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UNIT- II
BIology of
BehavIoUr
BIology of BehavIoUr
Content-
• Body mind relationship modulation process in health and
illness
• Genetics and behaviour:
...
Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN
process IN healTh aNd IllNess
MIND
• Mind is the sum total of various mental processes
s...
Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN
process IN healTh aNd IllNess
MIND
• Level of mind-
Conscious
Preconscious
Unconscious
H...
Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN
process IN healTh aNd IllNess
MIND
• Analysis of conscious mental phenomena-
Cognition –...
Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN
process IN healTh aNd IllNess
BODY – MIND RELATIONSHIP
• Body and mind act on each other...
Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN
process IN healTh aNd IllNess
BODY – MIND RELATIONSHIP
• With the concept of body – mind...
psychology of seNsaTIoNs
• Human behavior involves the whole organism or body mind
interaction.
• Body mind interaction ha...
psychology of seNsaTIoNs
Psychology of sensations
• There are various sense organs present in our body which
influences th...
Psychology of sensations
Psychology of sensations
• When these receptors do not function properly sensory defects or
disor...
Psychology of sensations
Applied aspects of sensations in mental processes
• Flowers and dull color should be arranged for...
Psychology of sensations
Applied aspects of sensations in mental processes
• During any procedure movements of the hands s...
Muscular and glandular controls
of behaviour
Muscular system
• Behavior and activity involves movements of
different parts...
Muscular and glandular controls
of behaviour
Muscular system
• There are two group of muscles i.e. skeletal muscles
and sm...
Muscular and glandular controls
of behaviour
Applied aspects of muscular system
• As a nurse it is wise to remember that i...
Muscular and glandular controls
of behaviour
Gland and behavior
• Glands play important part in human behavior as
glandula...
Muscular and glandular controls
of behaviour
Gland and behavior
• Duct gland-
o Usually secrete their chemical through the...
Muscular and glandular controls
of behaviour
Gland and behavior
• Duct gland-
Sweat gland become overactive in anger and ...
Muscular and glandular controls
of behaviour
Gland and behavior
• Ductless glands-
They secrete their secretion i.e. horm...
Muscular and glandular controls
of behaviour
Gland and behavior
• Ductless glands-
Hypothyroidism causes the mental retar...
brain and behaviour
Nervous system
• The nervous system is composed of two major
divisions:
Central nervous system (CNS)
...
brain and behaviour
brain and behaviour
CEREBRUM.
• The cerebrum is composed of two hemispheres separated by a
deep groove that houses a band ...
brain and behaviour
CEREBRUM.
Frontal lobes-
• The frontal lobes control voluntary body movement, including
movements that...
brain and behaviour
CEREBRUM.
Occipital lobes-
• The occipital lobes are the primary area of visual
reception and interpre...
brain and behaviour
DIENCEPHALON.
The diencephalon connects the cerebrum with lower brain
structures
Thalamus-
• The thala...
brain and behaviour
DIENCEPHALON.
Limbic system-
• These structures include the hippocampus, mammillary
body, amygdala, ol...
Brain and Behaviour
MID BRAIN (MESENCEPHALON).
• Structures of major importance in the
mesencephalon, or midbrain, include...
Brain and Behaviour
HIND BRAIN.
PONS-
• The pons is the bulbous structure that lies between the midbrain and the
medulla
•...
Brain and Behaviour
NERVE TISSUE.
Neurons-
• The tissue of the CNS consists of nerve cells called neurons
that generate an...
Brain and Behaviour
NERVE TISSUE.
Neurons-
• The efferent (or motor) neurons carry impulses from the
CNS to the muscles an...
Brain and Behaviour
NERVE TISSUE.
Synapses-
• The junction between two neurons is called a synapse. The
small space betwee...
Brain and Behaviour
NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
• Neurotransmitters are responsible for essential functions
in the role of human em...
Brain and Behaviour
NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
• NOREPINEPHRINE. Nor-epinephrine is the
neurotransmitter associated with the “figh...
