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2 phonetics slides final


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2 phonetics slides final

  1. 1. Phonetics<br />Introduction to Language<br />2011 Fall<br />Ryan<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br /><ul><li>Explore the relationship between sound and spelling
  3. 3. Become familiar with International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA )
  4. 4. Understand the nature of consonants and vowels
  5. 5. Learn where particular sounds occur (physical aspects of the human vocal tract)
  6. 6. How sounds change when different sounds surround them
  7. 7. Yule: Chapter 3, The Sounds of Language</li></ul>2<br />
  8. 8. Phonetics<br />Acoustic phonetics – the physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air<br />Auditory phonetics – the study of the perception of speech sounds, via the ear<br />Articulatory phonetics – the study of how speech sounds are made, or ‘articulated’<br />3<br />
  9. 9. Articulatory Phonetics<br />Deals with the way in which speech sounds are produced, what parts of the mouth and in what sorts of configurations<br />Phoneticians’ techniques – x-ray photography, palatography (to observe contact btwn the tongue and the roof of the mouth)<br />Most basic tool – impressionistic phonetic transcription: e.g. tomato<br /> Webster’s: tə-mā-tōtə-mä-tō<br /> Gershwin: tomato tomahto<br />4<br />
  10. 10. SEAGH<br />5<br />Imagine a word spelled as<br />CHEF?<br />But pronounced as<br />How would one come to this spelling?<br />sure dead laugh<br />
  11. 11. Describing Language Sounds<br /><ul><li>The sounds of spoken English often do not match up with the letters of written English.
  12. 12. One solution to describe the sounds of a language is to produce a separate alphabet with symbols that represent sound  phonetic alphabet
  13. 13. These symbols represent both the consonant and vowel sounds of language</li></ul>6<br />
  14. 14. A “Good” Phonetic Alphabet: Characteristics<br />1. Each symbol should represent only one sound (phone)<br /><ul><li>e.g. <c>: [k] in cat and [s] in cymbal</li></ul>2. If 2 sounds can distinguish one word from another, they should be represented by different symbols<br /><ul><li>e.g. <th>: they vs. thigh</li></ul>Good phonetic transcription  unambiguously convey the important aspects of the pronunciation of a given set of sounds, using a written system of symbols.<br />7<br />
  15. 15. A “Good” Phonetic Alphabet: Characteristics<br />3. If 2 sounds are very similar and their differences arise only from the context they’re in, those similarities should be represented<br />[k]sounds in keep and cool (place where they’re articulated are dependent on the following vowel)<br />8<br />
  16. 16. The English Alphabet<br />The English alphabet has 26 letters but there are over 40 different speech sounds:<br />5 vowel and 21 consonant letters of the alphabet<br />About 20 vowel sounds and 24 consonant sounds (depending on dialect)<br />9<br />
  17. 17. A “Good” Phonetic Alphabet: Not English<br />Same sound spelled using different letters: sea, see, scene, receive, thief, amoeba, machine<br />Same letters can stand for different sounds: - sign, pleasure, resign<br /> - dough, through, rough,<br /> cough, fought, drought<br />10<br />
  18. 18. A “Good” Phonetic Alphabet: Not English<br />Single sound spelled by a combination of letters: lock, that, book<br />Single letter represents a combination of sounds: exit, use<br />Sometimes letters stand for no sound at all: know, doubt, though<br />11<br />
  19. 19. Transcription<br />the conversion of spoken words into written words<br />the process of matching the sounds of human speech to special written symbols<br />using a set of exact rules, so that these sounds can be reproduced later.<br />12<br />
  20. 20. Transcription<br /><ul><li>There are two kinds of transcription
  21. 21. Narrow transcription:
  22. 22. seeks to document every possible detail of the segment
  23. 23. very often, these details are not discernible to the native speaker
  24. 24. Broad transcription:
  25. 25. specifies the segments that are contrastive in the language
  26. 26. far fewer sounds are documented</li></ul>13<br />
  27. 27. Transcription<br /><ul><li>A transcription system for these purposes must be different from traditional writing systems
  28. 28. Some features of a good phonetic transcription system:
  29. 29. Universal: no preference given to any existing spelling system
  30. 30. Interpretable: other linguists should be able to interpret it
  31. 31. Transparent: one-to-one correspondence between sounds and symbols
  32. 32. Comprehensive: symbols for all the sounds in human language
  33. 33. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is the best attempt so far (chart uploaded in Bb)</li></ul>14<br />
  34. 34. The Organs of Speech (Yule, page 27)<br />15<br />
  35. 35. English Sounds<br />16<br /><ul><li>All English words are made from combinations of consonants and vowels
  36. 36. Every English segment can be uniquely described in three or four words
  37. 37. [p] is the voiceless (bi-)labial (oral) stop
  38. 38. [e] is the upper-mid front vowel
  39. 39. [n] is the alveolar nasal (stop)</li></li></ul><li>Voiced and Voiceless Sounds<br />Inside the larynx are the vocal cords<br />One position: voiceless<br />Vocal cords are open, the air from the lungs passes between them unimpeded. e.g. /s/<br />Another position: voiced<br />When the vocal cords are drawn together, the air from the lungs repeatedly pushes them apart as it passes through, creating a vibration effect. e.g. /z/<br />17<br />
  40. 40. Consonants<br /><ul><li>Consonants are generally produced with greater constriction within the vocal tract.
