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Transcription laumore

  1. 1. Laura Maria Moreno León Medical student UPB 2013
  2. 2. Molecular biology Medical student 3° Semester Teacher Lina Maria Martinez. Agosto 26- 2013 Medellin, Colombia Bibliography Medical Utility For many years along with the advance of science It has tried to find effective treatments and determinative to ending with many diseases that afflicting humanity. It is for this reason that studying gene transcription we can have results very valuable to meet this great goal. the definition of Dr. Polychronakos about transcription is very clear: “ DNA is the blueprint according to which our body is constructed and functions. Cells "read" this blueprint by transcribing the information into RNA, which is then used as a template to construct proteins -- the body's building blocks. Genes are scanned based on the association of their RNA with ribosomes -- particles in which protein synthesis takes place” This definition helps us understand that transcription is the first step and one of the most important for gene expression and along with this the production of proteins in translation. Through these studies, we can now better understand the effect of genetic variants in the translation of RNA to protein and thus to find an effective way to develop new treatments for various diseases. Moreover the discovery of transcription factor HLH-30 looks very promising for modern medicine because this modulate the autophagy. It is activated under conditions of absence of nutrients, allowing cells to degrade proteins and organelles to components that can be reused, so that autophagy plays an important role in development and cellular growth. There are also closely related diseases with defects in autophagy like neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, so I find the transcription factor HLH-30 is very important to increase cellular longevity and correct errors in the coding of proteins that can cause disease. Laura Maria Moreno León Transcription • COOPER, GM. La celula. Cuarta edicion. Madrid, Espana. Marban, 2008. 113, 348 p. •MARTINEZ SANCHES, Lina María. Biología Molecular. Septima edicion. Medellin, Colombia. UPB, facultad de medicina 2012. 89-96 p.
  3. 3. Key protein that modulated organismal aging identified Science Daily (Aug. 8, 2013) Scientists at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute have identified a key factor that regulates the autophagy process, a kind of cleansing mechanism for cells in which waste material and cellular debris is gobbled up to protect cells from damage, and in turn, modulates aging. The findings, published in Nature Communications today, could lead to the development of new therapies for age-related disorders that are characterized by a breakdown in this process. Malene Hansen, Ph.D., associate professor in Sanford-Burnham's Del E. Webb Center for Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research, and her team as well as collaborators found a transcription factor -- an on/off switch for genes -- that induces autophagy in animal models, including the nematodeC. elegans, the primary model organism studied in the Hansen lab. This transcription factor, called HLH-30, coordinates the autophagy process by regulating genes with functions in different steps of the process. Two years ago, researchers discovered a similar transcription factor, or orthologue, called TFEB that regulates autophagy in mammalian cells. "HLH-30 is critical to ensure longevity in all of the long-lived C. elegans strains we tested," says Hansen. "These models require active HLH- 30 to extend lifespan, possibly by inducing autophagy. We found this activation not only in worm longevity models, but also in dietary-restricted mice, and we propose the mechanism might be conserved in higher organisms as well." HLH-30 is the first transcription factor reported to function in all known autophagy-dependent longevity paradigms, strengthening the emerging concept that autophagy can contribute to long lifespan. In a previous study, Hansen and her colleagues discovered that increased autophagy has an anti-aging effect, possibly by promoting the activity of an autophagy- related, fat-digesting enzyme. With these findings, scientists now know a key component of the regulation of autophagy in aging. Hansen's team is now working to find therapeutic targets, particularly upstream kinases, molecules that change protein function, which might actually phosphorylate the transcription factor to alter its function. "We already have a clue about the protein TOR, a master regulator that influences metabolism and aging in many species, but there might be other kinases that regulate HLH-30 or TFEB activity as well," says lead study author Louis René Lapierre, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Hansen's laboratory, and a recent recipient of a K99/R00 Pathway to Independence career award from the National Institutes of Health. Autophagy has become the subject of intense scientific scrutiny over the past few years, particularly since the process -- or its malfunction -- has been implicated in many human diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's, as well as cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. HLH-30 and TFEB may represent attractive targets for the development of new therapeutic agents against such diseases Understanding the effects of genes on Human traits Science Daily ( July 31, 2013) Recent technological developments in genomics have revealed a large number of genetic influences on common complex diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, cancer or schizophrenia. However, discovering a genetic variant predisposing to