.  Introverts are described as people who share characteristics such as shyness, social withdrawal, and tendency to talk less. Because of these characteristics these people appear to be self-centered, unable to adjust easily in social situations. They are not easily suggestible. They are future oriented, very sensible and rigid in ideas.
  7. 7. Jung’s Classification  Extraverts share a tendency to be outgoing, friendly, talkative, and social in nature. They prefer social contacts, generous, sportive, and courageous. They are happy-go-lucky persons and show interest in present reality than future. They express their feelings openly. Take decisions quickly and act upon quickly. They are not affected easily by difficulties.  Ambiverts: There are only few people who are pure introverts or pure extraverts. The remaining majority of people possess both the qualities of introverts and extraverts.
  8. 8. Jung’s Classification
  9. 9. Kretschmer’s Classification:  From his studies on mental patients, he found that certain body types are associated with particular types of mental disorders. He has classified personalities into four types:  Pyknic type: These are people who are short and having round body. They will have personality traits of extroverts. These people are more prone to suffer from a mental disorder called (MDP).  Asthenic type/Leptosomatic: These people will have a slender or slim body. They will have the personality traits of introverts. These people are more prone to suffer from a serious mental disorder called Schizophrenia.
  10. 10. Kretschmer’s Classification:  Athletic type: These people will have strong body. They are more energetic and aggressive. They will be strong enough, determined, adventurous and balanced. They are comparable with ambiverts. They are more prone to suffer from MDP.  Dysplastic type: These people will have un- proportionate body and do not belong to any of the three types mentioned above. This disproportion is due to hormonal imbalance. Their behaviour and personality are also imbalanced.
  11. 11. Kretschmer’s Classification:
  12. 12. Sheldon’s Classification  He has divided people into three types:  Endomorphic: These people will have soft, fat and round body, having predominance of abdominal region. They are sociable and relaxed (can be compared to pyknic type).  Ectomorphic: These are the people who are tall, thin and flat chested, having the skin, bones and neural structure predominantly. They are shy, reserved and self-conscious (can be compared with asthenic/Leptosomatic type).  Mesomorphic: These people are well built with heavy and strong muscles appear predominantly. They are physically active, noisy, adventurous by nature (can be compared to athletic type).
  13. 13. Sheldon’s Classification
  14. 14. Friedman’s & Rosenman’s Classification  Type A and Type B personality theory describes two contrasting personality types.  Type A: The theory describes Type A individuals as rude, ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status- conscious, sensitive, impatient, anxious, proactive, and concerned with time management. People with Type A personalities are often high-achieving "workaholics." They push themselves with deadlines, and hate both delays and ambivalence.  Type A behavior is expressed through three major symptoms: (1) free-floating hostility/unfriendliness, which can be triggered by even minor incidents; (2) time urgency and impatience,(3) a competitive drive.
  15. 15. Friedman’s & Rosenman’s Classification  Type B personality, by definition, are noted to live at lower stress levels. They typically work steadily, and may enjoy achievement.  When faced with competition, they may focus less on winning or losing than their Type A counterparts, and more on enjoying the game regardless of winning or losing.  Type B individuals are sometimes attracted to careers of creativity: writer, counsellor, therapist, actor or actress.  However, network and computer systems managers, professors, and judges are more likely to be Type B individuals as well. Their personal character may enjoy exploring ideas and concepts. They are often reflective, and think of the "outer and inner world".
  16. 16. Trait Theories  In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality.  Trait theorists are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion.  According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. some people are outgoing whereas others are shy), and influence behavior.  Traits are characteristic ways of behaving, such as extraversion–introversion: an individual may fall along any point in the continuum, and where they fall determines how they will respond in various contexts.
  17. 17. Allport Trait Theory  Gordon Allport was one of the first modern trait theorists and he organized these traits into a hierarchy of three levels:  Cardinal traits: They stand at the top of the hierarchy and are known as the individual's master control. They are considered to be an individual's ruling passions. Cardinal traits are powerful.  Cardinal traits often develop later in life and serve to shape almost all aspects of an individual's purpose, behaviour, and attitudes. Historical figures are often thought of in terms of their cardinal traits.  Mother Teresa is strongly associated with goodness and charity. Adolph Hitler is associated with evil, and his name evokes the embodiment of ruthlessness.
