1ª guerra mundial proceso

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1ª guerra mundial proceso

  1. 1. THE GREAT WAR “World War I” 1914 - 1918A Local Conflict Goes Global
  2. 2. “MANIA” Underlying causes of WWI: Militarism Alliances Nationalism Imperialism Anarchy (international)
  3. 3. In 1914, European armed forces stood like this: Germany: 2,200,000 soldiers, 97 warships Austria-Hungary: 810,000 soldiers, 28 warships. Italy: 750,000 soldiers, 36 warships France: 1,125,000 soldiers, 62 warships Russia: 1,200,000 soldiers, 30 warships Great Britain: 711,000 soldiers, 185 warships
  4. 4. Alliances Defense Agreements Among Nations Triple Alliance - (1882) Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary - attempt to isolate France Triple Entente - (1907) France, Russia, Great Britian • Entente: Friendly understanding between nations
  5. 5. Immediate Causes of WWI Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand • Austria-Hungarian • June 28, 1914 • Sarajevo • Killed by Gavrilo Princip - member of Serbian nationalist group called the “Black Hand”
  6. 6. Why assassinated? Ferdinand planned to give Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina a voice in the gov’t equal to that of Austria- Hungarians This threatened the movement for a separate Slavic state
  7. 7. What happens next? A-H hold Serbians responsible A-H seeks assurance (backup) from Germany in event of war • Germany issues “Blank Check” to A- H • Kaiser Wilhelm II gives full support to any actions A-H might take against Serbia
  8. 8. Tension!!! A-H issues ultimatum to Serbia • set of final conditions that must be accepted to avoid severe consequences Demands that Serbia allow A-H officials into country to suppress all rebellious movements & conduct investigation Gives Serbia 48 hours to agree or face war Serbia does not agree to all parts A-H declares war on Serbia! (July 28, 1914)
  9. 9. Other Countries Get Involved Russia (friend of the Serbs) mobilizes troops along borders of Germany & A-H Germany warns Russia to stop - they don’t! Germany issues ultimatum to France – 18 hours to decide if it would support Russia – France implies it would support Russia
  10. 10. Allies with Russia
  11. 11. Declarations of War Germany declares war on Russia • Aug 1, 1914 Germany declares war on France • Aug 3, 1914 Great Britain still hoped to remain neutral and not go to war, but…
  12. 12. Germany Invades Belgium! Germany demands passage across Belgium to fight France • (*Part of Schlieffen Plan (Chicos este nombre es importante) British protest demand made by Germany upon neutral nation of Belgium • 1839 Treaty signed by G.B., Russia, France & Germany guaranteed Belgium’s neutrality
  13. 13.  Germany invades Belgium anyway G.B. demands they withdraw Germany responds calling treaty “a scrap of paper” G.B. declares war on Germany • Aug 4, 1914
  14. 14. The Schlieffen Plan Germany’s invasion of Belgium was part of this plan Germany had enemies to East & West & did not want to fight a war on both fronts at the same time Believed Russia would be slow to mobilize and that they could fight & defeat France (W. Front) first in 6 weeks & then fight Russia on Eastern Front
  15. 15. Allies vs. Central Powers Allies • Great Britain • Russia • Italy • France • United States – April 6, 1917 Central Powers • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Turkey • Bulgaria
  16. 16. Expectations Both sides thought the war would be a quick ordeal… Kaiser told his soldiers, “you’ll be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees.” They underestimated the role industrialization would play in this war – development of weapons Russia, because of its size was considered a “steamroller” – how untrue!
  17. 17. Types of Warfare War in trenches • poisonous gases • Machine guns • Tanks • No Man’s Land War at Sea • Submarines War in the Air • Airplanes • Zeppelins World War I was the catalyst for more major military technological innovations than any other war in history!
  18. 18. Warfare of the Great War
  19. 19. U-Boat Unterseeboot – German term Attacked merchant convoys bringing supplies to Allied forces from US and Canada Sank three American merchant ships in 1917 – prompting US to enter war
  20. 20.  U-boat garage
  21. 21. Convoy of merchantships and battleships
  22. 22. War of the Air
  23. 23. Planes Used to deliver bombs Spy work Later became fighter aircraft armed with machine guns, bombs and some times cannons Dogfights • Fights between two planes in the sky
  24. 24. Zeppelin
  25. 25. War on Land Trenches • Good ones were built in a zig-zag pattern • Underground cities Western front • 6,000 miles of trenches
  26. 26. Machine Guns 4-6 men to work them Had to be on a flat surface Fire-power of 100 guns
  27. 27. No Man’s Land Area of land between opposing trenches Many men died within first days of war because of the allure of it (peering over the edge – sniper bullet)
  28. 28. Tanks “Little Willie” Daimler engine (Chrysler), caterpillar track, crew of 3 Maximum speed was 3mph COULD NOT cross trenches End of War – modernized tank • Fits 10 men • Revolving turret (gun) • 4mph
  29. 29. Mustard Gas Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used Fired into the trenches in shells Colorless and takes 12 hours to take effect Effects include: blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding Very painful – victims had to be tied to bed! Death can take up to 5 weeks Remain in soil for several more weeks
  30. 30. Trench Problems
  31. 31. Lice Would breed in the seams of filthy clothing (warm areas) and cause uncontrollable itching Lice caused Trench Fever • painful disease that began suddenly with severe pain followed by high fever • Recovery - away from the trenches - took up to twelve weeks. Lice were not actually identified as the culprit of Trench Fever until 1918
  32. 32. Rats Millions of them infected trenches Black and brown rats Gorge themselves on human remains • disfigured dead bodies by eating their eyes and liver • could grow to the size of a cat A single rat couple could produce up to 900 offspring in a year – ultimately spreading infection and
  33. 33. Why did it take so long for America to get involved in the war?• America was isolationist• “Why should I get involved in someone else’s problems” 66
  34. 34. Which side should the US pick? Central Powers: Allies: •11 million German-Americans •Close cultural ties •Irish-Americans hated Great •Shared transatlantic cables Britain (so censored stories) •Big business loaned much $ to allies US Exports to both sides: Nat ions 1914 1915 1916 Britain $594,271,863 $911,794,954 $1,526,685,102 France $159,818,924 $364,397,170 $628,851,988 67 Germany $344,794,276 $28,863,354 $288,899
  35. 35. What did it take to get the US1. Blockades involved? •Britain blockaded (stopped) all German ships going to America •Germany announced a submarine war around Britain Y-53 German Submarine 1916 68
  36. 36. What did it take to get the US1. Blockades involved? •In May, 1915 Germany told Americans to stay off of British ships •They could/would sink them 69
  37. 37. What did it take to get the US1. Blockades involved? •Lusitania torpedoed, sinking with 1200 passengers and crew (including 128 Americans) •Was eventually found to be carrying 4200 cases of ammunition German Propaganda Justifying Lusitania 70 sinking
  38. 38. What did it take to get the US1. Blockades involved? •The US sharply criticized Germany for their action •Germany agreed not to sink passenger ships without warning in the future 71 Note in Bottle After Lusitania Disaster

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