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U5. imperialism & WW1

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U5. imperialism & WW1

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U5. imperialism & WW1

  1. 1. IMPERIALISM & WW1 IES Camilo José Cela Teacher: Rocío Bautista
  2. 2.  In order to understand the WW1 (1914-18), it is necessary to know what was the international situation of Europe before 1914. What new countries had been formed in the 1870’s? The expansion of which ideology favoured the unification of these countries? How did the Congress of Vienna (1815) re-established European Balance after the Napoleonic period? What emergent ideology did they ignored?
  3. 3. REMEMBER… European Balance had been re-established in the Congress of Vienna… BUT IGNORING NATIONALISTIC FEELINGS!!!!
  4. 4. REMEMBER…  Austria was expelled from the German Confederation (Austro-Prussian War - 1866)  so it was an independent country.  French territories (Alsace & Lorraine) had been annexed to Germany (Franco- Prussian War - 1870)
  5. 5.  During the 19th Century the forces of NATIONALISM had been at work in Europe.  By 1871 it had created two major new countries: Germany & Italy.  At the end of the century, Nationalism continued to threaten the stability of multi-national states…
  6. 6. POLITICS & INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS  PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEMS prevailed in most Western Europe, USA & Japan.  Exceptions:  Austro-Hungarian Empire  Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire AUTOCRATIC SYSTEMS & states formed by multiple nationalities POLITICAL SYSTEMS
  7. 7. • Austro-Hungarian Empire • Belgium • Denmark • German Empire • Greece • Italy • Netherlands • Ottoman Empire • Portugal • Russian Empire • Spain • Switzerland • UK • United Kingdom of Norway and Sweden Activity 1: Colour in & label your map with the major states in Europe in 1871
  8. 8. INTERNATIONAL SITUATION UK Germany (outpaced UK by the early 20th century) USA (outpaced UK by the early 20th century)) France Japan Mediterranean Countries Austro-Hungarian Empire Russia Ottoman Empire Countries in Europe industrialized at different speed. Countries’ power was measured by their degree of industrialization.
  9. 9. 1871 – 1890 BISMARCK’S ALLIANCE SYSTEMS - Secret military alliances to isolate France (who wanted revenge due to the loss of Alsace & Lorraine). 1891 – 1914 PEACE THROUGH STRENGHT EUROPEAN ALLIANCE SYSTEMS • European Balance broke after the Italian & German unifications. • 2 stages in European international relations:  Permitted peace in Europe.  Ended due to a confrontation between the emperor (William I), who wanted to create a colonial empire, and the Chancellor (Bismarck) who opposed to it.
  10. 10. Bismarck’s Alliance systems were military alliances between Germany & the main European powers (Russia, Austria, Italy & UK) to isolate France.
  11. 11. 1871 – 1890 BISMARCK’S ALLIANCE SYSTEMS Secret military alliances to isolate France (who wanted revenge due to the loss of Alsace & Lorraine). 1891 – 1914 PEACE THROUGH STRENGHT Growing tensions due political & economic problems led to the formation of 2 military blocs: EUROPEAN ALLIANCE SYSTEMS • European Balance broke after the Italian & German unifications. • 2 stages in European international relations:  Permitted peace in Europe.  Ended due to a confrontation between the emperor (William I), who wanted to create a colonial empire, and the Chancellor (Bismarck) who opposed to it. TRIPLE ALLIANCE - Germany - Austria - Italy (will change side) TRIPLE ENTENTE - France - Russia - UK
  12. 12. TRIPLE ENTENTE TRIPLE ALLIANCE In conflict with Germany due to its growing economic & colonial power In conflict with Germany due to Alsace & Lorraine In conflict with Austria (ally of Germany) due to interests in the Balkans
  13. 13.  Which states were threaten by nationalism?  P. 101  exercises 4 & 5 Activity 2
  14. 14. IMPERIALISM 1870 - 1914
  15. 15. IMPERIALISM Goal: besides the economic control, it implied the military & political control of the European minority over the dominated territory. COLONIALISM Goal: dominate the economic resources of the colonies. ≠
  16. 16. CAUSES OF IMPERIALISM Allowed to control trade routes & strategic territories Reduced problems related to the population growth (e.g.: unemployment)  excess population emigrated from the metropolis to the colonies to relieve population pressure Colonies supplied raw materials, markets to sell the metropolis’ industrial products, territories to invest capitals & cheap labour force Spread of the idea of the superiority of the white race & that its mission was to “civilise” the rest of the world (social Darwinism). International prestige  it was a way of increasing a country’s power at a time when European Balance had been broken.