  18. 18. Allport Trait Theory  Central traits come next in the hierarchy. These are general characteristics found in varying degrees in every person such as loyalty, kindness, friendliness, wildness, etc. They are the basic building blocks that shape most of our behavior.  Secondary traits exist at the bottom of the hierarchy and are not quite as obvious or consistent as central traits. They are plentiful but are only present under specific circumstances; they include things like preferences and attitudes.  These secondary traits explain why a person may at times exhibit behaviours that seem incongruent with their usual behaviours. For example, a friendly person gets angry when people try to tickle him; another is not an anxious person but always feels nervous speaking publicly.
  19. 19. Allport Trait Theory  Central traits come next in the hierarchy. These are general characteristics found in varying degrees in every person such as loyalty, kindness, friendliness, wildness, etc. They are the basic building blocks that shape most of our behavior.  Secondary traits exist at the bottom of the hierarchy and are not quite as obvious or consistent as central traits. They are plentiful but are only present under specific circumstances; they include things like preferences and attitudes.  These secondary traits explain why a person may at times exhibit behaviours that seem incongruent with their usual behaviours. For example, a friendly person gets angry when people try to tickle him; another is not an anxious person but always feels nervous speaking publicly.
  20. 20. Cattell’s Trait Theories  The most recent advanced theory of personality based on trait approach has been developed by Cattell. He has defined trait as a structure of the personality inferred from behaviour in different situations and describes four types of traits.  Common Traits: the traits found widely distributed in general population like honesty, aggression, and cooperation.  Unique traits: unique to a person as temperamental traits, emotional reactions.  Surface traits: to be recognized by our manifestation of behaviour like curiosity, dependability, tactfulness.  Source traits: underlying structures or sources that determine one’s behaviour such as dominance, submission, emotionality etc.
  21. 21. Cattell’s Trait Theories  Catell began to obtain a complete list of human traits and he for med a list of 17000 traits.  On the second step he managed to form some specific groups which he called as surface traits. 35 nos.  The analysis of surface traits: he found that some are overlapping and made a list of traits called source traits. 15nos.  Eg. Academic Performance of a student is predictable by analysing two traits such as Intelligence and Reading Habits.
  22. 22. Type cum Trait Theories  This has both the characteristics features of type approach as well as trait approach. Hence it is called as Type cum Trait approach.  H.J Eysenck has classified the personality by having coordination between type and trait approach.  According to him we have four levels of behavior organization. a. At the lowest level we have specific responses. For example blushing / red face in a particular situation. b. At the second level we have habitual responses. We react in similar fashion when the same situation reoccurs. Eg. Not easily picking up the friendships, hesitant to talk to strangers etc.
  23. 23. Type cum Trait Theories a. At the third level we have organization of habitual acts into traits. In the given example the habitual responses give rise to a trait called shyness. b. At the fourth level we have the organization of these traits into a general type. A type is defined as a group of correlated traits. In the given example repeated shyness make the person introvert.  He described four types based on these aspects such as introversion, extroversion, Neuroticism (negative emotions), Psychoticism (aggressive IPR and anger)  This explain the structure and integration of our personality.
  24. 24. Developmental Theories: Freud  Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego.  Freud's structural theory of personality, places great emphasis on unconscious psychological conflicts in shaping behaviour and personality.  According to Freud, our personality develops from the interactions among what he proposed as the three fundamental structures of the human mind: the id, ego, and superego. Conflicts among these three structures, and our efforts to find balance among what each of them "desires," determines how we behave and approach the world.
  25. 25. Developmental Theories: freud  The id, the most primitive of the three structures, is concerned with instant gratification of basic physical needs and urges.  The superego is concerned with social rules and morals—similar to what many people call their "conscience" or their "moral compass." It develops as a child learns what their culture considers right and wrong.  The ego is the rational, pragmatic part of our personality. It is less primitive than the id and is partly conscious and partly unconscious. It's what Freud considered to be the "self," and its job is to balance the demands of the id and superego in the practical context of reality.
  26. 26. Developmental Theories: Freud  Freud believed that the nature of the conflicts among the id, ego, and superego change over time as a person grows from child to adult.  Specifically, he maintained that these conflicts progress through a series of five basic stages, each with a different focus: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.  He called his idea the psychosexual theory of development, with each psychosexual stage directly related to a different physical center of pleasure.
