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Productive Pedagogies


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An introduction to different teaching methodologies

Published in: Education

Productive Pedagogies

  1. 1. Productive Pedagogies Gleeson College July 2006
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Productive Pedagogies are </li></ul><ul><li>“…a common framework under which teachers can choose and develop strategies in relation to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what are they teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the variable styles, approaches and backgrounds of their students” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The State of Queensland (Department of Education and the Arts) 2004 , New Basics </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Productive Pedagogies are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a guide to help decide WHY we teach in a particular way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a scaffold for helping us decide which of the myriad of new teaching approaches suits us and our students. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Definition <ul><li>Productive Pedagogies are NOT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all suited to every subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>able to cover all key elements of effective teaching. For example – time management and safety are not mentioned. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. List of Teaching Strategies <ul><li>108 o </li></ul><ul><li>2Q </li></ul><ul><li>SCAMPER </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>KWL </li></ul><ul><li>PCQ </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>T charts </li></ul><ul><li>Y charts </li></ul><ul><li>Venn Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>1:2:4 </li></ul><ul><li>1:4:P:C:R </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw </li></ul><ul><li>Group Crossover </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Potato </li></ul><ul><li>Human Bingo </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Box </li></ul><ul><li>Paired Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Round Robin </li></ul><ul><li>Six Thinking Hats </li></ul><ul><li>TWERP </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>PMI </li></ul><ul><li>Fact v Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>5 W and 1H </li></ul><ul><li>Think Pair Share </li></ul><ul><li>Brick Wall </li></ul><ul><li>CPS </li></ul><ul><li>The Ridiculous Key </li></ul><ul><li>Silent Card Shuffle </li></ul><ul><li>AGO </li></ul><ul><li>CAF </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul><ul><li>See-Saw </li></ul><ul><li>What if </li></ul><ul><li>Acrostics </li></ul>
  6. 6. Teaching Strategies <ul><li>Can you name and explain a teaching strategy you have used in the last 6 months that you would consider yourself to be an expert at using? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you explain WHY you used it? What were you trying to achieve for your students by using this method? </li></ul><ul><li>Share this briefly with your group. </li></ul><ul><li>Group to choose one person to explain their method to all staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone in the group collect the pieces of paper with the teachers name and their teaching strategy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Four Major Dimensions of Productive Pedagogies <ul><li>Intellectual Quality: </li></ul><ul><li>refers to the level at which students are engaged in authentic learning activities that promote the kind of thinking required of successful adults in the real world </li></ul><ul><li>Elements include: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher-order thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Substantive Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as Problematic </li></ul><ul><li>Metalanguage </li></ul>
  8. 8. Four Major Dimensions of Productive Pedagogies <ul><li>Connectedness </li></ul><ul><li>refers to the level at which students engage with real, practical or hypothetical problems which connect to the world beyond the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements include: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge integration </li></ul><ul><li>Background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Connectedness to the world </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-based curriculum </li></ul>
  9. 9. Four Major Dimensions of Productive Pedagogies <ul><li>Supportive classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>refers to the level at which students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>influence the nature of the activities they undertake, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engage seriously in their study, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulate their behaviour, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know of the explicit criteria and high expectations of what they are to achieve. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements include: </li></ul><ul><li>Student Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Social Support </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit Quality Performance Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Four Major Dimensions of Productive Pedagogies <ul><li>Recognition of difference </li></ul><ul><li>refers to the level at which students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>know about and value a range of cultures, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create positive human relationships, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>respect individuals, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help to create a sense of community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements include: </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusively </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Group Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Active Citizenship </li></ul>
  11. 11. Summary of the Four Major Dimensions Metalanguage Active Citizenship Self-Regulation Knowledge as Problematic Group Identity Explicit Quality Performance Criteria Problem-based Curriculum Substantive Conversations Narrative Academic Engagement Connectedness to the World Deep Understanding Inclusivity Social Support Background Knowledge Deep Knowledge Cultural Knowledge Student Direction Knowledge Integration Higher-order thinking Recognition of difference Supportive Classroom Environments Connectedness Intellectual Quality
  12. 12. Intellectual Quality: Higher Order Thinking <ul><li>Higher-order thinking requires students to manipulate information and ideas in ways that transform their meaning and implications. </li></ul>Combine facts and ideas Synthesise, generalise, hypothesise and explain Solve problems and come to new understandings
  13. 13. Intellectual Quality: Deep Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge is deep or thick when it concerns the central ideas of a topic or discipline </li></ul><ul><li>and because such knowledge is judged to be crucial to a topic or discipline. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Intellectual Quality: Deep Knowledge Example: After study of ecosystem of town’s river including Classification systems Water quality monitoring Impact of flood Impact of industry The students were asked to apply this deep knowledge to the task of creating a creature adapted to the conditions of the river ecosystem.