a disease is only a first step. To apply this knowledge towards prevention or cure, including tailoring treatment to the patient’s genetic profile –also know as personalized medicine- we need to know as personalized medicine- we need to know how this genetic variant affects health. In a study published today in Nature communications, Dr. Constantin Polychronakos from the Research Institute of the McGill University and The University Centre, and collaborators from McGill University and The university of Texas, propose a novel approach for scanning the entire genome that will help us understand the effect of genes on human traits. “ This completely new methodology really opens up different ways of understanding how the genome affects the biology of the human body,” says Dr. Polychronakos, corresponding author of the study and Director of the Endocrine Genetics Laboratory at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and Professor in the Department of Pediatrics and human Genetics at McGill University. DNA is the blueprint according to which our body is constructed and functions. Cells “read” this blueprint by transcribing the information into RNA, which is then used as a template to construct proteins –the body's buildings blocks. Genes are scanned based on the association of their RNA with ribosome – particles in which protein synthesis takes place. “ until now, researchers have been focusing on the effects of disease- associated genomic variants on DNA-to- RNA transcription, instead of the challenging question of effects on RNA to protein translation,” says Dr. Polychronakos. “Thanks to this methodology, we can now better understand the effects of genetic variants on translation of RNA to protein – a powerful way of developing biomarkers for personalized and new therapies” Introduction In 2006 Roger David Kornberg won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for describing the structure of RNA polymerase enzyme complex, important enzymes in gene transcription in eukaryotes, because the DNA used as a template to synthesize RNA. As mentioned above transcription is a very important factor in genetic expression, because molecules of RNA are synthesized from molds of DNA and proteins were synthesized from molds DNA, in translation. La transcription is made thanks to enzymes RNA polymerases. In this folding we can read about two current news of how transcription of DNA to RNA and as the final synthesis of proteins can be a key factor in the creation of new treatments definitely ending with common diseases such as cancer or diabetes, that although there is great variety of treatments to control it, the science can not to find a cure, until this moment. . I find it very interesting and important to know our genome and to know how it affects the biology of our body, because we can prevent or to cure diseases that are common in our environment but difficult to treat it. I I think that autophagy is an important mechanism in cell growth and development, and discovering of the factor HLH- 30 that regulates autophagy leads us to a very important step in finding the formula for ¨eternal youth¨ or at least to be able to cure diseases that only until this moment it have been controlled.
  4. 4. INTRODUCCION: In 2006 Roger David Kornberg won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for describing the structure of RNA polymerase enzyme complex, important enzymes in gene transcription in eukaryotes, because the DNA used as a template to synthesize RNA. As mentioned above transcription is a very important factor in genetic expression, because molecules of RNA are synthesized from molds of DNA and proteins were synthesized from RNA molds in translation. La transcription is made thanks to enzymes arn polymerases. In this folding we can read about two current news of how transcription of DNA to RNA and as the final synthesis of proteins can be a key factor in the creation of new treatments definitely ending with common diseases such as cancer or diabetes, that although there is great variety of treatments to control it, the science can not to find a cure, until this moment. There are three types of RNA polymerases in eukaryotics. RNA polymerase I transcribes the three larger molecules rRNA (28S, 18S and 5.8S), RNA polymerase II transcribes protein coding genes to producer mRNA and finally RNA polymerase III transcribes genes encoding tRNA and 5S rRNA. The transcription has three phases: Iniciation, enlongation and termination
  5. 5. Understanding the effects of genes on Human traits Science Daily ( July 31, 2013) Recent technological developments in genomics have revealed a large number of genetic influences on common complex diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, cancer or schizophrenia. However, discovering a genetic variant predisposing to a disease is only a first step. To apply this knowledge towards prevention or cure, including tailoring treatment to the patient’s genetic profile –also know as personalized medicine- we need to know as personalized medicine- we need to know how this genetic variant affects health. In a study published today in Nature communications, Dr. Constantin Polychronakos from the Research Institute of the McGill University and The University Centre, and collaborators from McGill University and The university of Texas, propose a novel approach for scanning the entire genome that will help us understand the effect of genes on human traits. “ This completely new methodology really opens up different ways of understanding how the genome affects the biology of the human body,” says Dr. Polychronakos, corresponding author of the study and Director of the Endocrine Genetics Laboratory at the Montreal Children’s