Csd 210 introduction to phonetics i and ii


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  • Bring #2 pencil 50 multiple choice or TF Identify structures in anatomy color pictures (multiple choice) Some phonetic transcription. Study PG 287 (first 5 vowels on 288) i I e E ae KNOW all constinants. Questions will come from lecture(ppts). 15Q on anatomy 15 Q phonetics 15 Q Diffrence between speech, languange, processing, terms 15 Q Know facts and figures for written assignment #1.
  • We will focus more on articulatory. Because it is how we use our body to make the sound
  • Like a vocal atom. Each vocal sound within a word is imporatant. HAT SAT MAT X-Initial A- medial phoneme T- Final Phoneme
  • Phonotactics – why sk(ittle) works and (boo)ks
  • Diphthong- cross between vowel and consonants
  • /s/ is not the same as s /s/ is the sound not the letter Sounds from all letters are represented so you can know what sounds are made regardless of meaning.
  • When it is made, everything is unobstructed.
  • Most sounds are made by how we position the toungue
  • Need to be able to transcribe a few words from 288 for exam.
  • 1. s ae -3, 5 14 10 13 15 16 S ae t sIt Sit (seat) sEt Sef Fem jEs (yes)
  • Labials (lips) Dentals made by teeth
  • Stops (p,d,t,d,g,k) (know what they are but not examples) Fricatives (funnles) (the f in fun, v in voice, th in thick,)
  • Affricates – cha and ja Choo choo, jap Nasals – m, n, ing
  • Glide – like a vowel but they go from restricted to open. W, Y Whisky, Yankee Liquids – Tongue curves up on the outside. R (ryne), L(linus), (S sara) Know the diffrences between the last 4 ones.
  • Obstruents – restriction Sonoranths – no restriction
  • Know this. Two vs mitten (the T) in two is much harder than in the middle of the word mitten Each phneam /a/, /b/, /c/… each has allophones, so each is like a family of sounds. Sets of twins or tripplits.
  • Csd 210 introduction to phonetics i and ii

    1. 1. Introduction to phonetics COMDIS 210: Survey of Communication Disorders
    2. 2. Definition of phonetics (Shriberg & Kent, 1982) <ul><li>The study of the perception and production of speech sounds (phonemes). </li></ul><ul><li>The study of how speech sounds are produced and what their acoustic properties are. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulatory phonetics (concerned with how sounds are formed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acoustic phonetics (concerned with the acoustic properties of sounds) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Clinical phonetics involves the application of articulatory and acoustic phonetics to the study of speech sound (articulation and phonological) disorders. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Phonemes <ul><li>The smallest linguistic unit of sound that conveys meaning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One phoneme can change the entire meaning of a word. (e.g., b at, ha m , car s , r a n) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Speech sounds” </li></ul><ul><li>Includes consonants, vowels and diphthongs </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Every language has a specific number of phonemes that are used. </li></ul><ul><li>SAE uses about 40-44 phonemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 consonants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 vowels & diphthongs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phonotactics : the rules defining permissible sequences of phonemes to form meaningful words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each language has its own set of phonotactic rules. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The 3 major categories of phonemes <ul><li>Vowels </li></ul><ul><li>Diphthongs </li></ul><ul><li>Consonants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgules (slashes) used to distinguish phonemes from letters. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) <ul><li>Universal symbol system for classifying phonemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Each phoneme is represented by a single symbol from the IPA. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>The IPA is a phonetic alphabet the describes and classifies each speech sound on the basis of how and where it is produced in the speech mechanism. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Vowels <ul><li>A vowel is a speech sound that is formed without a significant constriction of the oral and/or pharyngeal cavities, and that serves as a syllable nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>The position of the tongue distinguishes among almost all of the vowels in our language. </li></ul>
    10. 10. The tongue <ul><li>Muscular organ with no internal skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Receives skeletal support from the mandible and hyoid bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 5 parts: </li></ul>
    11. 11. The 5 parts of the tongue <ul><li>Body (mass or bulk of tongue) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Position important to description of vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tip ( “apex” ; visible when tongue protruded between the lips) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in over 50% of consonant contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blade (located behind the tip and in front of the dorsum. ) </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Dorsum (back of tongue) </li></ul><ul><li>Root (long segment forming the front wall of the pharynx; reaches down from the dorsum to the epiglottis and larynx) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Articulatory features of vowels <ul><li>1. High/Low (represents tongue height ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vowels produced near hard palate = high vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vowels produced w/tongue depressed in mouth= low vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also can have mid-high , mid and mid-low vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ heat – hat-- hoot – hop” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ meat—mit—mate—met--mat” </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. IPA symbols for vowels Articulatory characteristics of vowels <ul><li>Table 9.1 (p. 288) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Front/Back/Central (represents tongue advancement ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rounded/Unrounded (represents whether lips are rounded or unrounded) </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Lax/tense (represents the feature of tenseness/ degree of muscle activity involved ) </li></ul><ul><li>Tense vowels have a longer duration than lax vowels. </li></ul>
