SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Biosensors

P
P
Pooja ShuklaResearch Scholar at Pooja Shukla

biosensors, types of biosensors

Biosensors

1 of 53
BIOSENSORS
BY,
A. POOJA SHUKLA
M. Tech (I yr)
1821310006
SRM UNIVERSITY
WHAT IS SENSOR…??
A sensor is a converter that
measures a physical quantity
and converts it into a signal
which can be read by an
observer or by an instrument.
 Nanosensors are any
biological, chemical, or surgical sensory
points used to convey information about
nanoparticles to the macroscopic world.
 medicinal purposes
 nanoproducts, such as computer chips
that work at the nanoscale and
nanorobots.
WHAT IS NANO - SENSOR…??
WHAT IS BIO - SENSOR…??
A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the
detection of an analyte, that combines a biological
component with a physicochemical detector.
Father of the Biosensor
Professor Leland C Clark Jnr
1918–2005
 A device incorporating a biological sensing
element either intimately connected to or
integrated within a transducer.
 Recognition based on affinity between
complementary structures like:
 enzyme-substrate, antibody-antigen
and receptor-hormone complex.
 Selectivity and specificity depend on
biological recognition systems connected to
a suitable transducer.
BIO - SENSOR…??
 It is an analytical device which converts a biological
response into an electrical signal.
 It detects, records, and transmits information regarding a
physiological change or process.
 It determines the presence and concentration of a specific
substance in any test solution.
BIO - SENSOR…??

Recommended

More Related Content

What's hot

Enzymes & their Production
Enzymes & their ProductionEnzymes & their Production
Enzymes & their ProductionMayur D. Chauhan
 
amylases enzymes production
amylases enzymes productionamylases enzymes production
amylases enzymes productionNOMI KhanS
 
Production of enzymes
Production of enzymesProduction of enzymes
Production of enzymesAdarsh Patil
 
Biosensor , its components, working and types of biosensors
Biosensor , its components, working and  types of biosensorsBiosensor , its components, working and  types of biosensors
Biosensor , its components, working and types of biosensorskavyaprakash17
 
primary and secondary metabolites
primary and secondary metabolitesprimary and secondary metabolites
primary and secondary metabolitesMAULIK PATEL
 
Nanobiosensors
NanobiosensorsNanobiosensors
Nanobiosensorstabirsir
 
Penicillin Production
Penicillin ProductionPenicillin Production
Penicillin ProductionAmit Sahoo
 
Enzyme Immobilization and Applications
Enzyme Immobilization and ApplicationsEnzyme Immobilization and Applications
Enzyme Immobilization and ApplicationsMadhukar Vedantham
 
Immobilization of enzymes
Immobilization of enzymesImmobilization of enzymes
Immobilization of enzymeskamblesai2611
 
Citric Acid Production
Citric Acid ProductionCitric Acid Production
Citric Acid ProductionDinesh S
 
Application of protein engineering
Application of protein engineering Application of protein engineering
Application of protein engineering Akshay Parmar
 
Production of vitamin B12 using fermentation
Production of vitamin B12 using fermentationProduction of vitamin B12 using fermentation
Production of vitamin B12 using fermentationvijaysrampur
 

What's hot (20)

Enzymes & their Production
Enzymes & their ProductionEnzymes & their Production
Enzymes & their Production
 
enzyme immobilization
enzyme immobilizationenzyme immobilization
enzyme immobilization
 
amylases enzymes production
amylases enzymes productionamylases enzymes production
amylases enzymes production
 
Production of enzymes
Production of enzymesProduction of enzymes
Production of enzymes
 
Fermentation technology
Fermentation technology Fermentation technology
Fermentation technology
 
Biosensors
BiosensorsBiosensors
Biosensors
 
Biosensor , its components, working and types of biosensors
Biosensor , its components, working and  types of biosensorsBiosensor , its components, working and  types of biosensors
Biosensor , its components, working and types of biosensors
 
Cloning vectors
Cloning vectorsCloning vectors
Cloning vectors
 
Bioreactor
BioreactorBioreactor
Bioreactor
 
Bioreators ppt
Bioreators pptBioreators ppt
Bioreators ppt
 
primary and secondary metabolites
primary and secondary metabolitesprimary and secondary metabolites
primary and secondary metabolites
 
Nanobiosensors
NanobiosensorsNanobiosensors
Nanobiosensors
 
Biosensors
BiosensorsBiosensors
Biosensors
 
Penicillin Production
Penicillin ProductionPenicillin Production
Penicillin Production
 
Edible vaccine
Edible vaccineEdible vaccine
Edible vaccine
 
Enzyme Immobilization and Applications
Enzyme Immobilization and ApplicationsEnzyme Immobilization and Applications
Enzyme Immobilization and Applications
 
