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Review of related literature samples


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Review of related literature samples

  1. 1. RESEARCH ON LEARNING FROM TELEVISION reviews of the literature are helpful for synthesizing findings. Individual studies contribute a point of view and define variables, but it takes a review to examine Barbara Seels each study in light of others. Fortunately, there have been many outstanding University of Pittsburgh reviews of the literature. For example, Reid and MacLennan (1967) and Chu and Karen Fullerton Schramm (1968) did comprehensive reviews of learning from television that included studies on utilization. Aletha Huston-Stein (1972) wrote a chapter for Celeron Consultants the National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE) yearbook on Early Louis Berry Childhood Education entitled Mass Media and Young Children‟s Development University of Pittsburgh which presented a conceptual framework for studying television‟s effects. In 1975, the Rand Corporation published three books by George Comstock that Laura J. Horn reviewed pertinent scientific literature, key studies, and the state of research. Jerome and Dorothy Singer reviewed the implications of research for children‟s 12.1.1 Relevance to Instructional Technology cognition, imagination, and emotion (Singer & Singer, 1983). In that article, they Research on learning from television encompasses more than formal described the trend toward studying cognitive processes and formal features. Byinstruction. This body of research addresses learning in home as well as school 1989, the American Psychological Association had produced a synthesis of theenvironments. Many of the findings are relevant to the instructional technologist; literature tided Big World, Small Screen.for example, research on formal features* yields guidelines for message design. Other reviews have concentrated on special areas like reading skillsInstructional technologists can both promote students‟ learning to regulate and (Williams, 1986); cognitive development (Anderson & Collins, 1988);reinforce their own viewing* and educate parents and teachers about media instructional television (Cambre, 1987); and violence (Liebert & Sprafkin, 1988).utilization. Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers offers a series of volumes edited by Dolf Zillmann In addition, instructional technologists are also responsible for and Jennings Bryant on research and theory about television effects. Light andrecommending and supporting policy that affects television utilization. The Pillemer (1984) argue against the single decisive study approach and proposeliterature provides support for policy positions related to (a) control of reviews around a specific research question that starts by reporting the mainadvertising and violence, (b) parent and teacher training, (c) provision of special effects, then reports special circumstances that affect outcomes, and finishes byprogramming, and (d) media literacy education. reporting special effects on particular types of people. This integrated research strategy is especially appropriate for reviews of research on television effects. Researchers in instructional technology can determine gaps in the theoreticalbase by using reviews such as this. In the future, more research that relates 12.3.6 Current Issuesvariables studied by psychologists to variables studied by educators will be Contemporary research in the cognitive effects of the television medium hasrequired in order to identify guidelines for interventions and programming. generally continued along the same agendas as in previous decades. Additional Review Articles and Books research into the nature of the television viewing act has further confirmed the active theoretical approach. Recent researchers have explored the role of the Despite such long-term efforts, much of the literature on television lacks auditory message and reported findings that demonstrate the power of audio cuesconnection to other findings (Clark, 1983, 1994; Richey, 1986). The conceptual in helping children identify critical information in the visual track which directtheory necessary to explain the relationship among variables is still evolving. their attention to comprehensible program content. Research has shown that theBecause of this, consumers of the literature are sometimes overwhelmed and relationship between attention and comprehension, previously identified, is aunable to make decisions related to interactions in the television viewing system complex and interactive process which relies on both visual and auditoryof programming, environment, and behavior. Comprehensive and specialized information as well as prior knowledge of content (Bickham, Wright, & Huston,
  2. 2. 2000). Researchers have also addressed the variable of comprehension in recent their self-efficacy may translate to a stronger sense of their role as a civicresearch. Studies by Clifford, Gunter, and McAleer (1995) found that children participant.demonstrate different information processing and conceptualizing abilities than To watch or not to watch? That is the older individuals, and they caution that much of this area has received little Identifying the common characteristics of the reality television viewing audience.research attention. Further work by Kelly and Spear (1991) indicated thatcomprehension could be improved by the addition of viewing aids such as Presented to the Facultysynopses, which are placed at strategic points in the program. Research involving Liberty Universitythe use of closed captioning for deaf students demonstrated the critical nature of School of Communicationthe audio track in facilitating comprehension of television program content as In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for thewell as the beneficial effects of such captioning for all students ( Jelinek- Lewis Master of Arts& Jackson, 2001). In Communication Studies TCC 2011 Proceedings By Laura M. Sipple The Effect of Reality TV on Civic Behaviors May 1, 2008 Fanning Elizabeth University of Virginia CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW Reality Show Viewers Charlottesville, VA, USA Why are so many people tuning in to view these programs and who are the people that continue to watch each season? While research relating to reality Related Theory and Studies television is relatively new, several studies have been conducted in relation to viewer characteristics, media effects, realism and gratifications. However, due to Social Learning Theory the popularity of fictional crime, detective dramas and police work, most of the Social learning is a behavioral modelling technique that uses the context of a earliest research relied heavily on these types of series including shows such associal group or setting and the resulting group dynamics to teach social, COPS and America‟s Most Wanted. (Oliver & Armstrong, 1; Andrejevic).emotional, and practical competencies (Bandura, 1969, 1977). This group Previous research has briefly explored why viewers watch certain programsdynamic encourages a similar reflexive quality in self-perception, and contributes but has been limited in their sampling sizes or program selections. In Oliver andto the learner‟s sense of self-efficacy (Ibid, 1997). This developing self-efficacy Armstrong‟s study, the data focused primarily on crime shows (COPS andbolsters the learner‟s confidence and willingness to further explore and engage in America‟s Most Wanted) and did not consider other types of reality programs forcertain behaviors (Ibid), and to choose activities or behaviors in which the their study. Random telephone surveys were conducted in Wisconsin andlearners feels they will be successful (Ormond, 1999). Virginia in areas centered on large universities and only adults who were not full- Online social networks are rich with opportunities for social learning, with time students participated. Researchers sought to identify why viewers enjoyedthe group dynamics of the discussion boards and blog postings driving and watching reality-based, fictional crime programs. (561)setting the terms for acceptable attitudes and behaviors, along with participant Reiss & Wiltz‟s study utilized a questionnaire format and chose humanratings providing immediate feedback. Similarly, if through participating in the service workers and college students as participants. Five specific reality showssocial networks surrounding the television show American Idol, people learn that were noted on the questionnaire and included Survivor, Big Brother, Temptationthey can change the outcome of an episode through their opinions and voting, Island, The Mole, and The Real World. Researchers chose these five shows based on the “low level of morals found on the shows and the exploitation of the
  3. 3. participants as well as their appeal to a viewer‟s basic human quest for truth and as these arose, a shift in research was directed to what viewers do with media,need for genuineness.” (370) Again, only a limited number of reality shows were rather than what media does to people. (Klapper 27).addressed in this study and two groups of participants were selected. According to a recent article in the Journal of Consumer Research, “Reality In the study conducted by Nabi, Biely, Morgan and Stitt, only Arizona TV allows viewers to imagine themselves as actual participants.” (Rose & Wood)residents who were awaiting jury duty participated in the study. And most The authors continue their discussion by assessing that viewer‟s blend fact withrecently, a study conducted in 2006 by Alice Hall addressed the audience‟s fantasy, a term they have coined “hyper-authenticity.” In these cases, viewersunderstanding of the “nature, realism and gratifications” of reality show compare and contrast their lives to the participants lives depicted onscreen.programs. (191) the study participants included college students at an urbanMidwestern university, with an average age of twenty three. Here again, the Other research has shown viewers may have a voyeuristic nature (Johnsonparticipants chosen were limited. While the results of these studies are useful to 56). However, this is a claim that Nabi, Biely, Morgan and Stitt refutes.further understand the nature of audiences, more diversity among participants According to their study, voyeurism was not evident in the data. “Viewerscould have produced results that may be applied more universally in the field. wanted to watch other people, but did not see something the characters didn‟t want them to see.” (324) In this study, regular television programs as well as Some research, including work conducted by Katz, Blumer & Gurevitch, seven specific reality-based programs -- Survivor, Real World, A Wedding Story,takes a psychological perspective and utilizes the uses and gratification theory. Temptation Island, The Mole, Blind Date and COPS -- represented a variety ofAccording to this theory, the audience is active and media is goal-directed. The sub-categories of the reality show genre. The results indicated that regularaudience has specific expectations and these expectations motivate their choice viewers note that reality television programs are “novel,” “suspenseful” andof media. Media is in competition with other sources for satisfaction and viewers enjoy their “unscripted nature” and “watch because they are entertained”individuals are aware of these needs and audience media selections and whereas casual viewers watch out of “curiosity and entertainment.” (320). Insubsequent gratifications are known and able to be effectively communicated. addition, very few differences were found among participants in regard to race,(Grossberg, Wartella & Whitney 266-267) sex or age. This approach has been taken by Nabi, Biely, Morgan and Stitt in the study Reiss and Wiltz concurred with Nabi, Biely, Morgan and Stitt and took theof reality television -“what it is, how it differs from other types of programs and research a step further to locate unique motivations for each individual. Theirwho watches it and why.” (324) specifically, the study focused on the following study was based on Reiss‟ theory of human behavior, more specifically “16 basicgratifications