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Police Tactical Decision Making & Planning

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Police Tactical Planning Course

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Police Tactical Decision Making & Planning

  1. 1. Tactical Decision Making & Planning 1 Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Apply the Analytical and Intuitive Decision-Making Models to determine an appropriate course of action Plan a moderately complex tactical operation using the eight-step Tactical Planning Procedure Develop a 5 paragraph Operations Order that contains all essential items required to control, coordinate and support the tactical operation Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 2
  3. 3. Key Points for Crisis LeadershipCrisis often destroys communicationsCrisis leaders must be technically competent and understand their subordinatesParallel between combat and crisis leadership Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 3
  4. 4. Major Aspects ofCrisis Leadership Flexibility Innovation Simplicity Empowerment Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 4
  5. 5. MURPHY’S LAW Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 5
  6. 6. Planning and Decision Making arebasic ingredients of leadership. Morethan anything else, the ability to makesound, timely decisions separates theleader from the non-leader. It is theresponsibility of leaders to make high-quality decisions that are accepted andexecuted in a timely manner. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 6
  7. 7. Decision Making DefinedTactical decision making is theability to choose which solution orcourse of action would have thebest probability to accomplishmission success. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 7
  8. 8. The decision-making process can begeneralized in two categories:1. Analytical decision-making approach3. Intuitive decision-making approach Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 8
  9. 9. Analytical Decision MakingThe analytical decision-making approach isused to analyze a situation or problem todetermine the best solution. The leader orteam apply a systematic process to insureeffective decisions and plans. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 9
  10. 10. Analytical Decision Making (Benefits) Carefully taking a problem apart Collecting and testing the information required for the problem or task Conducting a comparison of the solutions or options Selecting an alternative, which should preferably be the best solution 10
  11. 11. Analytical Decision Making (Challenges)• Requires explicit instructions• Requires detailed analysis• Procedure based process• Process oriented—can be separated from reality• Requires multiple options Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 11
  12. 12. Analytical Decision Making Challenges (continued)• Comparison criteria are subject to change• Focuses on optimal solution• Limited opportunity for creativity• Consumes time Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 12
  13. 13. Intuitive Decision MakingIntuitive decision making is a decision-making process that relies on experienceto recognize key elements of a particularproblem to arrive at an appropriatedecision. The goal is to determine andimplement the first solution that couldresult in success Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 13
  14. 14. Intuitive Decision Making (Benefits)Time effectiveFocuses on the first best solution rather than the optimal solutionCan be updated and infused with additional experience constantly. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 14
  15. 15. Intuitive Decision Making (Challenges)• Mismatched experience• Obsolescence• Distortion Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 15
  16. 16. Decision-Making Approach Comparison Comparative Analytical Intuitive Criteria Decision Making Decision MakingApplications Well-defined problem Ill-defined problem parameters parametersVariability General applications Dynamic applicationsSource of Control Systematic application of Situational factors processThought Processes Systematic analysis and Creative and discriminating comparativeOrientation Process oriented Goal oriented 16
  17. 17. Decision-Making Approach Comparison (continued) Comparative Analytical Decision Intuitive Decision Criteria Making MakingFoundations Clearly defined objectives UncertaintyKnowledge Complete understanding of Incomplete understandingRequirements problemInformation Complete, researched, and Incomplete and assessedRequirements derivedGoals Predetermined Situation-basedDesired Outcome Focuses on single best Focuses on acceptable solution solutionTheoretical Basis Classical models and Naturalistic (free) thinking processes Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 17