  27. 27. Developmental Theories: Adler’s  Adler's Personality Theory was created by Alfred Adler (1870 - 1937).  Adler called his theory Individual Psychology because he believed that people were unique and that no theory created to be applied to all people.  He originally followed Sigmund Freud's teachings but left after a disagreement of Freud's theory which says that the drive of human behavior is sex.  Adler's Personality Theory is similar to that of Freud's Personality Theory except that Adler's drive for human behavior is the need to overcome the feelings of inferiority.  Inferiority is a feeling that humans feel since they are born. It is humans drive to overcome inferiority and become superior which causes humans to act.
  28. 28. Developmental Theories: Adler’s  An inferiority complex brings an exaggerated feeling of inferiority on the sufferer and they will feel less motivated to strive for superiority.  His theory also contains the effects of the order of the family. Children who are the only child will get pampered which will cause the child to feel inferior when left to do things on their own.  Those who are firstborn get all the attention at first but then all that attention goes towards the middle child. Now the firstborn feels neglected and inferior and develops to reserved and conservative.  The middle child will be competitive and constantly try to beat the firstborn.  The youngest child will be pampered and will feel inferior when left to do things by themselves.
  29. 29. Developmental Theories: Adler’s Adler also had 4 different psychological types that described people based off of their energy levels. Ruling Type: This type refers to those who will push others in order to gain superiority. They have a lot of energy which causes them to push others out of their way. Learning Type: They are sensitive and build a shell around themselves. They are dependent on others to help them with life difficulties. When overwhelmed they develop phobias, obsessions, anxiety, etc. Avoiding Type: These people are people who survive by avoiding life. They have the lowest energy levels. They usually become psychotic, living in their own worlds. Socially Useful Type: This is a healthy person. They have the right amount of energy and take interest in others.
  30. 30. Developmental Theories: Carl Rogers Carl Rogers was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow. But added that for persons to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood). There are two basic systems underlying his personality ie, the organism and the self. The organism is the individual’s entire frame of reference. It represents the totality of experiences ie conscious and unconscious. The self is the accepted awareness part of experience.
  31. 31. Developmental Theories: Carl Rogers Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do because of the way we perceive our situation. "As no one else can know how we perceive, we are the best experts on ourselves.“ Carl Rogers believed that humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to self-actualize - i.e. to fulfill one's potential and achieve the highest level of 'human-beingness' we can. Like a flower that will grow to its full potential if the conditions are right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and reach their potential if their environment is good enough.
  32. 32. Developmental Theories: Carl Rogers If you say that you are a handsome person, you tend to include in the concept of your self, the idea that you are handsome. Hence the importance ones life is to build self which may differ from person to person. Once the concept of self is formed the individual strives to maintain it. If a person develop a false image then the personality will derailed. It is also necessary to create a balance between the concept of self and real life.
  33. 33. Developmental Theories: Learning Theories According to Dollard and Miller the Freud’s concept of pleasure seeking is substituted with principle of reinforcement, concept of ego, learnt skills and drive, etc. This theory stress the importance of learning and objectivity to understand personality. It says that personality is learnt. Humans are impelled by drives both conditioned and unconditioned. Reinforcements give birth to motives and new learning or behavioural processes. Personality is also acquired in the same way as learning. Habit formation is important in personality development. Change is always possible by learning.
  34. 34. Developmental Theories: Learning Theories Bandura & Waletr’s : This theory emphasizes that what one represents through his personality is very much acquired through a process of continuous structuring and restructuring of his experiences through social learning. Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways. In society, children are surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family, characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. Theses models provide examples of behaviour to observe and imitate, e.g. masculine and feminine, pro and anti-social etc.
  35. 35. Developmental Theories: Learning Theories The people around the child will respond to the behaviour it imitates with either reinforcement or punishment. Reinforcement can be external or internal and can be positive or negative. If a child wants approval from parents or peers, this approval is an external reinforcement, but feeling happy about being approved of is an internal reinforcement. The child will also take into account of what happens to other people when deciding whether or not to copy someone’s actions. e.g. a younger sister observing an older sister being rewarded for a particular behaviour is more likely to repeat that behaviour herself.
  36. 36. PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY
  37. 37. SOME IMPORTANT TECHNIQUES OBSERVATION SITUATIONAL TESTS. QUESTIONNAIRE. PERSONALITY INVENTORY. RATING SCALE. INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES.