identified by Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch: “diversion,” “personal desires.” Based on Aristotle‟s means and ends, and a variation of the “uses andrelationships,” “personal identity” and “surveillance.” (312) Results indicated gratification” approach, Reiss expands the theory to include 16 fundamentalthat the gratification for regular viewers exceeded those of casual viewers and meanings of human life and suggests all goals in life can be categorized into oneregular viewers needed to be entertained versus casual viewers who watched in of the following categories: “power, curiosity, independence, status, socialhopes of “alleviating boredom.” (325). contact, vengeance, honor, idealism, physical exercise, romance, family, order, eating, acceptance, tranquillity and saving.” While this theory has been accepted, cited repeatedly and has propelled othertheories, it has been criticized by other scholars. (O‟Guinn & Faber). Criticisms According to Reiss and Wiltz, “if we could identify the most basic orincluded the lack of clarity, the nature of the audience, and reliance on the data, fundamental motives of human life, we may be able to connect these motives tospecifically, reliance on self-reports. (Anderson &Meyer; Swanson; Sparks) In desires to pay attention to various media experiences.” (364) Their resultsresponse to these criticisms, R.B. Rubin identified the following six reasons why showed that status was the main motivational factor in determining what programchildren watched television: learning, habit, companionship, escape, arousal and to watch. “The more status-oriented people are, the more likely they are to viewrelaxation. This aided in addressing the problem of applying the research to other reality television and report pleasure and enjoyment.” (373) They also found thatareas (lack of clarity), and helped to address data validity. When questions such particular shows may appeal to different psychological needs. For example,
  4. 4. Survivor may appeal to those who are more competitive in nature, thus filling the we cannot, or have not yet had the chance to, experience in person; trying onneed for vengeance. (374). alternative identities; or otherwise adopting the goals, feelings, or thoughts imagined to be those of the target of our identification. Whether this vicarious Other studies focus on the personal connections that a viewer can potentially experience results in overt behavior or takes on a more purely imaginative form,make with a specific person being portrayed on television shows, not on the it is this vicarious experience that makes identification central.” (249).reasons or motivations they may receive for watching a specific program. Thisapproach to the study of television audiences addresses the process known as In an attempt to measure identification, Cohen has developed the followingidentification. four dimensions of identification: “(1) empathy or sharing the feelings of the character, (2) a cognitive aspect that is manifest in sharing the perspective of the While no studies specifically mentioned the use of identification as an character, (3) motivational -- addresses the degree to which the audience memberaudience response to reality programs in the United States, studies linking the internalizes and shares the goals of the character and (4) the absorption or theprocess of identification between audiences and television programs exist. Rubin degree to which self-awareness is lost during exposure to the text.” (256)R.B. & McHugh (290) saw that the longer an audience member is exposed to acharacter, the more likely they are able to imagine themselves as that character. Hussmann, Lagerspetz & Eron, discovered that children who identified with aggressive television characters increased their learning of aggressive behavior. Some scholars contend that identification can occur after the viewing has Many studies have been conducted to evaluate an audience‟s identification withtaken place. Resengren noted that “equally or even more important are those television characters (Chory-Assad Cicchirillo 154), fictional characters (Hoornrelationships which extend beyond the moment of viewing ... „long term & Konijn 255), and national identity (Creeber 31) however, only one studyidentification‟ with one or more of the personae of the media world.” (349) specifically addressed the process of identification in relation to reality television programs (Aslama & Pantti 52); and this was a study conducted in Finland. Early studies conducted on identification took on a psychological approachand focused on a child‟s need for identification and how it related to the Results indicated that the construction of national identity was intentional on theformation of one‟s social identity (Freud; Erikson). part of the producers and that some details, perhaps unintentional, also contributed to the formation of national identity. Kenneth Burke took the process a few steps further conducting extensive REALITY TV AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP PERCEPTIONSresearch on the subject of identification and believed that the process ofidentification occurs when “one individual shares the interests of another A Dissertation presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School at the University ofindividual or believes that he or she shares the interest of another.” (Burke 180). Missouri ColumbiaHerbert Kelman accepted Burke‟s research but added the process of persuasionand included that in identification as well. He claims that an individual goes In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophythrough a three-stage process of identification: 1) compliance, 2) identification, By KRISTIN L. CHERRYand 3) internalization. During this three-stage process, identification can take on Dr. Jennifer Stevens Aubrey, Dissertation Supervisorone of two forms. The first form can be “classical - attempts to be like or actually MAY 2008be the other person” (Kelman 63). Secondly, Kelman says the individual maytake the “recipricol role of identification - the roles of two parties are defined Literature Review Reality Television Researchwith reference to one another.” (64). Reality television programming has been around since the first broadcast of Cohen has defined identification as “an imaginative process through which Candid Camera in the late 1940‟s. It has not been until recently that these typesan audience member assumes the identity, goals, and perspective of a character” of shows have gained immense popularity. The debut of Survivor in 2000 has(Cohen 261). He continues by discussing an individual taking on a vicarious been credited with beginning the infiltration of reality programming in theexperience. “Vicarious experience may take various forms: experiencing things current television landscape
