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Wood

P.P.T. Describes difference between wood and timber. The content in the Presentation are very useful.

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Topic:- WOOD
By:- Umang Sharma
Course:- HDID
Academy of Applied Arts
• It’s common knowledge that wood comes from trees.
• Wood is an organic material.
• It is a hard fibrous material that forms the main substance of the trunk or
branches of a tree or shrub, used for fuel or timber.
• As a tree grows, lower branches often die, and their bases may become
overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a
type of imperfection known as a knot.
• A distinction that can be made between types of wood is the label
of hardwood or softwood.
• Wood is used for Various Purposes such as Making Timber, Construction
Materials, Fuel, Tools, Furniture, Utensils, Houses etc.
• Words that describes wood are Hard, rough, Strong, textured, Flexible,
Natural, fibrous,
Hardwood Tree
Softwood Texture
Hardwood Trunk
Softwood TrunkSoftwood Tree
Hardwood Texture
Wood Timber
The hard fibrous material that forms the
main substance of the trunk or branches
of a tree or shrub is Termed as Wood.
It is referred to any stage of the wood
after the tree has been cut down.
Solid wood is normal wood that is used
for various purposes such as Tools, Fuel,
Houses, Utensils, Art crafts etc.
Timber is wood that is used only for
engineering , construction & industrial
purposes .
Wood also mediates the transfer of water
and nutrients to the leaves and other
growing tissues.
Timber is also known as Lumbar that is
sawed wood meant for construction in
the Form of Boards.
Wood may also refer to other plant
materials with comparable properties,
and to material engineered from wood,
or wood chips or fiber.
Timber can be either rough or finished.
The rough timber is the raw material,
which can be processed and then used
for a variety of functions.
Dominant uses of wood is for furniture
and building construction.
It usually require additional cutting and
shaping before it can be used.
A Fresh timber which is obtained From Trees contains about 30%-40% sap or
moisture. This Sap is very harmful for the life of timber. Therefore it is very Imp. To
remove the sap by applying some special Methods. All the methods which are used
to remove the Sap from timber is termed as Seasoning of Timber.
Advantages Of Seasoned Timber :-
It has Reduced weight,
It is strong and durable,
It has resistance to decay and rot,
It takes high polish ,
It is easier to work,
It has more life.
Natural Seasoning
Artificial Seasoning
Water Seasoning
The main types of Timber Seasoning are as follows:-
Natural Artificial Water

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Wood

  • 1. Topic:- WOOD By:- Umang Sharma Course:- HDID Academy of Applied Arts
  • 2. • It’s common knowledge that wood comes from trees. • Wood is an organic material. • It is a hard fibrous material that forms the main substance of the trunk or branches of a tree or shrub, used for fuel or timber. • As a tree grows, lower branches often die, and their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. • A distinction that can be made between types of wood is the label of hardwood or softwood. • Wood is used for Various Purposes such as Making Timber, Construction Materials, Fuel, Tools, Furniture, Utensils, Houses etc. • Words that describes wood are Hard, rough, Strong, textured, Flexible, Natural, fibrous,
  • 3. Hardwood Tree Softwood Texture Hardwood Trunk Softwood TrunkSoftwood Tree Hardwood Texture
  • 4. Wood Timber The hard fibrous material that forms the main substance of the trunk or branches of a tree or shrub is Termed as Wood. It is referred to any stage of the wood after the tree has been cut down. Solid wood is normal wood that is used for various purposes such as Tools, Fuel, Houses, Utensils, Art crafts etc. Timber is wood that is used only for engineering , construction & industrial purposes . Wood also mediates the transfer of water and nutrients to the leaves and other growing tissues. Timber is also known as Lumbar that is sawed wood meant for construction in the Form of Boards. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Timber can be either rough or finished. The rough timber is the raw material, which can be processed and then used for a variety of functions. Dominant uses of wood is for furniture and building construction. It usually require additional cutting and shaping before it can be used.
  • 5. A Fresh timber which is obtained From Trees contains about 30%-40% sap or moisture. This Sap is very harmful for the life of timber. Therefore it is very Imp. To remove the sap by applying some special Methods. All the methods which are used to remove the Sap from timber is termed as Seasoning of Timber. Advantages Of Seasoned Timber :- It has Reduced weight, It is strong and durable, It has resistance to decay and rot, It takes high polish , It is easier to work, It has more life.