  15. 15. Intellectual Quality: Deep Understanding <ul><li>Students with Deep Understanding can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sustain a focus on a significant topic; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or demonstrate their understanding of the problematic nature of information and/or ideas; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or demonstrate complex understanding by arriving at a reasoned, supported conclusion; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or explain how they solved a complex problem </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Intellectual Quality: Deep Understanding <ul><li>Example: A year 12 Art class worked collaboratively on a submission to design a 3-D installation for a public space with a youth theme. </li></ul><ul><li>The students demonstrated complex understandings of each stage of the project: </li></ul>Specifica-tions of the design brief Time frame of the project Sourcing of materials Preparation of the application. Final Proposal
  17. 17. Intellectual Quality: Substantive Conversations <ul><li>In classes with substantive conversation there is considerable teacher-students and student-student interaction about the ideas of a substantive topic; the interaction is reciprocal, and it promotes coherent shared understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Features of substantive conversations include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical extension and synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sustained exchange. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Intellectual Quality: Substantive Conversations <ul><li>Example: A year 8 integrated Maths and Science class was divided into groups. Each group spent a period building animals to certain design specifications. The animals were given names by the students. Discussion was then held about classification systems of the animals as students went around the class viewing the animals. </li></ul><ul><li>This discussion covered issues of measurement, including very sophisticated discussion about exactitude, angle of viewing the animals, injured animals, error in measurement generally and its sources and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>In most instances within these conversations students were initiating the dialogue and other students were providing the frameworks upon which the groups were constructing their collective understandings of the topic. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Intellectual Quality: Knowledge as Problematic <ul><li>Involves an understanding of knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not as a fixed body of information, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but rather as being constructed, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and hence subject to political, social and cultural influences and implications. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Intellectual Quality: Knowledge as Problematic <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>As an introductory lesson to a topic about the environment, a Year 8 Social Science teacher drew a long horizontal line across the blackboard and wrote 'very concerned' at one end and 'not concerned' at the other end. She asked students to place a mark on the line representing their degree of concern about the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>This required that the students make a 'low-key' public statement about their position and then justify it in writing by answering the question: 'Why I chose my position'. The teacher made a number of statements that could be interpreted as supporting multiple positions, thus reinforcing that there was no one correct position. </li></ul>Why I chose my position The Environment Very Concerned Not Concerned Many diverse possibilities
  21. 21. Intellectual Quality: Metalanguage <ul><li>Metalanguage instruction has high levels of talk about talk and writing about: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how written and spoken texts work, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specific technical vocabulary and words (vocabulary), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how sentences work or don't work (syntax/grammar), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meaning structures and text structures (semantics/genre). </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Connectedness: Knowledge Integration <ul><li>Integrated school knowledge is identifiable when either: </li></ul><ul><li>explicit attempts are made to connect two or more sets of subject area knowledge, or </li></ul><ul><li>when no subject area boundaries are readily seen. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Connectedness: Knowledge Integration <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Growing enrolments at a high school necessitated increasing the number of houses by two for various interhouse sporting events. To accommodate this change, two extra lanes had to be marked on the running track in time for the school athletics carnival. </li></ul><ul><li>This prompted a group of year 8 teachers from different disciplines to work together on an integrated unit with the same group of students. </li></ul>Year 8 Class HPE Design the new track and athletics field Determine the actual lengths of the new tracks Maths Programs, advertising material, results lists and signage English Construct a web site for the carnival ITC
  24. 24. Connectedness: Background Knowledge <ul><li>Lessons that connect to student’s background provide students with opportunities to make connections between their </li></ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>world knowledge and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the topics, skills and competencies at hand. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Connectedness: Connectedness to the World <ul><li>Connectedness describes the extent to which the lesson has value and meaning beyond the instructional context, making a connection to the larger social context within which students live. </li></ul><ul><li>Two areas in which student work can exhibit some degree of connectedness are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a real-world public problem; i.e., students confront an actual contemporary issue or problem, such as applying statistical analysis in preparing a report to the City Council on the homeless; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students' personal experiences; i.e., the lesson focuses directly or builds upon students' actual experiences or situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A high level of connectedness can be achieved when the lesson entails one or both of these. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Connectedness: Connectedness to the World <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Students in a Year 9 Science class were about to study a unit on chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher asked them to go home and identify the range of chemicals found in their homes. </li></ul><ul><li>In particular they were asked to identify dangerous chemicals, for example, methylated spirits, nail polish remover. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher introduced Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) used in the school as a way of showing how knowledge of chemical properties was important in the safe handling of these chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>The students were then asked to create a simple MSDS sheet for the identified dangerous chemical which would be used at home by the family. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Connectedness: Problem-based Curriculum <ul><li>A problem-based curriculum is identified by lessons in which students are presented with a specific practical, real, or hypothetical problem (or set of problems) to solve. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems are defined as having no specified correct solution, requiring knowledge construction on the part of the students, and requiring sustained attention beyond a single lesson. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Supportive Classroom Environments: Student Direction <ul><li>Student direction sees students influence what specific activities or tasks they will do in the period, or how these will be realised. </li></ul><ul><li>Such activities are likely to be student-centred, as in group work or individual research or investigative projects. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way the students assume responsibility for the activities with which they engage, or how students complete them </li></ul>