Immobilization of enzymes
Immobilization of enzymesImmobilization of enzymes
Immobilization of enzymes
 
Citric Acid Production
Citric Acid ProductionCitric Acid Production
Citric Acid Production
 
Application of protein engineering
Application of protein engineering Application of protein engineering
Application of protein engineering
 
Production of vitamin B12 using fermentation
Production of vitamin B12 using fermentationProduction of vitamin B12 using fermentation
Production of vitamin B12 using fermentation
 

Viewers also liked

Viewers also liked (12)

Biosensor
BiosensorBiosensor
Biosensor
 
Organic solvents
Organic solventsOrganic solvents
Organic solvents
 
Enzymes in organic solvents
Enzymes in organic solventsEnzymes in organic solvents
Enzymes in organic solvents
 
Biosensors
BiosensorsBiosensors
Biosensors
 
Biosensor
BiosensorBiosensor
Biosensor
 
Mems (Detail Presentation)
Mems (Detail Presentation)Mems (Detail Presentation)
Mems (Detail Presentation)
 
mems ppt
mems pptmems ppt
mems ppt
 
High throughput screening
High throughput screeningHigh throughput screening
High throughput screening
 
High throughput screening
High throughput screening High throughput screening
High throughput screening
 
Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS)
Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS)Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS)
Micro Electromechanical System (MEMS)
 
Classification of transducers
Classification of transducersClassification of transducers
Classification of transducers
 
Transducers
TransducersTransducers
Transducers
 

Similar to Biosensors (20)

Biosensor and its Applications
Biosensor and its ApplicationsBiosensor and its Applications
Biosensor and its Applications
 
Biosensor
BiosensorBiosensor
Biosensor
 
Biosensors An analytical Device
Biosensors An analytical Device Biosensors An analytical Device
Biosensors An analytical Device
 
intro to biosensor
intro to biosensorintro to biosensor
intro to biosensor
 
Biosensors
BiosensorsBiosensors
Biosensors
 
Biosensor
BiosensorBiosensor
Biosensor
 
Biosensor
BiosensorBiosensor
Biosensor
 
Biosensors
BiosensorsBiosensors
Biosensors
 
Biosensor
BiosensorBiosensor
Biosensor
 
Nano-biosensors
Nano-biosensorsNano-biosensors
Nano-biosensors
 
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Austin Journal of Biosensors & BioelectronicsAustin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
 
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
 
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Austin Journal of Biosensors & BioelectronicsAustin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
 
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Austin Journal of Biosensors & BioelectronicsAustin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Austin Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics
 
Biosensors and its applications
Biosensors and its applicationsBiosensors and its applications
Biosensors and its applications
 
Biosensors: General Principles and Applications
Biosensors: General Principles and ApplicationsBiosensors: General Principles and Applications
Biosensors: General Principles and Applications
 
BIOSENSOR.pptx
BIOSENSOR.pptxBIOSENSOR.pptx
BIOSENSOR.pptx
 
biosensors.pptx
biosensors.pptxbiosensors.pptx
biosensors.pptx
 
Prabhakar singh ii sem-paper v-biosensor
Prabhakar singh  ii sem-paper v-biosensorPrabhakar singh  ii sem-paper v-biosensor
Prabhakar singh ii sem-paper v-biosensor
 
Biosensors
BiosensorsBiosensors
Biosensors
 

More from Pooja Shukla

One time research and longitudinal research
One time research and longitudinal researchOne time research and longitudinal research
One time research and longitudinal researchPooja Shukla
 
Nanotechnology in sunscreen uv protection
Nanotechnology in sunscreen uv protectionNanotechnology in sunscreen uv protection
Nanotechnology in sunscreen uv protectionPooja Shukla
 
Double gate mosfet
Double gate mosfetDouble gate mosfet
Double gate mosfetPooja Shukla
 
Magnetism data addressing
Magnetism data addressingMagnetism data addressing
Magnetism data addressingPooja Shukla
 
SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR USING LABVIEW
SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR USING LABVIEWSIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR USING LABVIEW
SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR USING LABVIEWPooja Shukla
 
Light wave-system-3855513
Light wave-system-3855513Light wave-system-3855513
Light wave-system-3855513Pooja Shukla
 
Wireless communicationpe-3855140
Wireless communicationpe-3855140Wireless communicationpe-3855140
Wireless communicationpe-3855140Pooja Shukla
 
Fabrication of silicon on insulator (soi)
Fabrication of silicon on insulator (soi)Fabrication of silicon on insulator (soi)
Fabrication of silicon on insulator (soi)Pooja Shukla
 

More from Pooja Shukla (13)

One time research and longitudinal research
One time research and longitudinal researchOne time research and longitudinal research
One time research and longitudinal research
 
Nanotechnology in sunscreen uv protection
Nanotechnology in sunscreen uv protectionNanotechnology in sunscreen uv protection
Nanotechnology in sunscreen uv protection
 
