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A QUICK GUIDE TO WRITING A
LITERATURE REVIEW
By Mr. Chuah Kee Man
kmchuah@unimas.my
Panduan Ringkas Penulisan Tinjauan Lit...
A literature review involves a
systematic identification of necessary
information related to a research
problem.
Literatur...
In a research, literature review is mainly used to:
• define the problem that you plan to research further
• reveal gaps i...
LITERATURE REVIEW
 Ideally, a good literature review should
present the frontiers of knowledge in the
research area:
• Wh...
Writing a literature review is not just about
summarising the articles/books that you have read.
Key Steps:
• Focus on Key...
Tinjauan literatur bukan semata-mata satu rumusan
kepada pembacaan yang telah anda lakukan.
Langkah penting
• Fokus Kepada...
KEY COMPONENTS OF LITERATURE REVIEW
Theoretical
Literature
(Literatur
teoritikal)
• definition of concepts, keywords
• dif...
 Get to know the objectives/aims
 Related concepts (Not all but the at least the key
variables metioned in the objective...
 Ketahui dengan jelas objektif/tujuan kajian
 Konse yang berkaitan (tidak semua, fokus kepada
pembolehubah yang dinyatak...
Sample paragraph of a good literature review 1:
Research has also been done that looks at how the bullies find their victi...
Sample paragraph of a good literature review 2:
To many, nonverbal communication may take a back seat to verbal communicat...
Sample paragraph of a good literature review 3: (review
multiple studies)
The integration of social media tools in teachin...
Contoh penulisan tinjauan literatur (perbandingan beberapa
kajian lepas dalam 1 perenggan)
Sejajar dengan perkembangan int...
 Extract the information from the literature first.
 Draw a mind map linking all the information that you have
found
 D...
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Writing A Literature Review: A Quick Guide

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This is a quick guide for those trying to write a literature review. Some explanations in Bahasa Melayu are also provided (Sorotan/Tinjauan Literatur)

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Writing A Literature Review: A Quick Guide

