• Definition of Related Literature
• Importance of conducting a good literature search.
• Types of entry reference notes
• Types of Literature (Conceptual and Research)
• Sources of CL and RL
• Definition of Theory
What is the purpose of
It is analyze critically a segment of a published body of knowledge through
summary, classification and comparison of prior research studies reviews
of literature and theoretical articles. (the writing center)
According to Almofad.com:
1. To define and limit the problem you working on.
2. To place you study in an historical perspective.
3. To avoid unnecessary duplication.
4. To evaluate promising research methods.
5. To relate you finding to previous knowledge and suggest further research.
• Writing the literature review lets you gain and demonstrate
skill in to way:
1.Information: the ability to scan the literature review
efficiencently using manual or computerized method to
identify a set of useful articles and books
2. Critical appraisal: the ability to apply principles of analysis to
identify unbiased and valid studies. ( Toronto university)
• A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which
you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed.
While a summary of the what you have read is contained
within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely
summarizing professional literature.
• It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and includes
a critical analysis of the relationship among different works,
and relating this research to your work. It may be written as a
stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and
rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation).
What is the most critical thing can literature review do?
According to Toronto University that the literature review
has significant issue:
1. Be recognize around and related directly to the thesis or
research question you developing.
2. Synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not
3. Identify areas of controversy in the literature.
4. Formulate questions that need further research.
When to Start Reviewing Related
• While the research problem is still being conceptualized, the
researcher must already start reviewing literature. In
identifying and defining the research problem, the researcher
must be able to show evidences that the problem really exists
and is worth investigating.
• It is important that the researcher knows what is already
known about the problem or what earlier researchers have
found about it and what questions still need to be answered
before the research questions or objectives are finalized.
• Theories which the researchers use to explain the existence of
a research problem and used as bases in analyzing
relationships between variables can be generated from
reference books on theories or from related studies. The
researcher therefore, must have already read adequate
literature at the start of the research activity.
STEPS IN WRITING THE REVIEW OF
• Step 1: Review APA guidelines
• Step 2: Decide on a topic
• Step 3: Identify the literature that you will
• Step 4: Analyze the literature
• Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or
concept map format
• Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing
• Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90)
• Step 8: Developing a coherent essay
APA Crib Sheet Contents
o Avoiding biased and pejorative
o Italics (underlining)
o Quotation marks
o Title & text pages (graphic)
o Text details
o References & tables (graphic)
o Tables (notes)
Reference Citations (In-Text)
o Abbreviating within a reference
o Alphabetizing within reference lists
o APA reference style & examples
Writing in APA Style for
• ONE WORK BY SINGLE AUTHOR:
• Smith (1983) compared reaction times
• In a recent study of reaction times it was found that (Smith, 1983)
• In 1983, Smith compared reaction times
• ONE WORK BY THREE OR MORE AUTHORS:
• Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent
citations include only the surname of the first author followed by "et
al." (not underlined and with no period after "et") and the year.
Citations apart of the text, use and , when citing in parentheses use &
• Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, and Torringon (1983) found (first
• Researchers (Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, & Torringon, 1983) found
• Williams et al. (1983) found (subsequent citations)
• CITING MULTIPLE ARTICLES AT ONE TIME
• Separate two or more citations with semi-colon, and list in
• Several studies have shown that monozygotic twins tend to be
more similar than dizygotic twins on this dimension (Dunn &
Plomin, 1986; Plomin, DeFries, & Fulker, 1988). (first citation)
Tips in Writing (RL)
• QUOTATIONS: Quotations should be extremely rare in
scientific writing, and should only be used if exact wording or
terminology is needed.
• VOICE: AVOID 1ST PERSON (GALVAN, 2004, P. 54)
• Ex. Improper voice for academic writing In this review, I will show
that the literature on treating juvenile murderers is sparse and
suffers from the same problems as the general literature
Unfortunately, I have found that most of the treatment results
are based on clinical case reports of
• Ex. Suitable voice for academic writing The literature on treating
juvenile murderers is sparse and suffers from the same problems
as the general literature Most of the treatment results are based
on clinical case reports
• AVOID SLANG. USE PROFESSIONAL LANGUAGE
• conducted a study instead of did a study
• examined instead of looked at
• utilize instead of use (where appropriate)
• great deal instead of a lot
• furthermore instead of run-on sentences
• ORGANIZE THE PAPER BY TOPICS NOT CHRONOLOGY: Build
paper with a clear thesis. Good writing should provide clear
and organized evidence for your argument or theory.
• BE CONSICE: Delete unnecessary words, phrases, and
sentences to drastically improve your writing. Scientific writing
is concise and to-the-point!
• REVISE AND REWRITE: Good writing takes hard work. Give
yourself enough time to take a break from the paper. Time
away from the paper provides perspective regarding
organization and allows the opportunity to find technical
• CITATIONS: It is imperative that you use good citation habits. It
is plagiarism to use other writers words and IDEAS.