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Central processor amd memory


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Central processor amd memory

  1. 1. James A. Senn’s Information Technology, 3 rd Edition <ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>The Central Processor </li></ul><ul><li>and Memory </li></ul>
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the components and purpose of the central processing unit (CPU). </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between primary storage (also called memory) and secondary storage (also called storage), and between RAM and ROM. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the chips and boards that can be used to augment the CPU and main memory. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (Continued) <ul><li>Explain the process by which computers use registers to process data. </li></ul><ul><li>List and explain the four determinants of processor speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe eight ways of increasing processing and computer speed. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition <ul><li>Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor: The computer hardware that executes program instructions and performs the computer’s processing actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Circuits/Chip/Microchip: A collection of thousands or millions of transistors placed on a small silicon chip. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition (Continued) <ul><li>Transistor: An electrical switch that can be in one of two states: open or closed. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating: The process of packing more transistors onto a single chip. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition (Continued)
  7. 7. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Control Unit <ul><li>Control Unit: The part of the CPU that oversees and controls all computer activities according to the instructions it receives. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions: Detailed descriptions of the actions to be carried out during input, processing, output, storage, and transmission. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) <ul><li>Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU): The part of the CPU that performs arithmetic and logical operations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic Operations: Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical Operations: Greater Than (>), Less Than (<), Equal To (=) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Memory Definition <ul><li>Primary Storage/Primary Memory/Main Memory/Internal Memory: Storage within the computer itself. Primary memory holds data only temporarily, as the computer executes instructions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Memory Definition (Continued)
  11. 11. Memory Memory Size <ul><li>Byte: A storage location in memory; the amount of memory required to store one digit, letter, or character. </li></ul><ul><li>Kilobyte/K-byte/KB/K: One thousand bytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte/M-byte/MB/Meg: One million bytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Gigabyte/G-byte/GB/Gig: One billion bytes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Memory Memory Size (Continued) <ul><li>Terabyte/T-byte/TB: One trillion bytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Address: An identifiable location in memory where data are kept. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Memory RAM and ROM <ul><li>Random-access Memory (RAM): Memory that permits data or information to be written into or read from memory only as long as the computer is turned on. </li></ul><ul><li>Read-only Memory (ROM): A type of storage that offers random access to memory and can hold data and information after the electric current to the computer has been turned off. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Memory Flash Memory <ul><li>Flash Memory: Memory that retains it contents even when electricity is turned off. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Memory RAM, ROM and Flash Memory
  16. 16. Memory PCMCIA Card Memory <ul><li>PCMCIA Card/PC card: A card designed to expand a computer’s memory. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Memory Definition <ul><li>Boot: To turn on the computer system and let the built-in self-test run. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Boot: The system is turned on and started from an off state. The CPU invokes the ROM BIOS boot program, which in turn, runs the power-up self-tests and loads the operating system from disk storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Warm Boot: In a restart, the BIOS knows the system is already running (data is written in a specific memory location checked by the BIOS) and skips the power-on test. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Inside the System Unit Definition <ul><li>Board: A hardware device onto which chips and their related circuitry are placed. </li></ul><ul><li>System Unit: The hardware unit that houses a computer’s processor, memory chips, ports, and add-in boards. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Inside the System Unit Processor Chips <ul><li>Microprocessor: The smallest type of processor, with all of the processing capabilities of the control unit and ALU located on a single chip. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Inside the System Unit Evolution of Intel Pentium Family of Microprocessors
  21. 21. Inside the System Unit Intel Microprocessors <ul><li>Intel Celeron Processors </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Pentium-M Processors </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Celeron-M Processors </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Xeon Processors </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Itanium Processors </li></ul>
  22. 22. Inside the System Unit Evolution of Microprocessors for Macintosh Computers