  38. 38. OBSERVATION  Observational skills play an important part in most asses sment procedures.  The things that we observe confirm the person's self- report, and some times the person's overt behaviour appears to be at odds with what he or she says.  Observational procedures may be either informal or formal. Informal observations are primarily qualitative.  The clinician observes the person's behaviour and the environment in which it occurs without attempting to record the frequency or intensity of specific responses.  Observations are often conducted in the natural environment, but also useful to observe the person's behaviour in a situation that psychologist can arrange and control. (tape recorder, camera etc.)
  39. 39. SITUATIONAL TESTS.  The situation is artificially created in which an individual is expected to perform acts related to the personality traits under testing.  Eg. Testing honesty  Eg. Testing temptation to copy.
  40. 40. QUESTIONNAIRE.  A group of questions are made related to personality characteristics may be printed or written.  In this the subject responds to these questions in the space provided in the form under the columns.  These answers are evaluated for personality assessment. Do you enjoy being alone? Yes // No Do you enjoy seeing others successful? Yes // No Do you laugh at a joke on you ? Yes // No Do you get along well with your relatives? Yes // No
  41. 41. PERSONALITY INVENTORY.  It resembles questionnaire in so many aspects like administration, scoring, interpretation, etc.  The difference can be seen in two ways.  Firstly the questionnaire is the general device and can be used for collecting all kinds of information. It is connected to questions related to personality traits as well as behaviour.  Secondly all the questions are framed with first person not second person (as per language).  The best example for personality inventory is Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). It consists of 550 questions and each question is printed on a card.  The subject reads each questions and place it in into three groups separately such as YES/NO/DOUBTFUL
  42. 42. PERSONALITY INVENTORY. MMPI  I have a good appetite.  I wake up fresh & rested most mornings.  I think I would like the work of a librarian.  I am easily awakened by noise.  I like to read newspaper articles on crime.  My daily life is full of things that keep me interested.  I work under a great deal of tension.  Once in a while I think of things too bad to talk about.  My father was a good man.  My sex life is satisfactory.
  43. 43. RATING SCALE  A rating scale is a procedure in which the observer is asked to make judgments that place the person somewhere along a dimension.  Rating scales provide abstract descriptions of a person's behaviour rather than a specific record of exactly what the person has done.  These are assessment tools, which are used before the treatment to assess changes in patient behaviour after the treatment.  Brief psychiatric rating scales are usually used and completed by hospital staff to assess an individual on different constructs related with physic al or psychological illness.  Usually the degrees are indicated by numbers 1 to 3, 1 to 5 or 1 to 7
  44. 44. INTERVIEW  The interview is most commonly used procedure in psychological assessment.  Interviews provide an opportunity to ask people for their own descriptions of their problems.  Interviews also allow clinicians to observe importa nt features of a person’s appearance and nonverbal behaviour.  The limitation of this technique is that it needs a well trained competent interviewer.  It is costly in terms of labour, time and money.  It also suffers from subjective bias of the interviewer.  It permits explanation adjustment and variations according to the situations.
  45. 45. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES  These are methods to understand the covert or unconscious behaviour which is more significant.  These techniques are based on the concept of projection.  In this indefinite and unstructured stimuli like vague pictures, ink blots, incomplete sentences are provided to the subject and he is asked to structure them in any way he likes.  In doing so he unconsciously projects his own desires, hopes, fears, repressed wishes, etc are reveals in terms of clues.  The common ones are the following;;;;
  46. 46. RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST  The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.  Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning.  It has been employed to detect underlying though disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.
  47. 47. RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST  The test consists of 10 cards on which there are ink blots.  Five of them are black & white and 5 are multi colour.  They are unstructured and the shapes do not have any specific meaning.  The cards are presented to subject one at a time and he asked to say what he sees in it, or what does it look like.  Time is given to the subject. The examiner notes the responses both the descriptions and emotional or face expressions.  After the completion of the test there is a second phase where the subject is asked to clarify his expressions or narration.