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Biology of behavior

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describes about body, mind and its relationship

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Biology of behavior

  1. 1. UNIT- II BIology of BehavIoUr
  2. 2. BIology of BehavIoUr Content- • Body mind relationship modulation process in health and illness • Genetics and behaviour: Heredity and environment • Brain and behaviour: Nervous System, Neurons and synapse, • Association Cortex, Rt and Lt Hemispheres • Psychology of Sensations • Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour • Nature of behaviour of an organism/ Integrated responses
  3. 3. Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN process IN healTh aNd IllNess MIND • Mind is the sum total of various mental processes such as thinking, knowing, feeling, reasoning, observing, wishing, judging, remembering etc. • Mind is regarded as the function of body, it does not exist apart from the body. • Our mind grows as our body grows. • It becomes more complex with advancing years.
  4. 4. Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN process IN healTh aNd IllNess MIND • Level of mind- Conscious Preconscious Unconscious However there is no separate compartment for each level in our mind.
  5. 5. Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN process IN healTh aNd IllNess MIND • Analysis of conscious mental phenomena- Cognition – to know Affect - to feel Conation – to do • These are also known as modes of consciousness or ways of being conscious • Conscious processes are not purely cognitive affective or conative. • A conscious process is called cognitive, affective or conative depending on the mode that predominates in it.
  6. 6. Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN process IN healTh aNd IllNess BODY – MIND RELATIONSHIP • Body and mind act on each other . • Mental functions and physical states affect each other. • This relationship is called as interactionism. • various systems of body are responsible for the ways of our thinking, feeling and wishing. • In the same manner mind too affects our body system or physical states.
  7. 7. Body mINd relaTIoNshIp modUlaTIoN process IN healTh aNd IllNess BODY – MIND RELATIONSHIP • With the concept of body – mind relationship psychosomatic medicine focuses on the study and treatment of disease believed to be caused by emotional conflicts. • Treatment is directed to both the sources i.e. emotions and physical states. • Psychological interventions like imagery, hypnosis and relaxation have been found to be very effective in improving the quality of life, mood and reducing disease and treatment related symptoms such as – chemotherapy induced vomiting and pain in case of cancer.
  8. 8. psychology of seNsaTIoNs • Human behavior involves the whole organism or body mind interaction. • Body mind interaction has two aspects i.e. physical and mental • These two aspects influences each other • Important physical aspects which influences the mental function are- Sense organs Muscles Glands Nervous system
  9. 9. psychology of seNsaTIoNs Psychology of sensations • There are various sense organs present in our body which influences the bodily and mental functions. • Theses sense organs are also known as receptors • Skin, eyes, ears, tongue are examples of sense organs. • These sense organs provide knowledge of the world and surroundings as well • Each sense organ has distinct function to perform. • Sense organs are stimulated by objects outside the body and also by the internal conditions.
  10. 10. Psychology of sensations Psychology of sensations • When these receptors do not function properly sensory defects or disorders take place these may be-  Visual disturbances  Auditory disorders  Olfactory disorders  Cutaneous disorders  Gustatory disorders  Kinesthetic disorders  Static disorders • There are various sensory defects which do not have any organic cause such sensory defects are known as functional disorders of sensory processes
  11. 11. Psychology of sensations Applied aspects of sensations in mental processes • Flowers and dull color should be arranged for those patients who need rest and sedative influences • Provide warm and bright colors and light for those who need stimulation and encouragement • Windows in the ward should be shaded to prevent the ocular discomfort • Reduce noise in and around the sickroom to a minimum • Control the unpleasant odors from the ward • Served food should be freshly prepared, clean and tasty and should be served cheerfully • Served food should be free from the strong odors and spices. • Bed should be free from wrinkles • While providing care to the patient hands should be smooth and soft
  12. 12. Psychology of sensations Applied aspects of sensations in mental processes • During any procedure movements of the hands should be coordinated and free from the jerky movements.
