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Integrated Public Transport System                     SITP- BogotáJuan Pablo Bocarejo, PhDDirector Grupo de Estudios en s...
Overview1.   SITP2.   Where are we now3.   Expected impacts4.   Main challenges
1. SITP• An integrated system including  Transmilenio network (28%  share) and buses in mixed traffic  (72%)• A centralize...
2. Where are we now• Operation concessions awarded to 9  companies• Technology concession awarded• Gradual and “calm” Impl...
3. Expected impacts  Assessing local impactsSITP Zones          PM10 Concentration                                         5
3. Expected impactsTransportation                        Air Quality      Exposure                 Energy model           ...
3. Expected Impacts• Operation  – Transmilenio Phase 3  – Decrease in bus fleet  – Efficiency and offer better    adapted ...
3. Expected Impacts• Air quality  – Euro IV buses replace 15 year    old average  – 5000 old buses scrapped  – Ecodriving ...
3. Expected impactsChange in emissions - PM2,5                                                    9
3. Expected impactsChange in emissions – CO2                                                  10
3. Expected impactsCFD Model (VADIS)          Metereological                                       Corridor              D...
DustTrak   AethalometroContinuousparticleMonitorUPS
Concentración (ug/m3)                                                                                  100                ...
3. Expected impacts                     Carrera         UniversidadZone 1 - Base        séptima         Javeriana         ...
3. Expected impactsZone 1 - SITP                                      15
3. Expected impacts                      Av. 68Zone 2 - Base                                      Zona comercial          ...
3. Expected impactsZone 2 - SITP                                      17
3. Expected impacts Cra 7a  E2: 92 ug/m3.h                             E1: 9 ug/m3.h                          E2: 15 ug/m3...
3. Expected Impacts      • Road safety            – Transmilenio Phase 3            – No more on street competition       ...
4. Challenges• A poor negotiation done by a Mayor in Disgrace   – Compensation to previous operators   – 24 year concessio...
4. ChallengesImproving environmental performance   Fleet renewal           Technologies      Eco driving                  ...
4. Challenges                          Improving environmental performance                                  250,000       ...
4. ChallengesImproving environmental performance
4. ChallengesImproving environmental performance                            $ 200.0                            $ 100.0    ...
4. Challenges Improving accessibility and equityUser perception of Bogotá’s integrated public transport system: 5trends an...
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Integrated Public Transport System SITP- Bogotá

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By Juan Pablo Bocarejo, Professor, Universidad de Los Andes. Presented at Transforming Transportation, January 26, 2012, Washington, D.C.

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Integrated Public Transport System SITP- Bogotá