  1. 1. A QUICK GUIDE TO WRITING A LITERATURE REVIEW By Mr. Chuah Kee Man kmchuah@unimas.my Panduan Ringkas Penulisan Tinjauan Literatur
  2. 2. A literature review involves a systematic identification of necessary information related to a research problem. Literature Review dalam Bahasa Melayu biasanya dikenali sebagai Sorotan/Tinjauan Literatur. Sorotan ini penting dalam mengenal pasti maklumat yang berkaitan dengan permasalahan kajian secara sistematik. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?
  3. 3. In a research, literature review is mainly used to: • define the problem that you plan to research further • reveal gaps in previous research (by reviewing the findings/theories found) • show how your study relates to (differs from) previous studies Tinjauan literatur biasanya dilakukan untuk • Menjelaskan permasalahan yang anda ingin kaji • Mendedahkan jurang dalam kajian terdahulu (meninjau dapatan/theori yang dikenal pasti) • Menunjukkan persamaan dan kelainan kajian anda daripada kajian terdahulu PURPOSE OF LITERATURE REVIEW
  4. 4. LITERATURE REVIEW  Ideally, a good literature review should present the frontiers of knowledge in the research area: • What is known based on previous studies; • What has yet to be found out or what can be investigated further. Tinjauan literatur yang baik akan menunjukkan apa yang telah diketahui dalam kajian lepas dan apa yang belum dikenal pasti untuk tujuan kajian seterusnya.
  5. 5. Writing a literature review is not just about summarising the articles/books that you have read. Key Steps: • Focus on Keywords– identify the keywords (including variables) from your research topic/research problem. • Search Good Resources – find articles based on the key words by searching through good resources (databases/ journals). Write down the reference for the articles used too. • Extract Key Info – Extract the key information from the resources. • Compare and Contrast – Critically compare the info that you have gathered from various articles (analyse and synthesize) • Link and Justify – Make a link to your research problem and provide good justifications. WRITING A LITERATURE REVIEW
  6. 6. Tinjauan literatur bukan semata-mata satu rumusan kepada pembacaan yang telah anda lakukan. Langkah penting • Fokus Kepada Kata Kunci – kenal pasti kata kunci utama (termasuk pembolehubah) daripada topic kajian atau permasalahan kajian. • Cari Sumber Yang Baik – Cari makalah/artikel yang berkaitan dengan kata kunci utama melalui sumber yang baik (pangkalan data/jurnal). Catatkan Rujukan bagi sumber yang dikenal pasti juga. • Esktrak Maklumat Penting – Keluarkan maklumat penting daripada sumber yang telah dikenal pasti • Banding dan Analisa – Buat perbandingan dan analisa dengan kritikal maklumat yang telah diesktrak. • Buat pertalian dengan kajian anda – hubung-jalinkan dapatan daripada tinajuan literature dengan kajian anda. MENULIS TINJAUAN LITERATUR
  7. 7. KEY COMPONENTS OF LITERATURE REVIEW Theoretical Literature (Literatur teoritikal) • definition of concepts, keywords • different views of the concepts • relationship of the concept to others Empirical Literature (literatur empirikal) • Findings from related studies • Comparison of findings
  8. 8.  Get to know the objectives/aims  Related concepts (Not all but the at least the key variables metioned in the objectives)  Method – Yes! Understand how the previous study was conducted (e.g. target sample/group, data collection procedures)  Results (synthesize the key findings especially by relating to your own research problem, not just the conclusions). WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN ARTICLES
  9. 9.  Ketahui dengan jelas objektif/tujuan kajian  Konse yang berkaitan (tidak semua, fokus kepada pembolehubah yang dinyatakan dalam objektif)  Kaedah Kajian – Fahami bagaimana kajian dijalankan (sampel kajian, kumpulan sasaran, prosedur pengumpulan data)  Dapatan Kajian (kenal pasti dapatan kajian yang penting khususnya yang berkaitan dengan kajian anda – bukan sekadar kesimpulan) APA YANG DICARI DALAM ARTIKEL
  10. 10. Sample paragraph of a good literature review 1: Research has also been done that looks at how the bullies find their victims. Wegge et al. (2014) studied the perpetrators preferences in victims. The data were collected via questionnaires and interviews, and a total of 120 bullies were involved as participants. Wegge et al. (2014) found that 27 percent were in the same grade, 14.2 percent were in different grades and a staggering 49.6 percent were not schoolmates of the bullies. This evidence somewhat contradicts that of the other studies that state victims are generally bullied at school and at home. The findings by Wegge et al. clearly show that nearly half of the bullies prefer to bully people they do not go to school with and possibly those that they do not know at all. This continues to build and add to the idea of cyberbullying in that it allows bullies to create their own personas and images in order to try and intimidate others without actually providing a physical intimidation factor. EXAMPLE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW Look at how the review is done by covering key information from the study while critically analysing the findings. Citations are necessary too!
  11. 11. Sample paragraph of a good literature review 2: To many, nonverbal communication may take a back seat to verbal communication. It is often overlooked and may be deemed unimportant. However, this aspect of communication speaks volumes. Nonverbal communication may consist of looking, smiling, frowning, touching, or expressions of surprise as seen in Weisfeld and Stack’s research study (2002). Women have been found to exhibit these forms of communication more often than men. Weisfeld and Stack studied nonverbal behaviors related to the closeness of a couple through observation and found that women looked at their partners for a significantly longer amount of time as compared to men. The average length of a wife’s look was 7.5 seconds while the husband’s was 4.5 seconds. However, while men express less emotion and nonverbal communication, this may not necessarily mean that they are not listening when their wives speak to them. Weisfeld and Stack theorized that men may show less emotion because they have been taught to dampen emotions such as anger. When a husband and wife have a disagreement, the situation can escalate quickly if the husband fully expresses his emotions by becoming violent (Weisfeld & Stack, 2002). Therefore, it was suggested that many men fail to show emotion in general because they have trained themselves to be “emotionless” in these conflict situations. EXAMPLE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW Look at how the review is done by covering key information from the study while critically analysing the findings. Citations are necessary too!
  12. 12. Sample paragraph of a good literature review 3: (review multiple studies) The integration of social media tools in teaching and learning has been widely studied and experimented particularly in the context of higher education. A survey conducted by Moran, Seaman and Tinti-Kane (2011) on faculty members in United States, for example, showed that nearly two- thirds of them have used social media during a class session and more than 30% have posted content for students to view or read outside class using various social media platforms. In addition, Roblyer et al. (2010) found that in higher education, students are more positive towards faculty members who use social media for supporting teaching and learning than those who prefer traditional technologies. Closer to home, the usage of social media among educators in higher education is equally encouraging due to the wider accessibility of Internet facilities among undergraduates and also the on-going national agenda of promoting blended learning, in which lessons are extended virtually through e-learning platforms (Chuah, 2013). EXAMPLE OF A LITERATURE REVIEW When you review multiple studies in one paragraph, group them according to key topic/theme.
  13. 13. Contoh penulisan tinjauan literatur (perbandingan beberapa kajian lepas dalam 1 perenggan) Sejajar dengan perkembangan internet, media sosial kini menjadi aplikasi internet yang kian popular. Media sosial ditakrifkan sebagai sekumpulan aplikasi internet yang dibina berasaskan ideologi dan teknologi Web 2.0 yang membenarkan penghasilan dan perkongsian bahan-bahan yang dijana oleh pengguna (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Populariti media sosial banyak bergantung kepada penglibatan golongan remaja. Wardrip-Fruin dan Montfort (2003) menyatakan bahawa golongan remaja yang terdedah kepada teknologi maklumat pada usia muda lebih terdorong untuk melibatkan diri dalam perkongsian maya, khususnya melalui media sosial. Media sosial juga dianggap mampu membantu pelajar berinteraksi dengan lebih mudah terutamanya dari segi pembelajaran bahasa (Annand, 2011) dan mendapatkan informasi bermanfaat dalam pelbagai format seperti gambar, video dan animasi (Azer, 2012). Walau bagaimanapun, Boyd (2010) berpandangan pesimistik terhadap keberkesanan media sosial dalam penyaluran maklumat secara berkesan. Boyd (2010) berpendapat bahawa, walaupun media sosial dapat mengumpulkan beribu-ribu maklumat dalam masa yang singkat, tahap perhatian yang diberikan oleh pengguna adalah sangat rendah, dan kebanyakan maklumat yang dipaparkan melalui media sosial tidak dibaca langsung oleh pengguna. CONTOH TINJAUAN LITERATUR Bila anda meninjau beberapa literatur dalam 1 perenggan, gabung-jalinkan info utama berdasarkan tema/topic kajian.
  14. 14.  Extract the information from the literature first.  Draw a mind map linking all the information that you have found  Determine what is related to your research problem and what is not (if not related, highlight why it is not included as part of your research or why it is ignored)  Then write the review. The structure usually begins with the key info from the article, then your brief “analysis” of the key findings in the article. SOME EXTRA TIPS…

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