  18. 18. Definition of PlanningPlanning is the process of determiningand deciding how to achieve an objectiveor solve a problem. The plan is the guideor map providing the direction,resources, and activities necessary toattain the desired goal or end. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 18
  19. 19. 8 Step Planning/Decision-Making Process1. Identify the problem or objective3. Gather information (facts/assumptions)5. Develop courses of action (solutions)7. Analyze and compare courses of action (Alternatives/solutions) Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 19
  20. 20. 1. Make a decision; select the best course of action3. Make a plan5. Implement a plan7. Evaluate, follow-up, and change as necessary Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 20
  21. 21. TACTICAL PLANNING/DECISION MAKING MODEL Receipt of Mission Mission Analysis Warning Order Course of Action Development Warning StaffCommanders Course of Action Analysis Order Estimates Estimates Course of Action Warning Selection Order Issue Operations Order Rehearsal Execution & Assessment 21
  22. 22. Application of the Tactical Planning Procedures 1. Receive the Mission The order of these steps does not change 2. Issue a Warning Order 3. Make a Tentative Plan 4. Initiate Movement Steps 4-7 are 5. Reconnoiter interchangeable. 6. Complete the Plan 7. Issue the Complete Order Step 8 occurs throughout the process. 8. Supervise Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 22
  23. 23. Step 1: Receive the MissionAnalyze the mission:  What is the MISSION? (specified and implied tasks) (who, what, where, when and why)  What is known about the ENEMY, THREAT, EMERGENCY, SITUATION, ETC?  What is the impact of TERRAIN and WEATHER?  What PERSONNEL and EQUIPMENT are available?  How much TIME is available?  What are the CIVILIAN considerations? Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 23
  24. 24. Step 1: Receive the Mission (cont’d)Time Analysis (1/3 – 2/3 Rule)• Leader uses no more than 1/3 of available time for planning and issuing the Operations Order.• Subordinates get 2/3 of available time to plan and prepare for operation (arrive at designated location and ready to deploy).• Use backwards planning to schedule preparation time. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 24
  25. 25. Step 2: Issue a Warning Order• Issue immediately after mission analysis• Do not sacrifice time to gain more info• At a minimum Warning Order should include: – Mission or nature of the operation – Who is participating in the operation – Time of operation – Time and place for issuance of Operations Order This enables the squads and other subordinate units to begin the parallel planning process Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 25
  26. 26. Step 3: Make a Tentative PlanConsider: MISSION? (specified and implied tasks) ENEMY, THREAT, EMERGENCY, SITUATION, ETC TERRAIN and WEATHER PERSONNEL and EQUIPMENT TIME (refine time if necessary) CIVIL CONSIDERATIONS (safety, traffic, etc.) Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 26
  27. 27. Step 4: Start Necessary Movement• May occur at any point in the Tactical Planning Process• Includes movement to positions closer to the objective, initial inspections, equipment, etc.• If the reconnaissance reveals a change in the situation, the plan must be adjusted accordingly. The steps do not have to be accomplished in order Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 27
  28. 28. Step 5: Conduct Reconnaissance• Reconnaissance is used to confirm terrain and/or enemy analysis and tactical options• Situation and time available dictate the type and detail of reconnaissance – Map, terrain model, aerial photo, ground• Plan and conduct a leader’s reconnaissance for every mission.• Consider risk of detection. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 28
  29. 29. Step 6: Complete the Plan  Develop Operations Order • Tentative plan • Reconnaissance • Additional guidance  Review plan • Satisfy Commander’s mission and intent  Alter tentative plan? • Reconnaissance • Changes to current situation  Use five paragraph format Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 29
  30. 30. Step 7: Issue the Complete Order• Issue orally or written• Issue while observing the situational/objective area if possible• Supplements to Operations Orders: – Terrain models – Sand Table – Map boards/Overlays – Sketches• All subordinates MUST understand the plan – Use briefbacks Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 30
  31. 31. Step 8: Supervise - Rehearsals• Must be habitual during training in order to effectively employ units tactically.• Clarifies Commander’s intent.• Reinforces scheme of maneuver.• Ensures understanding and instills confidence in participants.• Provides feedback and exposes problems in the plan. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 31