  48. 48. RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST
  49. 49. RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST  The scoring is based on four components such as location, contents, originality and determinants.  Location: The letters such as W, D, d, s are used for it.  W= observing card as a whole. D= indicates large details. d= indicates small details. s= indicate response to white spaces.  Contents: H= human forms, A= animal forms, etc.  Originality: P= popular or repeated inference, O= new inferences on every card.  Determinants: C, M, K. manner of perception such as its colour/movement and shading etc.  The results are entered into a spread sheet column. The frequency indicates the behaviour/personality of the person.
  50. 50. RORSCHACH INK-BLOT TEST  The number of Ws are greater than d or D then the person is said to be mature, intelligent.  More number on colour and human movement indicates extrovert behaviour.  Dominance on shading responses indicates anxiety and depression.  Emphasis on movement indicates increased power of imagination.
  51. 51. TAT Thematic Apperception TEST  This test consists of perception of certain pictures in a thematic manner.  It consists of 20 pictures which portray human beings in a variety of actual life situations. The pictures are different for male and female.  The pictures are presented to the subject one at a time. There is no right and wrong answer.  He / She has to make up a story for each of the pictures.  The following aspects are considered while making up the story; What is going in the picture? What is the reason of the said scene? What will happen in such a situation?
  52. 52. TAT Thematic Apperception TEST  In making up the story the subject unconsciously projects so many characteristics of personality.  Interpretation is based on the following a. Hero of the story: personality of the hero. b. Theme of the story: nature of the theme c. Style of Story: language, expressions, organisation. d. Content of the Story: interests , sentiments and attitude. e. Test situation: whole and part
  53. 53. TAT Thematic Apperception TEST
  54. 54. TAT Thematic Apperception TEST
  55. 55. CAT Child Apperception TEST  It is similar to TAT.  It consists of 10 cards  The cards have pictures of animals instead of humans.  Administration is same as TAT.  Interpretation is based on Hero of the story, theme, end of the story, attitude towards parental figure, family role, nature of anxieties, punishment and crime, defence and confidence etc.
  56. 56. CAT Child Apperception TEST
  57. 57. WORD ASSOCIATION TEST  In this technique there are a number of selected words. The subject is told that:-  The examiner will speak a series of words one at a time.  After each word the subject (usually 15 second are given) is to reply to each word as possible as the first word comes to his mind  There is no right and wrong answer.  The examiner then records the reply to wach word spoken by him.  The reaction time and any unusual speech or behaviour manifestations accompanying a given response is noted.  It is believed that word association can reveal something of a person's subconscious mind (as it shows what things they associate together).
  58. 58. WORD ASSOCIATION TEST  Work: hard work is the key to success.  Country: I love my country.  Company: I have good friend company.  Love: I love my daughter.  Defeat: I want to defeat my enemies.  Garden:  Peace:  Money:  Travel:  Happy:  Books:  Profession:  Ghost:
  59. 59. SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST  Sentence completion tests are a class of semi- structured projective techniques.  Sentence completion tests typically provide respondents with beginnings of sentences, referred to as "stems", and respondents then complete the sentences in ways that are meaningful to them.  The responses are believed to provide indications of attitudes, beliefs, motivations, or other mental states.  Therefore, sentence completion technique, with such advantage, promotes the respondents to disclose their concealed feelings.
  60. 60. SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST  I am worried over ............................  My hope is .............................  I feel proud when ..............................  My hero is ...........................
  61. 61. Projective techniques  In addition to projective techniques mentioned so far the following practices are also used for measuring personality.  Play technique.  Drawing  Painting etc.
  62. 62. ALTERATION IN PERSONALITY  Although the personality of a person considered as somewhat stable and enduring organization of all that he possess with him in terms of his physique, intellect and behavioural characteristics.  In our day today life we consistently change our social nature, temperament, etc.  Sudden changes in the environmental set up, the anxiety, fear and restlessness and economic pressure introduced through the illness of the person may also cause personality change.
  63. 63. The significant personality changes are;  Irritable and ill-tempered behaviour may be shown to staff nurses or others by the patients.  Pessimism and withdrawal behaviour may be caused due to chronic diseases.  Resentment (unfair means) and aggression self directed or towards the health care staff.  Over Dependent and demanding behaviour such as being in childhood.  Unsocial and self centred behaviour because while ill we like take care of self.  Damaged self concept and helplessness. Also loss of self confidence.  Turning into abnormal personalities: pressure from family, friends, and other social pressure, economic pressure, frustrations and conflicts.

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