Hospital and Professor in the Department of Pediatrics and human Genetics at McGill University. DNA is the blueprint according to which our body is constructed and functions. Cells “read” this blueprint by transcribing the information into RNA, which is then used as a template to construct proteins –the body's buildings blocks. Genes are scanned based on the association of their RNA with ribosome –particles in which protein synthesis takes place. “ until now, researchers have been focusing on the effects of disease- associated genomic variants on DNA-to- RNA transcription, instead of the challenging question of effects on RNA to protein translation,” says Dr. Polychronakos. “Thanks to this methodology, we can now better understand the effects of genetic variants on translation of RNA to protein – a powerful way of developing biomarkers for personalized and new therapies” I find it very interesting and important to know our genome and to know how it affects the biology of our body, because we can prevent or to cure diseases that are common in our
  6. 6.  Personalized medicine studies to each individual and their genetic code to prevent disease or if you already have a diseases to find the most appropriate treatment, because it has been found that most diseases have a great genetic influence, so that gene transcription plays a role very important because it is this that is responsible for replicating DNA, with all the genetic information good or bad that it can carry.
  7. 7.  Diabetes, asthma, cancer or schizophrenia are diseases that they have a genetic influence, it is transmitted through DNA that parents transmit to their children.  Some diseases can prevent such as diabetes, but in most cases, we are destined to suffer it. So if we want to understand it, we have to study the transcript of our genes, Maybe the science would correct these problems and we have a much healthier life.
  8. 8.  Dr. Constantin Polychronakos proposes a new approach for scanning the entire genome that will help us understand the effect of genes on human traits.
  9. 9. I find it very interesting and important to know our genome and to know how it affects the biology of our body, because we can prevent or to cure diseases that are common in our environment but difficult to treat it
  10. 10. Key protein that modulated organismal aging identified Science Daily (Aug. 8, 2013) Scientists at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute have identified a key factor that regulates the autophagy process, a kind of cleansing mechanism for cells in which waste material and cellular debris is gobbled up to protect cells from damage, and in turn, modulates aging. The findings, published in Nature Communications today, could lead to the development of new therapies for age-related disorders that are characterized by a breakdown in this process. Malene Hansen, Ph.D., associate professor in Sanford-Burnham's Del E. Webb Center for Neuroscience, Aging and Stem Cell Research, and her team as well as collaborators found a transcription factor -- an on/off switch for genes -- that induces autophagy in animal models, including the nematodeC. elegans, the primary model organism studied in the Hansen lab. This transcription factor, called HLH-30, coordinates the autophagy process by regulating genes with functions in different steps of the process. Two years ago, researchers discovered a similar transcription factor, or orthologue, called TFEB that regulates autophagy in mammalian cells. "HLH-30 is critical to ensure longevity in all of the long-lived C. elegans strains we tested," says Hansen. "These models require active HLH- 30 to extend lifespan, possibly by inducing autophagy. We found this activation not only in worm longevity models, but also in dietary-restricted mice, and we propose the mechanism might be conserved in higher organisms as well." HLH-30 is the first transcription factor reported to function in all known autophagy-dependent longevity paradigms, strengthening the emerging concept that autophagy can contribute to long lifespan. In a previous study, Hansen and her colleagues discovered that increased autophagy has an anti-aging effect, possibly by promoting the activity of an autophagy- related, fat-digesting enzyme. With these findings, scientists now know a key component of the regulation of autophagy in aging. Hansen's team is now working to find therapeutic targets, particularly upstream kinases, molecules that change protein function, which might actually phosphorylate the transcription factor to alter its function. "We already have a clue about the protein TOR, a master regulator that influences metabolism and aging in many species, but there might be other kinases that regulate HLH-30 or TFEB activity as well," says lead study author Louis René Lapierre, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Hansen's laboratory, and a recent recipient of a K99/R00 Pathway to Independence career award from the National Institutes of Health. Autophagy has become the subject of intense scientific scrutiny over the past few years, particularly since the process -- or its malfunction -- has been implicated in many human diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's, as well as cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. HLH-30 and TFEB may represent attractive targets for the development of new therapeutic agents against such diseases I I think that autophagy is an important mechanism in cell growth and development, and discovering of the factor HLH- 30 that regulates autophagy leads us to a very important step in finding the formula for ¨eternal youth¨ or at least to be able to cure diseases that only until this moment it have been controlled.
