System Unit


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System Unit

  1. 1. The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data.
  2. 2. The system unit is composed of: Processor Memory Adapter Cards Drive bays Power supply
  3. 3. The Motherboard It is the main board of the system unit.
  4. 4. PROCESSOR A. It is also called as central processing unit (CPU). Its function is to interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer. There are three times of processor: 1. Multi-core processor 2. Dual-core processor 3. Quad-core processor
  5. 5. Comparison of Personal Computer Processors The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD. These manufacturers often identify their processor chips by a model name or model number. High-performance desktop personal computers today use a processor in the Intel Core family. Less expensive, basic personal computers today use a brand of Intel processor in the Pentium or Celeron family.
  6. 6. It is another component of the processor, performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operation. It is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operation on the computer. The Control Unit The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
  7. 7. The System Clock It is a small quartz crystal circuit where the processor relies to control the timing of all computer operations. It generates regular electronic pulses, or ticks, that set the operating pace of components of the system unit.
  8. 8. Data Presentation
  9. 9. MEMORY It consist of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data (information).
  10. 10. Memory stores three basic categories of items: 1. The operating system and other system software that control or maintain the computer and its devices; 2. Application programs that carry out a specific task such as word processing ; and 3. The data being processed by the applications programs and resulting information.
  11. 11. Bytes and Addressable Memory A byte (character) is the basic unit in memory. Each byte resides temporarily in memory in a location that has an address. An address simply is a unique number that identifies the location of the byte in memory.
  12. 12. Memory Sizes
  13. 13. Types of Memory: Volatile Memory Temporary RAM (Random Access Memory) Nonvolatile Memory Permanent ROM (Read Only Memory Flash memory
  14. 14. RAM (Random Access Memory) Also called as MAIN MEMORY Consist of memory chips It loses its contents when the power is removed from the computer
  15. 15. Cache Most of today’s computers improve processing times with cache (pronounced cash). Two types of cache are memory cache and disk cache. This chapter discusses memory cache. Memory cache helps speed the processes of the computer because it stores frequently used instructions and data. Most personal computers today have at least two types of memory cache: L1 cache and L2 cache. • L1 cache is built directly in the processor chip. L1 cache usually has a very small capacity, ranging from 8 KB to 128 KB. • L2 cache is slightly slower than L1 cache but has a much larger capacity, ranging from 64 KB to 16 MB. Current processors include advanced transfer cache, a type of L2 cache built directly on the processor chip. Processors that use advanced transfer cache perform at much faster rates than those that do not use it. Personal computers today typically have from 512 KB to 12 MB of advanced transfer cache.
  16. 16. Read-only memory (ROM pronounced rahm) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions. Flash memory is a type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten. Most computers use flash memory to hold their startup instructions because it allows the computer easily to update its contents. Some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory chips use complementary metal- oxide semiconductor (CMOS pronounced SEE-moss) technology because it provides high speeds and consumes little power.
  17. 17. Memory Access Times Access time is the amount of time it takes the processor to read data, instructions, and information from memory. A computer’s access time directly affects how fast the computer processes data. Accessing data in memory can be more than 200,000 times faster than access- ing data on a hard disk because of the mechanical motion of the hard disk.
  18. 18. Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards
  19. 19. Removable Flash Memory Removable flash memory includes these devices: 1. memory cards 2. USB flash drives 3. PC Cards/ExpressCard modules.
  20. 20. PORTS AND CONNECTORS A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from the computer. A USB port, short for universal serial bus port, can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector. Previously called an IEEE 1394 port, a FireWire port is similar to a USB port in that it can connect multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds, such as digital video cameras, digital VCRs, color printers, scanners, digital cameras, and DVD drives, to a single connector. A FireWire port allows you to connect up to 63 devices together.
  21. 21. OTHER PORTS Some ports not included in typical computers but sometimes used are Bluetooth, SCSI, eSATA, IrDA, and MIDI.
  22. 22. Port Replicators and Docking Stations A port replicator is an external device that provides connections to peripherals through ports built into the device. A docking station, which is an external device that attaches to a mobile computer or device, contains a power connection and provides connections to peripherals; it usually also includes slots for memory cards, optical disc drives, and other devices
  23. 23. BUS, BAYS, POWER SUPPLY A computer processes and stores data as a series of electronic bits. These bits transfer internally within the circuitry of the computer along electrical channels. Each channel, called a bus, allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other. A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment. The power supply is the component of the system unit that converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power.
  24. 24. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER When you purchase a computer, it is important to understand how the components of the system unit work. Many components of the system unit influence the speed and power of a computer. These include the type of processor, the clock speed of the processor, the amount of RAM, bus width, and the clock speed of the bus.
  25. 25. Over time, the system unit collects dust — even in a clean environment. Built up dust can block airflow in a computer or mobile device, which can cause it to overheat, corrode, or even stop working. By cleaning your computer or mobile device once or twice a year, you can help extend its life. This preventive maintenance requires a few basic products (Figure 4-27): • can of compressed air — removes dust and lint from difficult-to- reach areas; removes sticky liquid spilled on keyboards • lint-free antistatic wipes and swabs • screen cleaning solution or 50/50 mix of rubbing alcohol and water (do not use ammonia-based solutions) • small computer vacuum (or small attachments on your house vacuum) • antistatic wristband — to avoid damaging internal components with static electricity • small screwdriver (may be required to open the case or remove adapter cards)