    17. 17. The vowel quadrilateral <ul><li>A diagram depicting the tongue positions of vowels. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue positions for vowels are specified as points falling on the sides of, or within, the quadrilateral. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The quadrilateral has at its corners /i/ (high-front), /u/ (high-back), /ae/ (low-front) and /XXX/ (low-back). </li></ul>
    18. 18. Diphthongs <ul><li>Monophthong : “pure vowel”; a vowel having a single, unchanging sound quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Diphthong : vowel-like sound produced with a gradually changing articulation and resulting in a complex, dynamic sound quality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represented by a digraph (pair of symbols) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has “on-glide” and “off-glide” segments </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Phonetic transcription of words using selected vowels or diphthongs <ul><li>sat </li></ul><ul><li>sit </li></ul><ul><li>seat </li></ul><ul><li>suit </li></ul><ul><li>set </li></ul><ul><li>safe </li></ul><ul><li>sign </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>soy </li></ul><ul><li>sock </li></ul><ul><li>saw </li></ul><ul><li>life </li></ul><ul><li>home </li></ul><ul><li>sound </li></ul><ul><li>soy </li></ul><ul><li>town </li></ul><ul><li>fame </li></ul>
    21. 21. Consonants <ul><li>A consonant is a speech sound that is produced with a significant constriction of the oral and/or pharyngeal cavities. </li></ul><ul><li>Consonants , vowels and diphthongs can occur in the initial, medial and/or final positions of words. </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>The number of possible consonant sounds exceeds 100. The English language uses about 25. </li></ul><ul><li>Consonants are classified by their place of constriction, the manner in which they are produced and whether they require voicing . </li></ul><ul><li>Different consonants are produced by changing either place, manner and/or voicing. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Ways of categorizing consonants (3 dimensions of consonant articulation) <ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Manner </li></ul><ul><li>Voicing </li></ul>
    24. 24. PLACE of articulation <ul><li>Phonemes are classified according to the PLACE where the articulatory constriction occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ WHERE” the sound is formed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labials/bilabials (lips) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/p, b, m, w/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dentals (teeth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/XXX,XXX) </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Labiodentals (lips and tongue) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/f,v/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alveolars (alveolar ridge) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/t, d, n, r, s , l/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glottals (glottis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/h,w/ </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>Velars (velum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/k, g, XXX/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palatals (hard palate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, l) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. MANNER of articulation <ul><li>Phonemes are classified according to HOW the articulatory constriction is created. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How” the sound is formed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the airflow is constricted by the articulator. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Table 9.2, p. 289 <ul><li>Stops (plosives) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airflow completely stopped (air pressure built) in the vocal tract before being released in a quick, explosive burst. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airflow is continuous but forced through a tiny fissure in the vocal tract </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Affricates (stop + fricative) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airflow completely stops (air pressure built) and then released in a continuous stream through a tiny fissure in the vocal tract. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nasals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airflow channels through the nasal cavity due to closure of the velopharyngeal port </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Glides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulators glide from a constricted to a more open position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “semi-vowels” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue held tight at midline with openings laterally; air flows around the sides of the tongue </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Voicing <ul><li>Phonemes are classified according to whether or not they are created via vocal fold vibration. </li></ul><ul><li>Voiced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All vowels; all diphthongs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consonants (see. p. 289) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voiceless </li></ul>
    32. 32. Voiced sounds <ul><li>Phonemes that are created via vocal fold vibration. </li></ul><ul><li>All vowels are voiced. </li></ul><ul><li>All diphthongs are voiced. </li></ul><ul><li>Some consonants are voiced. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Additional classifications <ul><li>Obstruents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any sound formed with either a complete or narrow constriction of the vocal tract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stops, fricatives, affricates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sonorants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any sound formed without turbulent airflow (or significant constriction) in the vocal tract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vowels, diphthongs, nasals, glides, liquids </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Allophone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonetic variant of a phoneme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If each phoneme represents a “family of sounds” , an allophone is one member of that family. </li></ul></ul>