  11. 11.  Scientists identified a key factor that regulates the autophagy process.  Autophagy is a a kind of cleansing mechanism for cells in which waste material and cellular debris is gobbled up to protect cells from damage, and in turn, modulates aging.
  12. 12.  Scientists found in nematodeC. Elegans, that is a animal model a transcription factor, called HLH-30, this coordinates the autophagy process by regulating genes with functions in different steps of the process.
  13. 13.  Being able to control autophagy with factor HLH-30 is a big step because it is known that autophagy has an anti- aging effect.  Autophagy´s Malfunction also has been implicated in many human diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease , cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders, so HLH-30 and TFEB may be represent attractive targets for the development of new therapeutic agents against these diseases This shows the nuclear localization of HLH- 30/TFEB in C. elegans. (Credit: Sanford- Burnham Medical Research Institute)
  14. 14. I think that autophagy is an important mechanism in cell growth and development, and discovering of the factor HLH- 30 that regulates autophagy leads us to a very important step in finding the formula for ¨eternal youth¨ or at least to be able to cure diseases that only until this moment it have been controlled.
  15. 15. Medical Utility For many years along with the advance of science It has tried to find effective treatments and determinative to ending with many diseases that afflicting humanity. It is for this reason that studying gene transcription we can have results very valuable to meet this great goal. the definition of Dr. Polychronakos about transcription is very clear: “ DNA is the blueprint according to which our body is constructed and functions. Cells "read" this blueprint by transcribing the information into RNA, which is then used as a template to construct proteins -- the body's building blocks. Genes are scanned based on the association of their RNA with ribosomes -- particles in which protein synthesis takes place” This definition helps us understand that transcription is the first step and one of the most important for gene expression and along with this the production of proteins in translation. Through these studies, we can now better understand the effect of genetic variants in the translation of RNA to protein and thus to find an effective way to develop new treatments for various diseases. Moreover the discovery of transcription factor HLH-30 looks very promising for modern medicine because this modulate the autophagy. It is activated under conditions of absence of nutrients, allowing cells to degrade proteins and organelles to components that can be reused, so that autophagy plays an important role in development and cellular growth. There are also closely related diseases with defects in autophagy like neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, so I find the transcription factor HLH-30 is very important to increase cellular longevity and correct errors in the coding of proteins that can cause disease.
  16. 16.  It is a medical breakthrough to know the genes and their impact on diseases and their treatments that are very common these days in order to provide a better solution to patients.
  17. 17.  The protein HLH- 30 that modulates autophagy is a great discovery because with this we can find methods to intervene directly in autophagy and we could correct genetic defects and deseases in everybody.
  18. 18. In both news we can see how if we intervene directly in the transcription process, we can get excellent results to treat each patient according to their needs and it is not as it has been doing all these years with ineffective treatment that is applied to anyone regardless of their genome.
  19. 19.  COOPER, GM. La célula. Cuarta edición. Madrid, España. Marban, 2008. 113, 348 p.  MARTINEZ SANCHES, Lina María. Biología Molecular. Séptima edición. Medellín, Colombia. UPB, facultad de medicina 2012. 89-96 p.  Key protein that modulated organismal aging identified Science Daily (Aug. 8, 2013)  Understanding the effects of genes on Human traits Science Daily ( July 31, 2013).

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