  13. 13. Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour Muscular system • Behavior and activity involves movements of different parts of body. • These activities depends on the coordination and control of muscles and involves the strength, precision of movement and speed. • Prolonged exercise, stimulation, injury or disease may alter the muscular movements. • Rest and sleep prevents and cures the altered muscular movement
  14. 14. Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour Muscular system • There are two group of muscles i.e. skeletal muscles and smooth muscles. • Skeletal muscle provides the overt movements such as walking, running, gesturing, throwing, handling the objects etc. • Whereas smooth muscles provide the movements for vital processes such as-alimentation, excretion, circulation. • Smooth muscles are slower to contract and slow to return to normal state after contraction as compared to skeletal muscles.
  15. 15. Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour Applied aspects of muscular system • As a nurse it is wise to remember that in disease condition muscle tones are affected and patient may be restless, uncomfortable. • Provide physical quiet, mental serenity by back rest knee roll • Discourage prolonged visits, whispered condition and monotonous conversations • Patient with hypotone muscle should encouraged for physical exercise so that patient may gain the old tonus.
  16. 16. Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour Gland and behavior • Glands play important part in human behavior as glandular activity is largely responsible for the digestion of the food, elimination, production and prolongation of emotional states and regulation of the general metabolism of the body. • Types of glands- Duct glands Ductless gland
  17. 17. Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour Gland and behavior • Duct gland- o Usually secrete their chemical through the little duct into body cavity or on surface of the body. o Salivary glands, gastric gland, lachrymal glands sweat gland are the example of duct glands o They usually secrete tears, urea, gastric juices, sweat etc. o These glands become overactive or underactive in the influence of emotions. For example-
  18. 18. Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour Gland and behavior • Duct gland- Sweat gland become overactive in anger and fear Grief makes the lachrymal gland overactive In fear salivary glands become underactive Fear and anger slows down the activity of gastric glands In extreme fear there is a tendency to urinate
  19. 19. Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour Gland and behavior • Ductless glands- They secrete their secretion i.e. hormone directly into the blood Play a vital role in determination of human personality They control the mental development, emotional development along with the physical development, general development These glands become overactive or underactive and produces various mental and emotional instability such as-
  20. 20. Muscular and glandular controls of behaviour Gland and behavior • Ductless glands- Hypothyroidism causes the mental retardation, dullness whereas hyperthyroidism leads to the excitement, nervousness, hyperactive, insomnia Hypoparathyroidism causes highly sensitive to criticism and distractibility while hyperparathyroidism causes lack of interest, lethargy etc. Hyper functioning of adrenal gland leads to the virility masculine effect, aggressive sub functioning of adrenal gland causes the loss of libido, lassitude, poor judgment
  21. 21. brain and behaviour Nervous system • The nervous system is composed of two major divisions: Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  22. 22. brain and behaviour
  23. 23. brain and behaviour CEREBRUM. • The cerebrum is composed of two hemispheres separated by a deep groove that houses a band of 200 million neurons (nerve cells) called the corpus callosum. • The outer shell is called the cortex. It is extensively folded and consists of billions of neurons. • The left hemisphere appears to be dominant in most people. It controls speech, comprehension, rationality, and logic. • The right hemisphere is nondominant in most people. Sometimes called the “creative” brain, the right hemisphere is associated with affect, behavior, and spatial perceptual functions. • Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes-
  24. 24. brain and behaviour CEREBRUM. Frontal lobes- • The frontal lobes control voluntary body movement, including movements that permit speaking, thinking, and judgment formation, emotional experience such as fear, aggressiveness, depression, rage, euphoria, irritability, and apathy. Parietal lobes- • The parietal lobes control perception and interpretation of most sensory information (including touch, pain, taste, and body position) and Language interpretation Temporal lobes- • The upper anterior temporal lobe is concerned with auditory functions, short-term memory, sense of smell, expression of
  25. 25. brain and behaviour CEREBRUM. Occipital lobes- • The occipital lobes are the primary area of visual reception and interpretation.