  32. 32. Step 8: Supervise - InspectionsPre-Operational Inspections  Weapons and ammo: test fire  Uniforms and equipment  Mission Essential Equipment  Personnel understanding of mission and their specific responsibilities  Communications: radios, frequencies, batteries, pyrotechnics, etc.  Rations and water  Vehicles and fuel Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 32
  33. 33. The Process Tactical Planning Decision Situation Procedures Making Process Visualization 1. Receive and Analyze Mission Analysis the Mission • Mission • Enemy “See the Terrain” • Terrain (and Weather) 2. Issue a Warning Order • Personnel/Equipment • Time Available 3. Make a Tentative Plan Develop Courses of Action Analyze Courses of Action “See the Threat” 4. Initiate Movement Compare Courses of Action5. Conduct Reconnaissance 6. Complete the Plan Select BEST Course of Action “See Yourself” • Refinement of plan 7. Issue the Order • Integration of operational support and logistics8. Supervise & Refine Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 33
  34. 34. TACTICAL PLANNING CHALLENGES Determine specified, implied, and essential tasks Manage available time Delegate during planning and preparation Analyze courses of action and make decisions Brief WARNING ORDER and OPERATIONS ORDER Conduct rehearsals and inspections Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 34
  35. 35. Operations Order FormatTask Organization (if necessary) – internal attachments, detachments, ad-hoc teamsParagraph 1. SituationParagraph 2. MissionParagraph 3. ExecutionParagraph 4. Support/LogisticsParagraph 5. Command and Communications Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 35
  36. 36. Operations Order Format (cont’d)1. Situation Situation – crime, emergency situation, problem, etc. Intelligence – all information available on the activity (or facts and assumptions), terrain, weather, visibility, hazards, obstacles, etc. External Units Involved – tactical, support, reinforcing, attachments, detachments, higher headquarters; units on right, left, etc. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 36
  37. 37. Operations Order Format (cont’d)2. Mission Clear, concise statement of what you want to achieve. State the essential task or tasks to be accomplished by the entire unit, to include on- order missions. The who, what, when, where, and why for unit. Clearly define the unit’s objective. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 37
  38. 38. Operations Order Format (cont’d)3. Execution Concept of operation – summary of overall course of action Movement instructions Specific tasks to elements or individuals • Maneuver • Support Coordination instructions/activities – timelines, effective times, control measures, required contact with other units. Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 38
  39. 39. Operations Order Format (cont’d)4. Support/Logistics Specific instructions for logistical needs – General – Material and Services • Supply • Transportation • Services • Maintenance • Medical – Personnel – Miscellaneous Spell out any changes in policy or standard procedures Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 39
  40. 40. Operations Order Format (cont’d)5. Command and Communications Establishes chain of command Establishes radio/telephone operating procedures Establishes special signals and codes Establishes additional reporting or administrative requirements Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 40
  41. 41. Operations Order: A Basic OutlineTask Organization (if necessary) 4. Support/Logistics1. Situation – General – Situation Background – Material and Services – Intelligence • Supply – Operational Information • Transportation – External Units • Services2. Mission • Maintenance3. Execution • Medical – Concept of the Operation • Personnel • Movement – Miscellaneous • Maneuver 5. Command & Communications • Support – Command – Tasks to Maneuver Units – Communications – Tasks to Support Units – Signals/Codes – Coordinating Instructions Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 41
  42. 42. Elements of Good PlanEstablishes objective: provides for accomplishment of taskIt is based upon facts and valid assumptions: all pertinent data has been consideredProvides for optimum effective use of existing resourcesProvides organizational structure Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 42
  43. 43. 1. Provides for required additional resources2. It is effectively communicated to, and understood by every worker involved in executing the plan3. Provides for decentralization: delegation of authority4. Provides for direct control: coordination between units Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 43
  44. 44. 2. It is simple: it reduces all elements to the simplest form3. It is flexible: there is room for adjustment4. It provides for control5. It is coordinated Prepared by Vincent Amoresano 21 May 2009 44
  45. 45. PRACTICALEXERCISE 45
  46. 46. Questions??? 46

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