  • 6. Natural Seasoning Artificial Seasoning Water Seasoning The main types of Timber Seasoning are as follows:- Natural Artificial Water
  • 7. Natural Seasoning:- In this seasoning , timber is dried by direct action of wind, air and sun . In this process timber logs are arranged one over the other, keeping some distance between them for air circulation of fresh air. This type of seasoning requires few months to over a year.
  • 8. Artificial Seasoning:- a. Kiln Seasoning b. Chemical Seasoning c. Electric Seasoning A. KILN Seasoning:- Under this process timber is placed in a chamber with some special heating arrangement. It is important to keep heating system in control other wise timber will crack or wrap. The time Required for this seasoning s 3-12 days.
  • 9. B. Chemical Seasoning:- Under this process Carbon dioxide , ammonium carbonate or urea are used as an agents for seasoning . In this process inner surface of timber dries First than the outer side. The time Required for this seasoning s 30-40 days.
  • 10. C. Electric Seasoning:- In this type of seasoning , electric current is passed through the timber Logs. The time Required for this seasoning s 05-08 Hours.
  • 11. Water Seasoning:- In this type of seasoning, timber logs are kept immersed whole in the flowing water . The sap present in the timber is washed away, after that logs are taken out of water and are kept in open air so that the water can be dried up by air. The time Required for this seasoning is 02-04 Weeks
  • 12. Most Common defects in Timber are:- 1. Shakes 2. Bow 3. Twist 4. Split 5. Knotholes 6. Wane 7. Cup 8. Checks 9. Crook
  • 15. Hard Wood Soft Wood Hard wood have more complex structure Soft wood have less complex structure Dark in colour Light in colour Slow Growth rate Faster rate of growth Higher Density Lower Density Hard in structure Softer than Hardwood Heavy in weight Light in weight Fire Resistant Poor Fire resistant Strong in compression and tension Strength in tension but week in sheer Angiosperms Conifers
  • 18. It is also known as Man made wood. It includes a range of wood products which are manufactured by binding or fixing the strands, particles, fibres, veneers, boards of wood etc together with adhesive to form composite materials. Engineered wood products are used in variety of applications from home construction, industrial products to commercial buildings. Typically, engineered wood products are made from the hardwoods and softwoods used to manufacture lumber.
  • 19. Veneer Block Board Plywood Particle BoardLaminateMDF/HDF
  • 20. Plywood is a wood structural panel which is manufactured from sheets of cross-laminated veneer and bonded under heat and pressure with durable, moisture-resistant adhesives. By alternating the grain direction of the veneers from layer to layer in both directions are maximized. Sizes available are:- 6’x3’ 6’x4’ 7’x3’ 7’x4’ 8’x3’ 8’x4’ Thickness available are:- 3mm-35mm
  • 21. A compound wood board consisting of nearly square strips of softwood placed side by side and sandwiched between veneer panels, often of hardwood. It can also be defined as a plywood board in which veneer layers used in the core are replaced by blocks of wood, the direction of grain of the blocks running at right angles to that of the adjacent veneer Sizes available are:- 6’x3’ 6’x4’ 7’x3’ 7’x4’ 8’x3’ 8’x4’ Thickness available are:- 16mm, 19mm, 25mm
  • 22. Medium-density fiber board, is made by breaking down hardwood or softwood residuals into wood fibers, combining it with wax and a resin binder, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. MDF is generally denser than plywood. It is made up of separated fibers, but can be used as a building material similar in application to plywood. Sizes available are:- 8’x4’ Thickness available are:- 4mm,6mm,12mm,18mm, 25mm
  • 23. Sizes available are:- 8’x4’ Thickness available are:- 8mm,12mm,16mm,18mm ,25mm,35mm Hardboard, also called high-density fiberboard (HDF), is a type of fiberboard. It is similar to particle board and medium-density fiberboard, but is denser and much stronger and harder because it is made out of exploded wood fibers that have been highly compressed. Unlike particle board, it will not split or crack.
