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Lecture 1 pre axumite architecture

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Lecture 1 pre axumite architecture

  1. 1. Ancient History of Ethiopian Art & Architecture Pre- Axumite Architecture Prep. By Ephrem N.
  2. 2. Introduction •What is history? …We say Architecture is ‘Living History’ HOW?
  3. 3. Introduction • Architecture is subject to social, political, or cultural influences. It reflects the society and communicates the values of that society. • With the change of the society the face of Architecture changes too. • Our architecture has so many stories to tell about us. It’s our personality and our culture which is reflected in the shelter we build.
  4. 4. ■ How Architecture evolve? Introduction
  5. 5. ■ Agriculture vs. Architecture? Introduction
  6. 6. Introduction Agriculture created Architecture. •Agriculture leads to settlement. People needed to live where there was good land for farming. •The tools and materials around enabled them to build shelter/dwellings.
  7. 7. Introduction •Farming in the Nile delta started around 4000 B.C. and a powerful Egyptian state developed about 2600 B.C. ,at the time the state was able to command the labor for such huge constructions as the Great pyramid.
  8. 8. Pre- Axumite Architecture •Archaeological sites in northern Ethiopia and the middle east
  9. 9. •Ancient route from Axum to Redsea Pre- Axumite Architecture
  10. 10. •Earliest Art (example of cave painting in Ethiopia) • a cave at Porcepic near Dire Dawa, dated at 400,000 years and notable for its exquisitely accurate rendering of animal forms – Antelope, Jackal and hyena are clearly identifiable Pre- Axumite Architecture
  11. 11. Sabian or Intermediate period (500 b.c. to 100 a.d.) Sabean architecture
  12. 12. Pre- Axumite Architecture •Some influences to early Ethiopian culture • South Arabians brought with them the Sabean syllabury, a modified version of which is the script in which both Ge’ez and Amharic (200 – 300 A.D.) are written. • The techniques of carving probably originated the early civilization in South Arabians.
  13. 13. Pre- Axumite Architecture •Symbols of Sabian religion “ the Disk & the Crescent” • the decoration of this stone altar is clearly Architectural and depicts “Axumite type of window carpentry similar to the patterns of the largest stales at Axum.
  14. 14. Temple of Yeha
  15. 15. Pre- Axumite Architecture Oldest well-preserved building in Ethiopia (built more than 2500 years ago, in Sabian times) •The country’s earliest high civilization •Temple of Yeha -
  16. 16. Pre- Axumite Architecture •Constructed with Masonry of dressed stone. •Consists of a single oblong Chamber -Area 18.5m by 15m -height 12m •Regular rectangular blocks of up to 3 m length were used to construct the wall, without the use of any mortar.
  17. 17. Basic characteristics  The walls are smooth, with long well-cut blocks, excellent straightness and tightness of joints  Outer faces, edges and corners are unemotionally dressed with great precision  The wall thikness is about 60 cm. Pre- Axumite Architecture
  18. 18. Were they melting the stone?
  19. 19. Temple of Yeha  The wall, whose total thickness is about 60 cm, is not just a single structure but there are two walls interconnected to each other by smaller blocks of stone which serve as anchor.
  20. 20. Temple of Yeha
  21. 21. Temple of Yeha  The floor is also superbly built with 5 layers of variously sized blocks some measuring 1m by 50 cm, others 1m by 1m or 50 cm by 50 cm
  22. 22. Temple of Yeha
  23. 23. The Sabean walls.  smooth,  long well-cut blocks,  straight  Tight joints  Perfect corners Pre- Axumite Architecture
  24. 24. Pre Axumite Domestic architecture
  25. 25. COMPARISON History of Ethiopian Architecture vs. ..……the other world
  26. 26. Egyptians Great Pyramid of Khufu, Egypt, (2600 to 2480BC) Temple at Luxor (1408 to 1300BC) Egypt Hatshepsuts Temple, Egypt (1550BC)
  27. 27. The Greeks Parthenon Greece, 477 to 438 BC
  28. 28. The Romans The Roman Forum (100 to 300BC)
  29. 29. The powerful kingdom of Axum (100 to 1000 a.d.) To be Continued Axumite Architecture - II

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