  17. 17. UK, FRANCE & other imperialist powers (BELGIUM, GERMANY, ITALY, THE NETHERLANDS, RUSSIA…) established diverse forms of colonial rule: FORMS OF COLONIAL RULE CONCESSION (CHINA) Agreement by which an independent country granted commercial advantages to imperial powers (e.g.: ports for trade) PROTECTORATE (INDIA / EGYPT) 2 administrations coexisted: - Indigenous government  for internal affairs - Imperial power  controlled foreign policy, army & exploitation of certain resources. COLONY It had no indigenous institution. It was under the direct sovereignty of the metropolis. SETTLER COLONIES (CANADA, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND…)  population mostly European. Self-governed. Used to relieve population pressure in the metropolis. EXPLOITATION COLONIES (BELGIAN CONGO)  population mostly indigenous. Governed by the metropolis. Used for economic benefit of the metropolis (it had exclusive rights to exploit the colony’s resouces).
  18. 18. CONCESSIONS IN CHINA UK, Germany, Russia, France & Japan distributed the areas of influence in China.
  19. 19. PROTECTORATES Egypt & India became protectorates of UK
  20. 20. EXPLOITATION COLONIES Many territories in Africa were exploited as colonies (e.g.: Belgian Congo).
  21. 21. THE SCRAMBLE OF AFRICA (“El reparto de África”) • Before 1870  European presence in Africa limited to the coasts.
  22. 22. Some coastal territories were controlled by European powers…  FRANCE (Algeria, Tunisia, Senegal…)  UK (Egypt, South Africa…)  PORTUGAL (Angola, Mozambique…)
  23. 23. • In the 1870’s  European powers began to explore the African continent. LIVINGSTONE (UK) – explored the Zambezi & Nile rivers. Discovered the “Victoria Falls”. STANLEY (Belgium) & BRAZZA (France) – explored the Congo basin.
  24. 24. 1884  to avoid clashes, the European powers met in the “BERLIN CONFERENCE” (1884) where they established the rules for the occupation of Africa: 1) Countries that had coastal possessions had the right to occupy the interior, provided that they demonstrated the effective occupation & control of the territory. 2) Free navigation on the Niger & Congo rivers. 3) Free trade in Central Africa.
  25. 25. THE CONFERENCE OF BERLIN (1884) It regulated European colonization & trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period. It is considered the starting point of the “Scramble for Africa” (invasion, occupation, division, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers). Organized by Germany. It eliminated most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.
  26. 26. From 1885 onwards  occupation of Africa accelerated:  UK  tried to form a colonial strip N-S (Egypt – South Africa)  FRANCE  tried to form a colonial strip W-E (starting from its colonies in Senegal, Algeria & Tunisia)  Belgium, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Spain completed the occupation of Africa COLONIAL CONFRONTATIONS!!
  27. 27. IMPERIALISM IN ASIA • China  system of concessions (maintained its sovereignty, but gave commercial rights to imperial powers). ASIA UK •India •Burma •Malaysia France •Part of Indochina Netherlands •Most of Indonesia US •Philippines Russia •Siberia •Territories towards China & India (Caucasus, Turkestan)
  28. 28. IMPERIALISM IN OCEANIA OCEANIA UK •Australia •New Zealand USA •Hawaii Netherlands Some islands in the Pacific ocean France Germany
  29. 29.  P.108 – 109  exercises 1 & 3  What ideology supported & justified imperialism? Explain it. Do you agree with it?  P.110 – 111  1b / 2 / 4 Activity 3
  30. 30. MIXED CONSEQUENCES OF IMPERIALISM Mostly positive: • Political power & self-esteem. • Wealth (raw materials, new markets). FOR THE COLONIZERS (Metropolis) However, colonial expansion caused new tensions among the powers. This rivalry would be one of the causes of WW1.
  31. 31. MIXED CONSEQUENCES OF IMPERIALISM To some extent there were also some positive consequences: • Improvement in health conditions • Access to education for the native elite • Construction or infrastructures (railways, ports…) FOR THE DOMINATED TERRITORIES Mostly negative: • Economic exploitation –Export agriculture was imposed –Industrialisation was prevented –Unequal trade • Political domination • Aggravation of internal conflicts due to arbitrary drawing of borders • Foreigners became the dominant social class • Loss of own culture
  32. 32. WW1: “The Great War” 1914 - 1918
  33. 33. CONTENDERS ALLIES (Triple Entente) • UK • France • Russia • Others: Serbia, Italy, US, Japan… CENTRAL POWERS (Triple Alliance) • German Empire • Austro-Hungarian Empire • Others: Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria…
  34. 34. ALLIES (Triple Entente) • UK • France • Russia • Others: Serbia, Italy, US, Japan… CENTRAL POWERS (Triple Alliance) • German Empire • Austro-Hungarian Empire • Others: Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria… CONTENDERS
  35. 35. CAUSESOFWW1 The new international expansionist policy (Weltpolitik) undertaken by the German emperor (William II) in 1890. It broke European balance.