  • 24. Sizes available are:- 6’x3’ 6’x4’ 7’x3’ 7’x4’ 8’x3’ 8’x4’ 8’x6’ Thickness available are:- 9mm, 12mm, 18mm, 25mm Particle board is manufactured from wood chips, sawmill shavings, or even sawdust, and a synthetic resin or other suitable binder, which is pressed and extruded. Particle board is cheaper, denser and more uniform than conventional wood and plywood and is substituted for them when cost is more important than strength and appearance.
  • 25. Sizes available are:- 6’x3’ 6’x4’ 7’x3’ 7’x4’ 8’x3’ 8’x4’ Thickness available are:- 4mm, 6mm, 9mm, 12mm, 16mm, 19mm Veneer is produced by bonding thin wood Grained veneers together in a large billet. The grain of all veneers in the billet is parallel to the long direction. It is mainly used for decorative purposes.
  • 26. Sizes available are:- 8’x4’ Thickness available are:- 0.6mm-2mm A wood laminate is a thin sheet of material used to cover the core of a wood project in order to change the appearance of the material. Laminates may be any material.
  • 27. Different types of wood substitutes are as follows:- 1. Hemp 2. Bamboo 3. Wood composites 4. Plastic 5. Cork 6. Cardboard 7. Newspaper 8. Straw Wood substitutes are building products that are not graded as lumber . Substitute of wood contain wooden fibers and a mixture of plastic (Wood-plastic composites-WPC) or cement, glue and other materials required.
  • 28. 1. Hemp:- It is a fast-growing and sustainable crop that generates more construction-grade fiber than most trees and other crops. It can be used in place of lumber and a wide range of other materials. It is also used in insulation process.
  • 29. 2. Bamboo:- It is often considered a wood, but this grass is really a wood alternative. It has been called the world’s most useful . Bamboo is fast-growing but at least as strong as some slow-growth woods.. It is also used in furniture and a wide variety of other construction materials. .
  • 30. 3. Wood Composites:- As the name suggests, composite materials combines wood with recycled plastics or other components. Composites are more sustainable way to use trees. Wood Composite products also have other advantages over hardwood. They require virtually no finishing, staining or maintenance, and are very durable.
  • 31. 4. Plastic wood :- Another growing segment of the market is basically the plastic composites without any wood fibers. Like composite decking, plastic wood requires no maintenance. Of course, it’s hard to make plastic look exactly like wood, so it’s not a perfect aesthetic substitute. However, in many other ways, composites and plastic wood are good hardwood alternatives.
  • 32. 5. Cork:- Cork is made with bark rather than the core of a tree. That means it re- grows faster and is more sustainable in some ways than many traditional wood products. It is a popular flooring material, and is growing into other areas of construction and remodeling.
  • 33. 6. Cardboard :- Cardboard construction isn’t just for kids. A couple of plywood substitutes on the market are made primarily with recycled cardboard. It can be used as a packaging box as well.
  • 34. 7. Newspaper:- Recycled newspaper is being used to create fiberboard products for roof decking and much more. Recycle Of Newspaper is done up to 850 tons each day into construction materials.
  • 35. 8. Straw:- Look closely at plywood. The fibers look a lot like straw, so it’s no stretch to imagine particleboard from a variety of straw varieties, including wheat, oat and flax straw. All these are available and useful alternatives to traditional pressed wood products.
  • 36. These are Different types of woods used for making Furniture as per the desired Finish and quality. 1. ASH (WHITE ASH) 2. BEECH 3. CHERRY 4. MAHOGANY 5. MAPLE 6. OAK 7. PINE 8. POPLAR 9. REDWOOD 10. ROSEWOOD 11. SATINWOOD 12. TEAK 13. CEDAR 14. WALNUT
  • 37. 1. ASH (WHITE ASH) Ash is a durable hardwood known fundamentally for its fabulous flexible capacities ,it is utilized for bent woods and in making bent furniture parts needing quality strength. 2. BEECH :- This is another hardwood which is quite flexible, though not as appealing as Ash. Beech is usually utilized in combination with more costly woods, essentially in subtle spots Like table and chair legs, drawer bottoms, cabinet backs and sides. 3. CEDAR : The Cedar wood is a softwood, utilized essentially as a part of wardrobes and chest drawers; it possesses a particular fragrance, and is viable as a deterrent to insects. The wood is light red in color, with light stripes and loops; the grain is entirely satisfying.
