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SEMINAR ON BASIC
ELECTRONICS
TOPIC-LED & VARACTOR DIODES
AVNEET SINGH LAL
EC-3
LED
ABOUT LED
 LED is an opto-electronic device which emits a narrow
bandwidth of visible or invisible light when its internal diode
junction is stimulated by a forward electric current or
voltage.
 LEDs convert electrical energy into light energy.
 The material used for LEDs are the direct Band Gap
Semiconductors which are made from group 3rd and group 5th
elements. For eg.- GaAs
OPERATION OF LED
 The operation of LED is based on the phenomenon
of electro luminance.
 The recombination of charge carriers takes place in
a forward p-n junction as the electrons cross from
the n-region and recombine with holes existing in
p-region.
ADVANTAGES OF LED
 LEDs are small in size and can be used to form
numeric and alpha numeric display in high density
matrix.
 LEDs are rugged.
 They need moderate power.
 High Lighting Efficiency
 Long Life
 High Reliability & Safety
 Environment Friendly
 Excellent Colour Rendering
 No warm up period
DISADVANTAGES
 A very limited variety and selection for your home
compared to other types of lighting.
 Hard to find in smaller towns where consumers may
have a smaller interest in this lighting alternative.
 Significantly more expensive than regular lighting
and not budget conscious.
 Although they are available in many colours, the
quality of the colours is not quite as good as with
regular lighting.
APPLICATIONS
 Medical Instrumentation
 Bar Code Readers
 Fibre Optic Communication
 Digital Cameras
 Laptops
 Traffic Signals
 Rail
 Tower Lights
VARACTOR DIODE
ABOUT VARACTOR DIODES
 A microwave solid-state device.
 Also known as a parametric diode, tuning diode or
varicap diodes
 A nonlinear device
 Provides a voltage-dependent variable capacitance
SYMBOL
OPERATION
 It has a p-n junction of semiconducting
material and is always reverse biased.
 The depletion zone width depends on the
applied voltage and this makes the
capacitance vary with the applied
voltage.
CHARACTERISTICS
 Low noise
 Low cost
 High reliability
 Light weight
 Small size
 Increase in reverse bias
of varactor diode increases
the capacitance as shown
in the figure.
APPLICATIONS
 Variable reactor in microwave circuits.
 It can be used for voltage tuning of
LC resonant circuit.
 It is used for generation of FM
Waves.
CONCLUSIONS
 Varactor diodes in reverse bias operates as
variable capacitor as reverse voltage varies, where:
 Depletion region : Dielectric (Insulator)
 P - N Regions : Plates of capacitor
 Width of Depletion region : Distance of separation
THE END
THANK YOU FOR YOU
ATTENTION

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Led and varactor diode

  • 1. SEMINAR ON BASIC ELECTRONICS TOPIC-LED & VARACTOR DIODES AVNEET SINGH LAL EC-3
  • 2. LED
  • 3. ABOUT LED  LED is an opto-electronic device which emits a narrow bandwidth of visible or invisible light when its internal diode junction is stimulated by a forward electric current or voltage.  LEDs convert electrical energy into light energy.  The material used for LEDs are the direct Band Gap Semiconductors which are made from group 3rd and group 5th elements. For eg.- GaAs
  • 4. OPERATION OF LED  The operation of LED is based on the phenomenon of electro luminance.  The recombination of charge carriers takes place in a forward p-n junction as the electrons cross from the n-region and recombine with holes existing in p-region.
  • 5. ADVANTAGES OF LED  LEDs are small in size and can be used to form numeric and alpha numeric display in high density matrix.  LEDs are rugged.  They need moderate power.  High Lighting Efficiency  Long Life  High Reliability & Safety  Environment Friendly  Excellent Colour Rendering  No warm up period
  • 6. DISADVANTAGES  A very limited variety and selection for your home compared to other types of lighting.  Hard to find in smaller towns where consumers may have a smaller interest in this lighting alternative.  Significantly more expensive than regular lighting and not budget conscious.  Although they are available in many colours, the quality of the colours is not quite as good as with regular lighting.
  • 7. APPLICATIONS  Medical Instrumentation  Bar Code Readers  Fibre Optic Communication  Digital Cameras  Laptops  Traffic Signals  Rail  Tower Lights
  • 9. ABOUT VARACTOR DIODES  A microwave solid-state device.  Also known as a parametric diode, tuning diode or varicap diodes  A nonlinear device  Provides a voltage-dependent variable capacitance SYMBOL
  • 10. OPERATION  It has a p-n junction of semiconducting material and is always reverse biased.  The depletion zone width depends on the applied voltage and this makes the capacitance vary with the applied voltage.
  • 11. CHARACTERISTICS  Low noise  Low cost  High reliability  Light weight  Small size  Increase in reverse bias of varactor diode increases the capacitance as shown in the figure.
  • 12. APPLICATIONS  Variable reactor in microwave circuits.  It can be used for voltage tuning of LC resonant circuit.  It is used for generation of FM Waves.
  • 13. CONCLUSIONS  Varactor diodes in reverse bias operates as variable capacitor as reverse voltage varies, where:  Depletion region : Dielectric (Insulator)  P - N Regions : Plates of capacitor  Width of Depletion region : Distance of separation
  • 14. THE END THANK YOU FOR YOU ATTENTION