Plegable Biologia Molecular- Ana Maria Montufar


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Plegable Biologia Molecular- Ana Maria Montufar

  1. 1. Molecular Switch Controls the Destiny of Self-Eating Cells AND Discovered the Role of Noncoding 5S rRNA in Protecting the P53 Tumor Suppressor Gene ANA MARÍA MONTÚFAR PANTOJA UNIVERSIDAD PONTIFICIA BOLIVARIANA
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Since the "Human Genome Project", molecular biology took a big potential and became a science essential to all branches of medicine, because it allows the study of the entire human genetic information. In these times, medicine has been shows its importance, because this is necessary to the advance of knowledge of the pathology of human diseases, the diagnostic methods and the development of new therapeutic techniques.
  3. 3. FIRST NEW Molecular Switch Controls the Destiny of Self-Eating Cells This study by scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, University of Michigan, and University of California San Diego, USA. The main objective was discover whether autophagy can be affected by events in the cell nucleus.
  4. 4. FIRST NEW The autophagy is a process whereby the cell consumes parts of itself, sometimes to cleaning up abnormal proteins to protect the cell and when stressed by external circumstances. However this process sometimes leads to cell death, by which it needs a control.
  5. 5. FIRST NEW The researchers discovered a signal chain located in the nucleus serves as a kind of molecular switch that determines whether the cell dies or survives: DNA in is packed around histone proteins On which different enzymes can attach acetyl groups. Histone modification (epigenetic regulation) Some enzymes add the acetyl groups and other enzymes remove them. Influence gene expression without changing the DNA sequence.
  6. 6. FIRST NEW The research group found that the process of acetylation of histone H4, reduces the expression of genes related to autophagy. If this specific histone modification was blocked, the autophagic cells died.
  7. 7. FIRST NEW In my opinion this news gives a very important contribution to the study of the autophagy process, therefore to the investigation of the patology of different disease. The most important detail is the epigenetic regulation, because it can modify the histone without affecting the DNA sequence. This makes the investigation more makes it more accurate and objective, and thus be the first step of future techniques and studies.
  8. 8. SECOND NEW Discovered the Role of Noncoding 5S rRNA in Protecting the P53 Tumor Suppressor Gene The study by Cancer Metabolism group at the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Catalan Oncology Institute (ICO) and the Division of Hematology-Oncology of the University of Cincinnati, led by George Thomas
  9. 9. SECOND NEW The protein synthesis in ribosomes, using mRNA transduction, is necessary for cell growth. If this growth is not controlled, the cell can develop disorders such as cancer and anemia. In cases of extreme forms of aberrant cell growth, the p53 is activated to to induce a cell death program. In normal conditions, p53 is maintained at low levels to avoid damaging healthy cells. The Hdm2 is the enzyme that degrades p53 to maintained that levels.
  10. 10. SECOND NEW Ribosomes are composed of two subunits termed 40S and 60S. The formation of the 60S involves, L5, L11 and 5S rRNA. Damage to ribosomes or hyperactivated ribosome biogenesis. L5/L11/5S rRNA pre-ribosomal complex is redirected from nascent ribosomes to the binding and inhibition of Hdm2 Rise p53 Cell death
  11. 11. SECOND NEW • The Thomas team showed that L5 and L11 regulate Hdm2 in a mutually dependent manner and that 5S rRNA that regulates Hdm2 is also a positive effector of Hdm4, a negative regulator of p53. • Giulio Donati, the first author of these studies, demontrated the existence of the L5/L11/5S rRNA pre-ribosomal complex and its role as a tumor suppressor.
  12. 12. SECOND NEW In my opinion the development of the mentioned mechanism is quite important in the search for a treatment of cancer associated with the ribosome biogenesis, because is something new and it can be a breakthrough in the study of tumors.
  13. 13. MEDICAL UTILITY First New According to Dr Bertrand Joseph at Karolinska Institutet's Department of Oncology-Pathology, who headed the study, all they have to do is select a disease model and test whether there's anything to be influenced whit the new signal network. So, this represents a potential way to develop a news treatments to many diseases that involves the autophagy in its patology, such us ancer, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammations, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as in physiological adaptation to exercise, the development of the immune system and ageing.
  14. 14. MEDICAL UTILITY This study took a very important step in the research of autophagy process, but still lacks many investigations to clarify and explain the specific method and epigenetic regulation to use and modify the genes of expression of autophagy and thus develop and improve techniques for the treatment of the diseases, because they have to search the best way to block that specific histone to influencing autophagy, avoiding side effects.
  15. 15. MEDICAL UTILITY Second New The cancer is a disease that has had a great impact on the world's population, and its treatments are so invasive and sometimes nonspecific, therefore when the patients undergo these procedures are conditioned to suffer negative changes in their body, because the treatment destroys the tumoral cells but also affects the benign cells. Therefore the discovery published in this new, present a other alternative based on molecular biology, apparently better than chemotherapy and radiation.
  16. 16. MEDICAL UTILITY Many of tumors have mutations in p53 or overexpress Hdm2 or Hdm4, which blocks the activity of p53. So the researchers have to working in the link between ribosome biogenesis and cancer, starting on a way or technique that activates Hdm2-p53 checkpoint to destroy tumor cells.
  17. 17. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Martínez S. Lina María. Biología Molecular, 5 ed. Medellín, UPB, Facultad de Medicina • Molecular Switch Controls the Destiny of Self-Eating Cells 2248.htm • Discovered the Role of Noncoding 5S rRNA in Protecting the P53 Tumor Suppressor Gene 0521.htm