  26. 26. brain and behaviour DIENCEPHALON. The diencephalon connects the cerebrum with lower brain structures Thalamus- • The thalamus integrates all sensory input (except smell) on its way to the cortex. The thalamus also has some involvement with emotions and mood. Hypothalamus- • The hypothalamus regulates the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland. • It exerts control over the actions of the autonomic nervous system, and regulates appetite and temperature.
  27. 27. brain and behaviour DIENCEPHALON. Limbic system- • These structures include the hippocampus, mammillary body, amygdala, olfactory tract, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, septum pellucidum, thalamus, and fornix. • The limbic system, which is sometimes called the “emotional brain,” is associated with fear and anxiety; anger and aggression; love, joy, and hope; and sexuality and social behavior.
  28. 28. Brain and Behaviour MID BRAIN (MESENCEPHALON). • Structures of major importance in the mesencephalon, or midbrain, include nuclei and fiber tracts. • They extend from the pons to the hypothalamus. • Responsible for the integration of various reflexes, including visual reflexes (e.g., automatically turning away from a dangerous object when it comes into view), auditory reflexes (e.g., automatically turning toward a sound that is heard), and righting reflexes (e.g., automatically keeping the head upright and
  29. 29. Brain and Behaviour HIND BRAIN. PONS- • The pons is the bulbous structure that lies between the midbrain and the medulla • It is a center for respiration and skeletal muscle tone. MEDULLA- • It contains vital centers that regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, and reflex centers for swallowing, sneezing, coughing, and vomiting • The medulla, pons, and midbrain form the structure known as the brainstem. CEREBELLUM- • The functions of the cerebellum are concerned with involuntary movement, such as muscular tone and coordination and the maintenance of posture and equilibrium.
  30. 30. Brain and Behaviour NERVE TISSUE. Neurons- • The tissue of the CNS consists of nerve cells called neurons that generate and transmit electrochemical impulses. • The structure of a neuron is composed of a cell body, an axon, and dendrites. • The cell body contains the nucleus and is essential for the continued life of the neuron. • The dendrites are processes that transmit impulses toward the cell body, and the axon transmits impulses away from the cell body. • Cells called afferent (or sensory) neurons carry impulses from
  31. 31. Brain and Behaviour NERVE TISSUE. Neurons- • The efferent (or motor) neurons carry impulses from the CNS to the muscles and glands of the periphery. • Cells of a third type, called interneurons, exist entirely within the CNS and comprise 99 percent of all nerve cells. • They may carry only sensory or motor impulses, or they may serve as integrators in the pathways between afferent and efferent neurons. • They account in large part for thinking, feelings, learning, language, and memory.
  32. 32. Brain and Behaviour NERVE TISSUE. Synapses- • The junction between two neurons is called a synapse. The small space between the axon terminals of one neuron and the cell body or dendrites of another is called the synaptic cleft. • Neurons conducting impulses toward the synapse are called presynaptic neurons and those conducting impulses away are called postsynaptic neurons
  33. 33. Brain and Behaviour NEUROTRANSMITTERS. • Neurotransmitters are responsible for essential functions in the role of human emotion and behavior. • Many neurotransmitters exist within the central and peripheral nervous systems, but only a limited number have implications for psychiatry. • Major categories include the cholinergics, monoamines, amino acids, and neuropeptides. ACETYLCHOLINE. Acetylcholine was the first chemical to be identified and proven as a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is implicated in sleep, arousal, pain perception, the modulation and coordination of movement, and memory acquisition and retention.
  34. 34. Brain and Behaviour NEUROTRANSMITTERS. • NOREPINEPHRINE. Nor-epinephrine is the neurotransmitter associated with the “fight-or-flight” syndrome of symptoms that occurs in response to stress. Nor-epinephrine may have a role in the regulation of mood, in cognition and perception. • DOPAMINE. Dopamine is involved in the regulation of movements and coordination, emotions, voluntary decision-making ability • SEROTONIN. Serotonin may play a role in sleep and arousal, libido, appetite, mood, aggression, and pain perception.

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