  36. 36. CAUSESOFWW1 Tensions due to the annexation by Germany of the French regions of Alsace & Lorraine (Franco-Prussian War, 1870). France wanted to recover these regions. VS
  37. 37. CAUSESOFWW1 Economic rivalry due to the increasing economic & industrial power of Germany, that in the early 20th Century had outpaced UK. Tensions were intensified when Germany started an ambitious naval program to compete against the British Royal Navy. VS
  38. 38. CAUSESOFWW1 Confrontations between imperial powers in the colonies (e.g.: Moroccan crisis & Kruger Telegram) KRUGER TELEGRAM The German emperor (William II) sent a telegram to the president of Transvaal (Paul Kruger) to congratulate him for having defeated the British. It caused huge indignation in Great Britain and led to a further deterioration in relations between the two countries. VS
  39. 39. CAUSESOFWW1 1st Moroccan Crisis (1905): visit of the German emperor (William II) to Morocco (territory under French influence). The Kaiser declared he had come to support the sovereignty of the Sultan & the independence of Morocco. 2nd Moroccan Crisis (1911): during a revolt in Morocco, Germany sent a battleship to the port of Agadir, under the pretext of protecting German trade interests. Both events were seen as provocative challenges to French influence in Morocco. Thus, they worsened German relations with France, and strengthened relations between France & UK (who supported France against the Germans) VS Confrontations between imperial powers in the colonies (e.g.: Moroccan crisis & Kruger Telegram)
  40. 40. CAUSESOFWW1 Confrontations between Austria & Russia for the hegemony in the Balkans (former territories of the Ottoman Empire), and tensions between Austria (who had annexed Bosnia) & Serbia (ally of Russia) due to Slav nationalism. VS
  41. 41. CAUSESOFWW1 The creation of a military alliance system & the arms race (“Peace Through Strength”), which could turn any incident into a war of enormous proportions. TRIPLE ENTENTE TRIPLE ALLIANCE
  42. 42. THESPARKOFTHEWAR VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PbwH1ZBnYds
  43. 43. THESPARKOFTHEWAR The war finally broke out when Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary) was murdered in Sarajevo (Bosnia) on JUNE 28th 1914 by a Serbian nationalist. Austria blamed Serbia and issued an ultimatum to allow Austrian forces to go to Serbia to investigate the murder. Serbia rejected this demand, so Austria declared the war on Serbia. From then on, the Alliance System created a domino effect pulling everyone into war!!!
  44. 44. Telegram by which Austria declared the War to Serbia (July 28th 1914)
  45. 45. THESPARKOFTHEWAR
  46. 46. ALLIES & CENTRALPOWERS IN THE WORLD
  47. 47. a) List 4 new weapons that were used in WW1. b) What was propaganda used for in WW1? c) Why did Russia left WW1? d) What was the main turning point in WW1? e) Why did Germany felt humiliated in the Paris Peace Conference? What consequence did this brought? f) Indicate at least 7 territorial changes in the map of Europe after WW1. Activity 4: copy & answer as we go.
  48. 48. WW1:CHARACTERISTICS Characteristics of WW1 NEW WEAPONS: - Machine guns - Flamethrowers - Toxic gases - Mines - Airplanes - Submarines - Tanks - Hand grenades New defence system: TRENCHES. PHYCOLOGICAL WARFARE AS A NEW FORM OF COMBAT. Propaganda was used to influence people during the war (persuade people to enlist, strengthen the soldiers’ will to resist, demoralize the enemy…)SOCIETY SUFFERED MANY ADVERSITIES (food shortage & rationing, malnutrition, bombings, …) WOMEN JOINED THE WORKFORCE (to replace the men, who were fighting at the front) VAST TERRITORIAL EXPANSION  it was known as the “Great War”
  49. 49. Hand grenades Machine guns Very heavy, needed several people to operate them. Fired up to 600 bullets per minute. Airplanes Tanks Toxic gases & gas masks Flamethrowerrs
  50. 50. Soldier with moderate burns after a mustard gas attack during WW1 “GASSED” (John Singer Sargent; 1919) painting of the aftermath of a mustard gas attack during WW1
  51. 51. http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/zs666sg
  52. 52. WW1 TRENCHES
  53. 53. WW1 TRENCHES
  54. 54. WW1 TRENCHES http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/0 ww1/25626530
  55. 55. PHYCOLOGICAL WARFARE: use of propaganda to influence people during the war (demoralize the enemy, strengthen the soldiers & their will to resist…) http://www.iwm.org.uk/learning/resour ces/first-world-war-recruitment-posters
  56. 56. ALLIES’ RECRUITMENT POSTERS FOR WW1 http://www.iwm.org.uk/learning/resour ces/first-world-war-recruitment-posters
  57. 57. ALLIES’ POSTERS POSTERS FOR WW1 Represented Germans as demons & uncivilized people: - happy for having killed babies, children, women… - Toasting with a glass full of bload
  58. 58. CENTRAL POWERS’ RECRUITMENT POSTERS FOR WW1 http://www.iwm.org.uk/history/11- incredible-german-first-world-war-posters
  59. 59. FOOD SHORTAGE & RATIONING DURING WW1 WWI SUGAR RATION CARD Front: shows the name of the person the card belonged to and the retailer where their ration could be purchased. Reverse: shows the terms and conditions of the issue of rations
  60. 60. The Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was in charge of carrying out a large number of non-combatant tasks in France, freeing up more men for service in the front line. Eventually, 9,000 women served with the unit in France. Women were committed to the war by joining the workforce to replace the men who were at the front.