  • 38. 4. CHERRY (BLACK CHERRY): A standout amongst the most esteemed hardwoods, it is utilized in making beautiful cabinets and furniture pieces. It has a light brown to dark reddish brown color range, and it possesses an exceptionally alluring and unmistakable grain. 5. MAHOGANY: The mahogany hardwood is a conventional choice for making fine furniture, a standout amongst the most valued furniture woods on the planet. It’s likewise utilized widely in veneers. 6. MAPLE: Maple is a solid, thick, appealing hardwood, utilized as part of furniture and in making butcher blocks. It has a light brown color with a rosy cast, the grain is typically parallel, but sometimes has bird’s-eye pattern, wavy, or curly designs.
  • 39. 7. OAK: This copious hardwood has dependably been favored due to its quality and appealing grain; It is utilized broadly for durable furniture pieces as well as in modern wood furniture, for veneers. 8. PINE: This is a broadly used softwood for making Colonial furniture, and it is also one of the essential woods for modern furniture making; it’s utilized as a part of a wide range of furniture pieces, and is the major wood utilized for uncompleted furniture. 9. POPLAR: Poplar is a modestly mild hardwood, utilized mainly for making economical furniture and together with more costly woods. The wood has a brownish yellow color, with an unmistakable green shade, the grain is repressed.
  • 40. 10. REDWOOD: This particular softwood is utilized essentially for open air furniture, it is impervious to insects and rot, and is hardly finished. The wood has a deep rosy brown color with all around stamped growth rings. 11.ROSEWOOD: Similar to mahogany, this hardwood is one of the best and most esteemed furniture woods; it’s likewise utilized for veneers. Rosewood ranges from dull brown to dark purple in color, with rich, firmly stamped dark stripes. 12. SATINWOOD: Satinwood has usually been favored due to its fine hardwood veneers as well as for use in enhancing trims and marquetry. Its shading differs from a brilliant yellow to a darker yellowish brown.
  • 41. 13. TEAK: This is an expensive furniture hardwoods, and has customarily been utilized for durable furniture pieces as well as veneers. Teak ranges from rich brilliant yellow to dull brown in color, with dark and light stripes. 14. WALNUT: Walnut has customarily been utilized in making fine furniture, it is still sought after today, and is often utilized in making veneers as well. Walnut is chocolate brown in color, and in some cases with dull or purplish stripes. Its grain is exceptionally striking and alluring.
  • 42. 1. APPERANCE:- A freshly cut surface of timber should exhibit hard and should have a shining appearance. 2. COLOR:- Color should preferably dark. 3. DEFECTS:- A good timber should be free from series defects such as knots, flaws, shakes etc. 4. DURABILITY:- A good timber should be durable and capable of resisting the action of fungi, insects, chemicals etc. 5. ELASTICITY:- The timber should return to its original shape when load causing deformation is removed. 6. FIBRES:- The timber should have straight fibres . 7. FIRE RESISTANCE:- A dense wood offers good resistance to fire. 8. HARDNESS:- A good Timber should be Hard. 9. SHAPE:- A good timber should be capable of retaining its shape during conversion or seasoning. 10. SMELL:- A good timber should have a sweet smell. Unpleasant smell indicates decayed timber. 11. SOUND:- A good timber should have a clear ringing sound when struck togheter.
  • 43. 12. STRENGTH:- A good timber should be sufficiently strong for working as a structural member such as joints, beam, rafter etc. 13. STRUCTURE:- The structure should be uniform . 14. TOUGHNESS:- A good timber should be tough i.e. capable of offering resistance to shocks due to vibration. 15. WEATHRING EFFECTS:- A good timber should withstand all the weather effects (wet, dry, cold, hot)
  • 44. Veneer Laminate Veneer is a natural material. Laminate is a man-made product. It is a thin layer of real wood and can easily be scratched and catch fire. It is stronger and it tends to be heat and scratch resistant. Requires high Maintenance. Requires less Maintenance. It requires a lot of time and efforts to produce laminate products. It is much easier to produce laminate products. Expensive Economical to Expensive. True wood grains can easily be seen and gives a natural affect. It will not give the natural look and true wood grains. Colour options are limited High Variety of colour options are available. Gives a much Richer look in comparison to Laminate. Gives a modernised classy look if used wisely. Can give a cheaper look Sometimes. Limited Finish options are available. Many types of finish options are available .