  1. 1. Integrated Public Transport System SITP- BogotáJuan Pablo Bocarejo, PhDDirector Grupo de Estudios en sostenibilidad urbana y regional -SUR
  2. 2. Overview1. SITP2. Where are we now3. Expected impacts4. Main challenges
  3. 3. 1. SITP• An integrated system including Transmilenio network (28% share) and buses in mixed traffic (72%)• A centralized regulation (Transmilenio S.A)• Contracts with strong bus companies• Integrated fare system• ITS for operation optimization• Investment in terminals• A mixed retribution system to operators
  4. 4. 2. Where are we now• Operation concessions awarded to 9 companies• Technology concession awarded• Gradual and “calm” Implementation• Institutional strengthening• Financing and investments by private companies
  5. 5. 3. Expected impacts Assessing local impactsSITP Zones PM10 Concentration 5
  6. 6. 3. Expected impactsTransportation Air Quality Exposure Energy model Noise model model Model model Vehicle Modal VSP emissions Buit volumes distribution environment Emission factor by type of vehicle PM2.5 per link Modal Consumption Local distribution factors emissions Global emissions Noise level Available Concentration Speed Concentration technology of PM2.5 model
  7. 7. 3. Expected Impacts• Operation – Transmilenio Phase 3 – Decrease in bus fleet – Efficiency and offer better adapted to demand – Bus stops Average travel time per trip -12% In vehicle travel time -18% Waiting /transfer time 25%
  8. 8. 3. Expected Impacts• Air quality – Euro IV buses replace 15 year old average – 5000 old buses scrapped – Ecodriving – Phase 3 Transmilenio
  9. 9. 3. Expected impactsChange in emissions - PM2,5 9
  10. 10. 3. Expected impactsChange in emissions – CO2 10
  11. 11. 3. Expected impactsCFD Model (VADIS) Metereological Corridor Data emissions Builtenvironment Wind Lagrange(Bogotá 3D) pattern Model of model dispersion (FLOW) (DISPER) Area of simulation Sources 11
  12. 12. DustTrak AethalometroContinuousparticleMonitorUPS
  13. 13. Concentración (ug/m3) 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 0 20 40 60 80 6:26:45 6:44:14 7:01:14 7:18:14 7:35:14 7:52:14 8:09:14 8:26:14 8:43:14 9:00:14BC (ug/m3) 9:17:14 9:34:14 9:51:14 10:08:14 10:25:14 10:42:14Norma anual OMS (15 ug/m3)40 per. Mov. Avg. (BC (ug/m3)) 10:59:14 11:16:14 11:33:14 11:50:14Norma diaria de calidad del aire (50ug/m3) 12:07:14 12:24:14 12:41:14 12:58:14 13:15:14 13:32:14 13:49:14 14:06:14 PM 2,5 and Black Carbon in real time 14:23:14 14:40:14 14:57:14 15:14:14 3. Expected impacts 15:31:14 PM2.5 (ug/m3) 15:48:14 16:05:14 16:22:14 16:39:14 16:56:14 Norma annual OMS (25 ug/m3) 17:13:14 40 per. Mov. Avg. (PM2.5 (ug/m3)) 17:30:14 17:47:14 18:04:14 18:21:14 18:38:14 18:55:14 19:12:14 19:29:14 19:46:14 20:03:14
  14. 14. 3. Expected impacts Carrera UniversidadZone 1 - Base séptima Javeriana Hospital San Ignacio Universidad Distrital 14
  15. 15. 3. Expected impactsZone 1 - SITP 15
  16. 16. 3. Expected impacts Av. 68Zone 2 - Base Zona comercial 16
  17. 17. 3. Expected impactsZone 2 - SITP 17
  18. 18. 3. Expected impacts Cra 7a E2: 92 ug/m3.h E1: 9 ug/m3.h E2: 15 ug/m3.h E1: 6 ug/m3.h140 140120 120100 100 80 60 79% reduction 80 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 En Vehículo En el andén En Vehículo En el andén Concentración (ug/m3) Tiempo (min) Exposición (ug/m3.h) Concentración Tiempo (min) Exposición en esperaExposure WITHOUT SITP: 101 ug/m3.h Exposure SITP: 21 ug/m3.h
  19. 19. 3. Expected Impacts • Road safety – Transmilenio Phase 3 – No more on street competition – Positive incentives to drivers – Improvement of public spaces 1998 2008 – New buses Personal Injury Accidents  Bogotá Caracas Ave. NQS Ave.  1998 17,175 878 723 2008 10,521 355 379 % Reduction -39% -60% -48% “Impact of BRT systems on Road Safety: Data Source: Research Department, Road Safety Fund, 2010 and Bogotá Secretary of Mobility, 2010. Lessons from Bogota” TRB 2011 Bocarejo, Velásquez, Díaz, Tafur
  20. 20. 4. Challenges• A poor negotiation done by a Mayor in Disgrace – Compensation to previous operators – 24 year concession• Improving Environmental performance• Infrastructure investment included in the concession contract to be paid by fares?• Danger of loss of accessibility, impact on equity issues• Subsidies policy• Some high demand corridors need prepaid stations, priorities, exclusive bus lanes…• Transmilenio S.A. institutional capacity must be doubled• Demand overcomes actual Transmilenio system capacity• Adaptability as mass transit network grows• A growing private vehicle ownership
  21. 21. 4. ChallengesImproving environmental performance Fleet renewal Technologies Eco driving Operation Infrastructure Other mode improvement
  22. 22. 4. Challenges Improving environmental performance 250,000 200,000Emisiones de PM 2.5 (g/hr pico) 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Nuevas tecnologías SITP
  23. 23. 4. ChallengesImproving environmental performance
  24. 24. 4. ChallengesImproving environmental performance $ 200.0 $ 100.0 $ 0.0 VPN 12% @12 años (MUSD) ($ 100.0) Costo de ($ 200.0) Infraestructura ($ 300.0) Costo de Mantenimiento ($ 400.0) Costo Energía ($ 500.0) ($ 600.0) ($ 700.0) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% % de reducción en costo
  25. 25. 4. Challenges Improving accessibility and equityUser perception of Bogotá’s integrated public transport system: 5trends and implications for program implementationKash, Hidalgo, TRB 2011

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