  61. 61. Ww1:MAINFRONTS WW1 was fought mainly in Europe:  Western front (frontier France – Germany)  Eastern front (frontier Germany – Russia) Other fronts: - Balkans - At Sea (next to UK) - In the colonies (Middle East, Asia, Africa, Oceania…) FRONT = the place where combat operations are carried on
  62. 62. Ww1:PHASES 1914  WAR OF MOVEMENTS (“Guerra de Movimientos”) This plan failed because… - The Allies resisted the quick German attack at the Battle of the Marne. - Russia mobilized its troops quicker than it was expected by the Germans, and advanced rapidly through Prussia. Germany attempted a plan (Schlieffen Plan) which was based on: 1) Rapid victory on France, attacking it through neutral Belgium. 2) After defeating France, turn east to defeat Russia (Germans thought that, given its huge size, it would need a long time to mobilize its troops).
  63. 63. Ww1:PHASES The failure of the quick war planned by Germany & the absence of a decisive victory made the war turn into a long-term conflict. The Western & Easter fronts were settled. Lines of trenches were dug in the frontiers with Germany (specially in the Western front). It was the beginning of the “Trench Warfare”. 1914  WAR OF MOVEMENTS (“Guerra de Movimientos”)
  64. 64. Ww1:PHASES In absence of a decisive victory, the fronts were stabilised along an extensive lines of trenches protected by machine guns & barbed wire. 1915 – 1916  TRENCH WARFARE (“Guerra de Trincheras”)
  65. 65. The unoccupied area between two enemy trench systems was known as “No man's land”. N O M A N ’ S L A N D This area was heavily defended by riflemen & machine guns on both sides. It was a devastated area, covered with barbed wire, land mines, corpses and wounded soldiers who were not able to make it across the explosions and fire. In order to advance, soldiers were forced to cross it, but open fire from the opposing trenches made any attempted advance very difficult and slow.
  66. 66. During this period new weapons were used: • Machine guns • Grenades • Toxic gases • Flamethrowers… Exhausting offensives were launched from the trenches. The strategy consisted in wearing out the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel & material. Ww1:PHASES 1915 – 1916  TRENCH WARFARE (“Guerra de Trincheras”)
  67. 67. Ww1:PHASES 1917: Russia withdrew from WW1 (treaty of Brest-Litovsk) due to their internal Communist Revolution. This allowed Germany to take more troops to the Western front. 1917 – 1918  END OF THE WAR
  68. 68. Ww1:PHASES 1917: US joined the war on the side of the Allies. This marked a major turning point in the war. 1917 – 1918  END OF THE WAR
  69. 69. Ww1:PHASES 1918: the Allies launched a series of offensives on the Western Front, causing the surrender of the Central Powers. 1917 – 1918  END OF THE WAR
  70. 70. Ww1:PEACETREATIES  The LEAGUE OF NATIONS (“Sociedad de Naciones”) was created  international organization for promoting peace.  Several treaties were signed:  The Central Powers had to:  Reduce their armies  Pay war reparations  Make territorial concessions, from which new states emerged (Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland...)  Germany (Treaty of Versailles):  Was blamed for the war  Gave Alsace & Lorraine back to France  Lost all its colonies 1919 – 1920  PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE Felt humiliated  wanted revenge
  71. 71. Ww1:PEACETREATIES 1919 – 1920  PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
  72. 72. Ww1:CONSEQUENCES CONSEQUENCES OF WW1 Terrible human losses: - 9 million people died - Many injured & disabled - Widows & orphans Huge economic losses (industries, fields, buildings…) Favoured the work of women & female suffrage Increased German nationalism & its desire for revenge  it will lead to fascism & WW2US became the leading power in the world. Europe was set aside.
  73. 73.  Define the following concepts:  Trenches  No man’s land  Paris Peace Conference  Devise a diagram about the characteristics, phases & consequences of WW1. Activity 5

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