  41. 41. Description of consonants
  42. 42. Voicing: describes the state of the larynx
  43. 43. Place of Articulation: describes the location of the obstruction or constriction
  44. 44. Manner of Articulation: describes the type of constriction and the passage of airflow
  45. 45. e.g. /s/ voiceless alveolar fricative</li></ul>18<br />
  46. 46. English Sounds: Consonants<br /><ul><li>Place
  47. 47. Bilabial
  48. 48. Labiodental
  49. 49. Dental
  50. 50. Alveolar
  51. 51. Palatals
  52. 52. Velar
  53. 53. Glottal</li></ul>(Yule pgs. 28-31)<br />19<br /><ul><li>Manner
  54. 54. Stop
  55. 55. Fricative
  56. 56. Affricate
  57. 57. Nasals
  58. 58. Liquids
  59. 59. Glides
  60. 60. Glottal stops and flaps</li></ul>(Yule pgs. 31-33)<br />
  61. 61. IPA Consonants <br />20<br />
  62. 62. English Consonants<br />Yule, pg. 30<br />21<br />
  63. 63. English Sounds: Vowels<br />22<br /><ul><li>Exercise: Hold your jaw lightly, now say he, who, and ha. Did your jaw move for ha?
  64. 64. Vowels don’t have a consonant-like point of articulation or manner of articulation. The three standard descriptors for consonants (place, manner, voicing) aren’t helpful when we want to describe vowels.</li></li></ul><li>English Sounds: Vowels<br />23<br /><ul><li>There are 4 main ways in which speakers can change the shape of the vocal tract and thus change vowel quality.
  65. 65. Raising of lowering the body of the tongue
  66. 66. Advancing or retracting the body of the tongue
  67. 67. Rounding or not rounding the lips
  68. 68. A tense or lax gesture of the tongue body
  69. 69. Manner: all vowels are articulated in the same way, with the tongue raising or lowering to the target position
  70. 70. All vowels (in English) are voiced</li></li></ul><li>IPA VowelsYule, pg.34<br />24<br />
  71. 71. Vowel Space(Height x Backness Space)<br />The space is typically quadrilateral in shape. (quadra = four; lateral = side)<br /> It is also (and primarily) an auditory space.<br />We hear vowels as similar or different from each other depending on their proximity in this space.<br />25<br />
  72. 72. 26<br />Monophthongs of English<br />You will find that you open your mouth a little wider as you change from [i] to [Ɛ] to [æ]<br />seat<br />set<br />These varying degrees of openness correspond to different degrees of tongue height<br />sat<br />
  73. 73. 27<br />Monophthongs of English<br />Made with the <br />front of the <br />mouth less <br />open because the<br /> tongue body is <br />raised, or high<br />Produced with an <br />intermediate tongueheight<br />Pronounced with the <br />front of the mouth<br /> open and the <br />tongue lowered.<br />
  74. 74. Monophthongs of English<br />28<br />boot<br />beat<br />Beat: the body of the tongue is raised and pushed forward so it’s just under the hard palate.<br />Boot: made by raising the body of the tongue in the back of the mouth, toward the velum<br />
  75. 75. 29<br />Monophthongs of English<br />Front: tongue is moved forward or advanced for all front monophthongs<br />Back: tongue is retracted or pulled back for the back monophthongs<br />
  76. 76. Lip Rounding<br />Vowel quality also depends on lip position<br />[u] in two  lips are rounded<br />[i] in tea lips are unrounded<br />30<br />
  77. 77. 31<br />Diphthongs of English<br />Diphthongs: Complex vowel sounds because they are two-part vowel sounds, consisting of a transition from one vowel to the other in the same syllable<br />Try saying eyevery slowly. How do you make this vowel sound?<br />Your tongue starts out in the low back position for [α] <br />Then your tongue moves toward the front position for [I]<br />
  78. 78. 32<br />Diphthongs of English<br />Examples:<br />buy<br />bay<br />bow<br />oh<br />
  79. 79. Homework<br />Do Study Questions Chapter 3; Read Chapter 4.<br />33<br />
  80. 80. References<br />Yule, 2010<br />Fromkin, et. al., 2009<br />34<br />
  81. 81. 35<br />