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types of wood and joints

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TIMBER
TIMBER
Timber:
Wood suitable for building or other engineering purposes
is called timber.
Uses of Timber :
Timber is used for the following categories of works:
1. For Furniture and cabinet making.
2. For light packing cases.
3. For heavy packing cases (for machinery).
4. For making tool handles, toys and turnery articles.
5. For making veneers and plywood.
STRUCTURE OF TREE
On examining cross
section of tree it is found
that there is a series of
consecutive rings. These
rings are called annual
rings and each
represents the growth of
one year.
Pith:
It is the first formed portion
of the stem of tree,
around which the annual
rings are formed.
STRUCTURE OF TREE
Heart Wood:
Innermost rings surrounding
the pith constitute the
heart wood. This wood is
darker in color, stronger,
more compact and
durable.
Sapwood:
Outer annual rings of the
tree constitute the sap
wood . Compared with
heart wood, sap wood is
lighter in color, weaker and
more liable to decay.
STRUCTURE OF TREE
Bark:
It is the outermost protective
covering of cells and
woody fibres on a tree.
Cambium Layer:
Outermost one ring between
the bark and sapwood
which is not yet converted
into wood is known as
cambium layer. In due
course, cambium layer
changes to sapwood.
CLASSIFICATION OF TRESS

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Wood(1).pptx

  • 2. TIMBER Timber: Wood suitable for building or other engineering purposes is called timber. Uses of Timber : Timber is used for the following categories of works: 1. For Furniture and cabinet making. 2. For light packing cases. 3. For heavy packing cases (for machinery). 4. For making tool handles, toys and turnery articles. 5. For making veneers and plywood.
  • 3. STRUCTURE OF TREE On examining cross section of tree it is found that there is a series of consecutive rings. These rings are called annual rings and each represents the growth of one year. Pith: It is the first formed portion of the stem of tree, around which the annual rings are formed.
  • 4. STRUCTURE OF TREE Heart Wood: Innermost rings surrounding the pith constitute the heart wood. This wood is darker in color, stronger, more compact and durable. Sapwood: Outer annual rings of the tree constitute the sap wood . Compared with heart wood, sap wood is lighter in color, weaker and more liable to decay.
  • 5. STRUCTURE OF TREE Bark: It is the outermost protective covering of cells and woody fibres on a tree. Cambium Layer: Outermost one ring between the bark and sapwood which is not yet converted into wood is known as cambium layer. In due course, cambium layer changes to sapwood.
  • 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOFT WOOD AND HARD WOOD: Soft woods: 1. It is light in weight and color. 2. Annual rings are very distinct. 3. It is comparatively weaker and spilts easily. 4. It is strong for resisting tensile forces. 5. Its texture is soft and regular. They are evergreen. Deodar, Chir, pine are the best examples.
  • 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOFT WOOD AND HARD WOOD: Hardwood: 1. The wood is comparatively heavier and is darker in color. 2. The annual rings are not distinct. 3. It is hard and difficult to work upon. 4. It resists shearing stresses. They include oak, teak, she sham are the best examples. They have broad leaves they shed their leaves.
  • 9. COMPARISON OF SOFTWOOD AND HARDWOOD * Resin in the most specific use of the term is a hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, particularly coniferous trees. Resins are valued for their chemical properties and associated uses, such as the production of varnishes, adhesives and food glazing agents.
  • 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TIMBER 1. It should be from the heart of a sound tree and be free from sap. 2. It should have straight and close fibres. 3. It should be of uniform color. 4. It should give a clear ringing sound when struck. Dull heavy sound is a sign of internal decay. 5. It should have regular annual rings. 6. Timbers with narrow annual rings are generally the strongest.
  • 11. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD TIMBER 7. Freshly cut surface should give sweet smell. 8. It should have bright and smooth surface when planned. Dull appearance is a sign of defective timber. 9. Out of same variety of timber, darker and heavier pieces are stronger.
  • 12. SEASONING: The purpose of seasoning is to reduce the moisture content in the wood to a level appropriate to the use of the objects made from the wood. This prevents changes in the dimensions and shape of the objects, eliminates wood rot, increases the strength of the wood, reduces the weight of the objects, strengthens glued joints, and improves the quality of finishing. Timber contains 70 percent of moisture .the objects made of wood be deformed whether the moisture penetrates or absorbed. Therefore seasoning of wood is done in order to ensure that they don’t deteriote the object.
  • 13. METHODS OF SEASONING Natural seasoning The older method in which the timber is subjected to controlled temperature, proper aeration is known as natural seasoning. Artificial or kiln seasoning: The environment in which the wood subjected to hot air blown by us under our control is known as kiln or artificial seasoning. Chemical seasoning: We coat a certain chemical which has low vapour pressure.
  • 14. TIMBER Wood/timber is destroyed by three agents  Fire burners: Timber is combustible material. It can catch fire but cannot catch it by itself. It is inflammable. We can retard the time of fire by certain chemicals such as boric and aluminum phosphate which would produce moisture and retard the fire spreading.  Fungus: This is a plant which is not capable of producing. Its food depend on other materials 30 %of moisture present are favorable for fungus.  Insect attack:(beetle, wasps, termite) termites are very important .it is very difficult to control its attack. heptachloro was used previously to prevent termite.
  • 15. PRESERVATION OF TIMBER: Methods of preserving:  Painting: A paint when applied to timber acts not only as a good preservative but also it enhances the appearance of the surface so treated.  Charring: lower ends of the posts that are to be embedded in the ground are generally charred with a view to prevent dry rot and attack of worms.  Tarring: It consist in coating with tar. Embedded portions of timber fence posts, ends of door and window frames are usually tarred.
  • 16. WOOD PRODUCTS Veneer boards:  Veneers are those thin sheets of wood that are peeled off, sliced or sawn from a log of wood having attractive and artistic arrangement of grains. Logs of wood are converted into veeners by either rotary veneer cutters or by veneer slicing machines. Thickness of these sheets varies from 0.4mm to 6mm. These veneers are glued to inferior timber surfaces to improve the appearance and to form decorative and artistic designs.  Walnut, teak and rose wood are timbers commonly used for conversion into veneers.
  • 17. WOOD PRODUCTS Ply wood: Veneers used for making plywood are known as piles and plywoods are made by glueing together piles in odd numbers. It is one of the most widely used wood products. It is flexible, inexpensive, workable, re-usable, and can usually be locally manufactured. Plywood is used instead of plain wood because of its resistance to cracking, shrinkage, splitting, and twisting/warping, and its general high degree of strength.