IntroductionWorld War I was the result of leaders aggressiontowards other countries which was supported bythe rising nationalism of the European nations.Economic and imperial competition and fear ofwar prompted military alliances and an armsrace, which further escalated the tensioncontributing to the outbreak of war. #2
MilitarismThe menace of the hostile division between the Triple Alliance (Germany,Austria-Hungary and Italy) and the Triple Entente (Britain, France and Russia)led to an arms race. Acknowledging that Germany was the leader in militaryorganization and efficiency, the great powers of Europe copied the universalconscription, large reserves and detailed planning of the German system. itself.#4
AlliancesWorld War I was caused in part by the two opposingalliances developed by Germany. In order todiplomatically isolate France, Bismarck formed theThree Emperors League in 1872, an alliance betweenGermany, Russia and Austria-Hungary. When theFrench occupied Tunisia, Bismarck took advantage ofItalian resentment towards France and created the TripleAlliance between Germany, Italy and Austria- Hungary in1882.#6
The Balkans: The“Powder Keg” of Europe Basic representation of the alliances#10 centered on the
Bosnian Crisis of 1908 Another conflict was incited by the Austria-Hungarian annexation of the former Turkish province of Bosnia in 1908. The Greater Serbian movement had as an object the acquisition of Slavic Bosnia, so Serbia threatened war on Austria-Hungary. Russia had pledged their support to Serbia, so they began to mobilize, which caused Germany, allied with Austria-Hungary, to threaten war on Russia. The beginning of World War I#11 was postponed when Russia backed down, but relations between Austria- Hungary and
General Information… • Started on July 28, 1914 • Ended on November 11, 1918 • Almost 8,000,000 dead. *** Russia the most = 1.7 million • Almost 22,000,000 wounded…..• Map of Europe greatlychanged .
Reasons for start of war…• Extreme nationalism – pride in country• Imperialism• Militarism – building up military• Alliance system - <KEY REASON> –European powers formed rival alliances to protect themselves –PROBLEM? One event could
The Black Hand..• The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia.• Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret."
The spark that lit the fuse….• The one event that started the Great War happened in the Balkans.• The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) was assassinated while visiting Serbia.• The Black Hand was responsible….
Battle of Verdun• the longest and one of the bloodiest engagements of World War I. February 1916 – December 1916• Two million men were engaged.• The intention of the Germans had been a battle of attrition in which they hoped to bleed the French army white.• In the end, they sustained almost as many casualties as the French; an estimated 328,000 to the French 348,000.
Map 31.1: Major U.S. Operations in France, 1918
Figure 31.1: Approximate Comparative Losses in World War I
What was the job of George Creel during the war? His job was to sell America the war. Creel tried to “whip” up support for Wilson’s ideas Help US raise money to fight