RESEARCHERS MAP SIGNIFICANT OF FUNCTIONAL SEQUENCES OF MOUSE GENOME AND ACTIVATING NOTCH AND AKT GENE MAY TRIGGER CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA.
ALEJANDRO POSADA GARZON MEDICINE ESTUDENT III SEMESTER TEACHERLINA MARIA MARTINEZ SANCHEZ .MOLECULAR BIOLOGYMEDELLIN - COLOMBIA
The Human Genome is thetotal number of chromosomes in the body. The information contained in the genes has been decoded and allowsscience knowledge by genetic tests, what diseases a person may suffer in your life. Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancerous (malignant) in one of the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine.
Diagnosis and Interventionprevention of in the diseasediseases The human genome has three main benefits Study of the susceptibility to diseases
"We know, for example, thatonly one to two percent of thefunctional genome codes forproteins, but that there arehighly conserved regions in thegenome outside of protein-coding that affect genes anddisease development. Its clearthese regions do something orthey would have changed ordisappeared”
• Gene regulation encompasses allprocesses that affect the action of agene at the level of translation ortranscription, regulating theirfunctional products.• Misregulation of genes can resultin diseases like cancer.• The researchers identified differentsequences that promote or start geneactivity, enhance its activity and definewhere it occurs in the body duringdevelopment.
The authors showed thatthis investigation was justbeginning, a partial pictureof the functional genome.Additional studies will beneeded in other types ofcells and at differentstages of development. "Weve mapped and understand 11 percent of the genome," said Ren. "Theres still a long way to march."
I believe the future that this research willtherefore have a clear objective and theresults obtained have been very convincingand contributors. It seems very important,since it is a breakthrough that supports andstrengthens the scientific studies aboutgene therapy, in addition, these studies canunderstand the genetic origins of manydiseases, understand their biochemical basisand be defined accuracy from molecularbiology.
Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancerous(malignant) in one of the ducts thatcarry bile from the liver to the smallintestine, it was believed that it wasfrom abnormalities in cells of the bileducts, but in the study realized thatappeared when a type of liver cells aretransformed into an entirely differenttype.
Scientists produced by damage to the hepatocytes to observe the process offormation of hepatocellular carcinoma, but found the formation of acholangiocarcinoma. believed they had activated genes that reprogrammedcells aberrant hepatocytes in bile, able to form tumors, the main suspectswere NOTCH and AKT. Akt is a protein that can be Notch is a transmembrane regulated through the tumor protein that serves as a suppressor PTEN, which receptor for extracellular functions essentially as the signals and involved in several opposite of PI3K. signaling pathways during development
Plasmid CholangiocarcinomeThey used plasmids as delivery vehicles for increasing levels of NOTCHand AKT in the liver. Three weeks after injecting small growths observedtargets in the liver surface of mice, and five weeks after tumors hadspread through the liver. Hepatocytes tracked by a color and so showedthat cancer cells form tumors in the bile duct had actually begun ashepatocytes.
Researchers long believed thatceululas only had an address of"maturation" of stem cells todifferentiated adult cells. In thisresearch, and in recent yearshave shown that by acitvacionof certain genes, the maturecells can go back and be stemcells, or even change to becomeanother type of specialized cell.
This research seems very important, as they arelearning the molecular origin of cholangiocarcinomaand genes that lead to disease (Notch and AKT), whichis knowing you can reach a cure can also beunderstood that the liver may not return only tobecome stem cells, but also can become another celltype, and this seems very important to study thepathophysiology of alterations in the liver and biliarytract.antibodies are being used to treat the disease and arebeing effective, "Preliminary results with therapeuticantibodies are very encouraging." If encontran theright formula, would be the respueta for a type ofincurable cancer.
Gene therapy is the introduction ofexogenous genetic material to an affectedcell to correct a disease, it adds a normalfunctional gene to replace the abnormalgene, gene therapy seeks a definitive cure ofdiseases associated with product failures ofa gene due to abnormalities in DNA.In order to perform gene therapyprocedures have to know very well thebiochemical and molecular principles of thedisease and the affected cell population forthis study using the human genome (aprocess used in research).
The study of the genome has many benefits for medical help identify genes in DNA determines the nitrogenous bases that make up the DNA, genome research to help understand human molecules and genetic backgrounds, all seen from molecular biology.
This research has great medical utility as the ease with which a cell can be converted into another, explains the efficiency and speed of many types of cancer.This study also helps explainanother puzzle physician, thatthe incidence of bile duct canceris higher in people withhepatitis, since hepatitis wasbelieved that he had no actionon the biliary cells.
Having shown that Notch andAKT are genes that trigger thecancer process, the researchteam are looking for therapiesfor the disease, testing forantibodies that may reduce theactivity of genes and halt orreverse the growth of biliarytract cancers .
Martinez S, Lina Maria. Biología Molecular. 5 ed Medellín: UPB. FacMedicina.Researchers map significant portion of functional sequences of mouse genome.News-medicals, july 2, 2012Activating NOTCH and AKT gene may trigger cholangiocarcinoma. News-medicals, july 17, 2012