  23. 23. Inside the System Unit Other Microprocessor Chips <ul><li>AMD </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Equipment Corp. </li></ul><ul><li>Hewlett-Packard </li></ul><ul><li>MIPS Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Sun Microcomputers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Inside the System Unit Memory Chips <ul><li>Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM): A multiple-chip memory card inserted as a unit into a predesignated slot on a computer’s system board. </li></ul><ul><li>Installed Memory: The amount of memory included by a computer’s manufacturer on its memory board. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Memory: The most memory that a processor can hold. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Inside the System Unit Ports <ul><li>Port: A connector through which input/output devices can be plugged into the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion Slot: A slot inside a computer that allows a user to add an additional circuit board. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Inside the System Unit Universal Serial Bus <ul><li>Universal Serial Bus (USB): A general purpose port that can connect up to 128 devices, and also hot swappable, meaning that devices can be plugged in or unplugged without having to shut down or reboot the system. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Inside the System Unit Add-In Boards <ul><li>Add-in Boards: A board that can be added to a computer to customize its features and capabilities. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Inside the System Unit Add-In Boards (Continued)
  29. 29. Inside the System Unit Plug and Play <ul><li>Plug and Play: The ability to install devices into a computer when the computer itself makes any necessary internal adjustments. </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Processing Sequence The Machine Cycle <ul><li>Machine Cycle: The four processing steps performed by the control unit: fetch, decode, execute, and store. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction Cycle (I-cycle): The first two steps of the machine cycle (fetch and decode), in which instructions are obtained and translated. </li></ul><ul><li>Execution Cycle (E-cycle): The last two steps of the machine cycle (execute and store), which produce processing results. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Processing Sequence The Machine Cycle
  32. 32. The Processing Sequence Registers <ul><li>Register: A temporary storage area in the processor that can move data and instructions more quickly than main memory can, and momentarily hold the data or instructions used in processing as well as the results that are generated. </li></ul><ul><li>Four types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Registers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address Registers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General-Purpose Registers </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Processor Speed Definition <ul><li>Millisecond: One thousandth of a second </li></ul><ul><li>Microsecond: One millionth of a second. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanosecond: One billionth of a second. </li></ul><ul><li>Picosecond: One trillionth of a second. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Processor Speed Definition (Continued) <ul><li>Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS): The number of instructions the processor can execute per second – a measure of processor speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Megaflops: Millions of floating point operations per second – a measure of how many detailed arithmetic calculations the computer can perform per second. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed <ul><li>Four elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System Clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus Width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available Memory </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) <ul><li>System Clock: A circuit that generates electronic impulses at a fixed rate to synchronize processing activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megahertz (MHz): Millions of electric pulses per second – a measure of a computer’s speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigahertz (GHz): Billions of pulses per second. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) <ul><li>Bus Width </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input/Output (I/O) bus: A bus (electronic circuit) that moves data into and out of the processor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Bus: A bus that moves data between the central processor and memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Word Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word: The number of bits a computer can process at one time. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
  39. 39. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) <ul><li>Cache Memory : A form of high-speed memory that acts as a temporary holding/processing cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Coprocessors: A special-purpose chip mounted on a processor board; it is designed to handle common functions quickly and efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerator Boards: An add-in circuit board that increases a computer’s processing speed. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) <ul><li>Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Instruction Set Computing (CISC): A computing instruction set that moves data to and from main memory so often that it limits the use of registers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microcode: The instructions that coordinate the execution of the instructions to move data and from memory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC): A computing instruction set that takes data for the execution of an instruction only from registers. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) <ul><li>Pipelining: A computer starts processing a new instruction as soon as the previous instruction reaches its next step in the processing cycle. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
  43. 43. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) <ul><li>Parallel Processing: Processing in which a computer handles different parts of a problem by executing instructions simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential Processing: Processing in which the execution of one instruction is followed by the execution of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Instruction/Multiple Data (SIMD) method: A parallel-processing method that executes the same instruction on many data values simultaneously. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Instruction/Multiple Data (MIMD) method: A parallel-processing method that connects a number of processors that run different programs or parts of a program on different sets of data. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
  45. 45. Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) <ul><li>Grid Computing: A process that harnesses idle time on computers and then uses them to provide processing for an application that needs more speed and capability than may be available on a single computer, or even on a supercomputer. </li></ul>