  5. 5. (Rowen, 2000). Individuals are embracing this genre of television within this genre. They include: romantic, talent, quiz, and game (Bailey &programming as a relatively permanent fixture in television programming. In Barbato, 2003). In this study, I will examine not only reality television viewing2003 the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences added "Best Reality Show" as a whole, but also exposure to subgenres of reality an Emmy category (Rowen, 2000). This has led to the development of manytypes of reality programming formats. While the research in this area is relatively Some research has sought to discover why people watch reality despite the recent surge in reality programming, in what follows I aim to Reiss and Wiltz (2004) asked individuals to rate themselves on Reisss 16 basicsummarize previous research in this area. life motives and also to report how much they viewed reality programs and how much they enjoyed these shows. Results indicated that the appeal to reality The increase in reality programming is undoubtedly related to with the television programs was dependent on the amount of reality television watched.increasing number of cable channels, which allows advertisers to reach niche The more reality programs an individual reported liking, the more status orientedmarkets (Hiebert & Gibbons, 2000). The majority of reality television they were, they placed a higher value on vengeance, were more motivated byprogramming is geared towards the individuals under twentyfive years old social life, less motivated by honor, more focused on order, and more concerned(Frank, 2003). MTV has been presenting the Real World to this target younger with romance. The reality television shows that people prefer to watch are thosedemographic for more than ten years. Frank (2003) suggests that younger that stimulate the motives people intrinsically value the most.viewers are drawn to these shows because they depict characters and situationsthat are relevant to their everyday lives. However, it was not until the debut of Hall (2006) conducted focus groups to understand why participants enjoySurvivor in the year 2000 (Rowen, 2000), that reality television has gained a spot watching reality TV programming. Participants enjoyed reality shows moston network primetime television, where the reality genre shows began to target because of their humor and suspense. Reality programs were also found to foundan older demographic (Rowen, 2000). There is a variety of shows that still target to fulfill social functions for the viewers. Respondents reported watching withthe younger demographic, but now there are more shows that target a much wider friends and talking with friends about the reality shows they watched.demographic. For example, network primetime shows such as The Apprentice Participants indicated that their view of reality TV programming as realistic wastarget the 1849 demographic (Rowen, 2000). Therefore, it is most likely that a fluid. The criteria were different from show to show and changed as new showsgreater range of individuals are watching reality television today than in the past. were broadcast. Therefore, perceived reality may be a difficult concept to measure. Nabi et al. (2003) examined the genre of reality television programmingitself. Multidimensional space analysis, of all television shows, indicates that Papacharissi and Mendelson (2007) examine the gratifications sought fromreality television is a genre that is distinct from all of the other pre-existing reality TV. Concurrent with previous research, findings indicate that respondentsgenres; however, not all reality shows should be considered one cohesive genre reported watching reality TV mainly to pass the time or for entertainment(Nabi et al., 2003). Two dimensions were found in the analysis, with the first one purposes. The respondents who reported watching for entertainment were mostpresented as a continuum as to how suited the programs are for primetime likely to perceive the shows as realistic. Barton (2006) examined reality TVprogramming. The second dimension is fiction real. This is a continuum based on programming and gratifications obtained. Results indicated that the content of thewhether the programs were portrayed as fictional or realistic based shows. Some reality show influenced the gratifications obtained. A new gratification that has"reality" shows were listed as fictional because for some reason, the audience did not been studied was identified in this study, personal utility. This was one of thenot perceive the show as realistic (Nabi et al., 2003). strongest predictors of overall gratifications obtained. Personal utility refers to the viewer gaining something personally useful from the program. This research Interestingly, not all reality shows were classified as "reality," and not all provides support for viewers genre specific programming selection is related tofictional shows were classified as “fictional.” Some individuals included shows the gratifications obtained. Therefore it is important to understand that thethat were not necessarily reality based in their definition of reality programming viewers are watching for different reasons. These reasons may lead to differingbecause they perceived the shows as unrealistic (e.g., soap operas). Therefore, perception by viewers and thus differing effects.when studying reality television it is important to examine the subcategories