  29. 29. Supportive Classroom Environments: Student Direction <ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>A number of teachers were concerned about the engagement of year 8 students with the academic curriculum of the school. </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers, with admin support decided to ask two questions when the year 8 students entered the high school at the beginning of the year: </li></ul><ul><li>'What do you want to learn about yourself?' and </li></ul><ul><li>'What do you want to learn about the world?'. </li></ul><ul><li>These questions have served as the basis of the year 8 curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Students have been involved in the determination of both the content and the activities throughout the year. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Supportive Classroom Environments: Academic Engagement <ul><li>Academic engagement is identified by on-task behaviours that signal a serious psychological investment in class work </li></ul><ul><li>These include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attentiveness, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>doing the assigned work, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>showing enthusiasm for this work by taking initiative to raise questions, contribute to group activities and help peers. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Supportive Classroom Environments: Self-Regulation <ul><li>Self-regulating students have a say in how they behave in a classroom setting. </li></ul><ul><li>High self-regulation is identified by teachers not making or not having to make statements that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aim to discipline students' behaviour (e.g., 'you're not being good today, put your pens away') or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to regulate students' bodily movements and dispositions (e.g., 'sit down', 'stop talking', 'eyes this way') </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Recognition of Difference: Cultural Knowledge <ul><li>Cultures are valued when there is there is explicit valuing of their identity represented in such things as beliefs, languages, practices and ways of knowing. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural groups are distinguished by social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, race, religion, economic status or youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Valuing cultures means legitimating these cultures for all students through inclusion, recognition and transmission of this cultural knowledge. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Recognition of Difference: Inclusivity <ul><li>Inclusive classrooms recognise the learning needs of students with different backgrounds, experiences and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate attempts are made to ensure that students from diverse backgrounds are actively engaged in learning. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Recognition of Difference: Inclusivity <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>In preparation for Mother’s Day, Year 4 students in a primarily ethnic school community were asked to bring in catalogues that they found in their letter boxes at home. </li></ul><ul><li>The students were then asked to examine the catalogues to see if people like their mothers were represented. Most students felt that the women represented in the catalogue were nothing like their mothers. </li></ul><ul><li>The students were then asked to look at the items for sale for Mother’s Day in the catalogues and conduct surveys to see whether or not their mothers would actually like these items or not; in many cases the answer was “No”. </li></ul><ul><li>After some discussion, the students constructed catalogues that would be more suited to their mothers. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Recognition of Difference: Narrative <ul><li>Narrative is identified as a sequence of events chained together. </li></ul><ul><li>Students would be expected to use narrative when they are asked to write or comment on such things as personal stories, biographies, historical accounts, literary and cultural texts. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Recognition of Difference: Group Identity <ul><li>Supportive environments where difference is viewed positively and group identities are valued are processes that build a strong sense of community. </li></ul><ul><li>Such classrooms have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students willing to perform in front of their peers and who feel free to offer suggestions and alternative points of view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students who feel free to participate without feeling the need to conform to the behaviours exhibited by the majority of the class. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Recognition of Difference: Group Identity <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>A Year 9 lesson, in a school located in a large multicultural area, focused on the novel “Looking for Alibrandi” by Melina Marchetta. </li></ul><ul><li>The students were engaged in considering the question, “What is an Australian?” </li></ul><ul><li>Students reflected on how different cultures had been valued, and whether they had been treated fairly, within the context of the novel. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Recognition of Difference: Active Citizenship <ul><li>Involves acknowledging that in a democratic society all individuals and groups have rights and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>All groups have a right to engage in the creation and re-creation of that democratic society, and to participate in all of the democratic practices and institutions within that society. </li></ul>
  39. 39. An example: SWOT Analysis <ul><li>SWOT Analysis is a business tool designed to identify how external and internal influences might help or hinder a particular line of action. </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT means – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. </li></ul><ul><li>Should it be used in the classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>If you think that what you want to achieve is higher order thinking, then yes! </li></ul>
  40. 40. An example: SWOT Analysis <ul><li>Consider the following photo of a potential ‘house’: </li></ul>
  41. 42. An example: SWOT Analysis <ul><li>On the piece of SWOT paper on your table you are to do an analysis of the ‘house’. </li></ul><ul><li>Your objective is to sell the house to a particular target group eg refugees, footballers, musicians, doctors etc (we will allocate groups). </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore discuss what are it’s strengths from that group’s point of view, weaknesses etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Your final task is to come up with a one-line real-estate “speak” slogan aimed at selling this house to your target group. </li></ul>
  42. 44. Action Project <ul><li>Balloon activity </li></ul><ul><li>Action Project Proforma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide on a simple teaching strategy that you would like to use in your classes in the next term. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the proforma to help plan the strategy and make it public. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Future Actions <ul><li>Carry out plan made today. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your successes with your faculty or year level colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>Share by email </li></ul>