THE PROBLEM AND
Part1 of a scientific paper
1.1 Background of the Study
“Why did you conduct the study?”
--describes the circumstances that
suggested in the research.
Kalanchoe pinnata (Kataka-taka) have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of
chemical compound that are used to perform important biological functions and to
defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals.
Many of these consumed by humans and can be used to effectively treat the human
Medicinal plants have been identified in used through out human history. It finds
application in pharmaceutical cosmetic, agricultural and food history. The use of
medicinal herbs for curing disease has been documented in history of all civilizations.
The use of herbs to treat disease is almost universal among non-industrialized
societies, and is often more affordable than purchasing expensive modern
According to the World Health Organization (WHO)estimates that 80 percent of the
population of some Asia and African countries presently use herbal medicine for some
aspect of primary health care. Studies in the United States and Europe have shown that
their use is less common in clinical settings, but has become increasingly more in
recent years as scientific evidence about the effectiveness of herbal medicine has
become more widely available.
Kalanchoe pinnata was chosen to be studied because it comes in abundant source
and is available. In this study, isolated compounds from Kalanchoe pinnata underwent
partial characterization and were tested for antibacterial property against Escherichia
1.2 Statement of the Problem
“What did you study?”
--clearly, accurately and briefly states
the issue that was studied.
--may be stated either in the declarative
form or interrogative form.
The main problem of the study is to utilize
fish offal from boneless fish (C. chanos) into
burger. Specifically, it attempts to answer the
following research questions.
2. What is
Meant to be tested
--should be clear & brief.
--should be based on past experiences or
observations or on information gathered
from your research.
--must be testable.
Types of Hypotheses
1. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
stated in a declarative form.
Examples: a. Insect a develops resistance to Pesticide X.
b. If the concentration of Substance A is increased,
then plant growth will be reduced.
2. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS
Refers to populations and represents the vehicle by which
findings are generalized from the sample to the population.
a. When a sample of Insect A is regularly exposed to Pesticide
X for one week, 100% of the sample will die; None will
b. The mean heights of plants exposed to 0%, 10%, 20% and
30% Substance A are not significantly different.
1.4 Conceptual Framework
Is a general statement which forms the
frame of reference for your inquiry or
Sets out the rationale which underlies
--Why you do/What you do?
--How you do your research?
2 TYPES OF DIAGRAMS REPRESENTING
1. Relationships of the KEY CONCEPTS
involved in the study.
2. Relationships of the KEY VARIABLES to
The effect of Aloe vera extract on the
rate of growth and regeneration of
Effectiveness of culturing grouper
in fish cages using bread meal as
Growth of Planaria
1.5 Significance of the Study
The relevance of the research to felt
How the research output may be
directly useful to people?
The explanation of it is presented either
1. INDUCTIVE PERSPECTIVE –
particular to general
2. DEDUCTIVE PERSPECTIVE –
general to particular
Realizing the acute environmental hazards and
problems associated with the accumulation of mine
tailings in mining companies which one of our country’s,
and also of the world’s major industries, this research
intends to utilize these mine tailings, instead, as
alternative raw material for earthenware. Recycle and
compost, there is cash in trash is the Earthenware's’ 4th
commandment. (Philippine Star, April 4, 1999). These
earthenwares have potential commercial values:
earthenware vases as an export winner and ceramic
tiles for low cost housing project.
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of
Coverage of the study:
Research apparatus, equipment or
Any limitations in the reference
population, sample size
The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata
were percolated in 150c milliliters of
ethanol for two weeks. The crude extract
was subjected to phytochemical screening
test: test for alkaloids and tannins.
The Gas Chromatography-Mass
Spectra analysis was done for the
instrumentation at the Coca Cola Plant,
Sta. Rosa Laguna. The Microbial analysis
with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus
aureus and Candida albicans were done
at the Microbiological Research and
Services of the Natural Sciences
1.7 Definition of Terms
Includes terms which should be
interpreted in a manner unique to your
Includes all the important variables in the
The definitions may be:
1. CONCEPTUAL – based on concepts or
hypothetic ones which are usually
taken from dictionary, encyclopedia &
2. OPERATIONAL – based on observable
characteristics & how it is used in the
Based on your research title chosen,
formulate the ff.:
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
Scope & Delimitation
Definition of Terms
REMINDERS: Pass your NOTEBOOK and CLEAR
BOOK on Nov. 2 or 3, 2016.
LONG TEST on Nov. 10, 2016.
Pass your Chapter 1(Draft) on
November 2-4, 2016.
Presentation of Chapter 1 on
November 11, 2016.
Study well and ENJOY your
SEMBREAK. God bless!