Double gate mosfet
Double gate mosfetDouble gate mosfet
Double gate mosfet
 
Mosfet
MosfetMosfet
Mosfet
 
Magnetism data addressing
Magnetism data addressingMagnetism data addressing
Magnetism data addressing
 
Self assembly
Self assemblySelf assembly
Self assembly
 
SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR USING LABVIEW
SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR USING LABVIEWSIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR USING LABVIEW
SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR USING LABVIEW
 
Gsm
GsmGsm
Gsm
 
Light wave-system-3855513
Light wave-system-3855513Light wave-system-3855513
Light wave-system-3855513
 
Wireless communicationpe-3855140
Wireless communicationpe-3855140Wireless communicationpe-3855140
Wireless communicationpe-3855140
 
Ppt nc
Ppt ncPpt nc
Ppt nc
 
Fabrication of silicon on insulator (soi)
Fabrication of silicon on insulator (soi)Fabrication of silicon on insulator (soi)
Fabrication of silicon on insulator (soi)
 
Vlsi
VlsiVlsi
Vlsi
 

Recently uploaded

EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfElizabeth Walsh
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasAlexandraSwartzwelde
 
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docxExit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docxMYDA ANGELICA SUAN
 
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEDISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEMYDA ANGELICA SUAN
 
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptxEvaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptxgarvitnanecha
 
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATIONLIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATIONSayali Powar
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...EduSkills OECD
 
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTScatch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTSCarlaNicolas7
 
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASMaria Lucia Céspedes
 
CONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptx
CONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptxCONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptx
CONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptxAnupkumar Sharma
 
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUSC_Library
 
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Data Modeling - Entity Relationship Diagrams-1.pdf
Data Modeling - Entity Relationship Diagrams-1.pdfData Modeling - Entity Relationship Diagrams-1.pdf
Data Modeling - Entity Relationship Diagrams-1.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Unleashing the Power of AI Tools for Enhancing Research, International FDP on...
Unleashing the Power of AI Tools for Enhancing Research, International FDP on...Unleashing the Power of AI Tools for Enhancing Research, International FDP on...
Unleashing the Power of AI Tools for Enhancing Research, International FDP on...Dr. Vinod Kumar Kanvaria
 
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & TheoryIR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theorynivedithag131
 
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptxMaryPotorti1
 
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxPractical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxKatherine Villaluna
 

Recently uploaded (20)

EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdfEDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
EDL 290F Week 1 - Meet Me at the Start Line.pdf
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
 
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docxExit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
Exit Essay - Save the Filipino Language by Renz Perez.docx
 
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSEDISCOURSE:   TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
DISCOURSE: TEXT AS CONNECTED DISCOURSE
 
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptxEvaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
Evaluation and management of patients with Dyspepsia.pptx
 
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATIONLIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
LIPIDS UNIT ONE BIOMOLECULE PRESENTATION
 
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
Andreas Schleicher - 20 Feb 2024 - How pop music, podcasts, and Tik Tok are i...
 
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTScatch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
catch-up-friday-ARALING PNLIPUNAN SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS
 
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRASACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
ACTIVIDAD DE CLASE No 1 - SOPA DE LETRAS
 
CONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptx
CONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptxCONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptx
CONCEPTS OF ENVIRONMENT & ECOSYSTEM.pptx
 
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptxPractical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
Practical Research 1: Nature of Inquiry and Research.pptx
 
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tourUniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
UniSC Moreton Bay Library self-guided tour
 
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
 
Data Modeling - Entity Relationship Diagrams-1.pdf
Data Modeling - Entity Relationship Diagrams-1.pdfData Modeling - Entity Relationship Diagrams-1.pdf
Data Modeling - Entity Relationship Diagrams-1.pdf
 
Unleashing the Power of AI Tools for Enhancing Research, International FDP on...
Unleashing the Power of AI Tools for Enhancing Research, International FDP on...Unleashing the Power of AI Tools for Enhancing Research, International FDP on...
Unleashing the Power of AI Tools for Enhancing Research, International FDP on...
 
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & TheoryIR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
IR introduction Introduction, Principle & Theory
 
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
2.20.24 Asian Americans and the Myth of the Model Minority.pptx
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
 
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptxPractical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
Practical Research 1: Qualitative Research and Its Importance in Daily Life.pptx
 

Biosensors

  • 1. BIOSENSORS BY, A. POOJA SHUKLA M. Tech (I yr) 1821310006 SRM UNIVERSITY
  • 2. WHAT IS SENSOR…?? A sensor is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument.
  • 3.  Nanosensors are any biological, chemical, or surgical sensory points used to convey information about nanoparticles to the macroscopic world.  medicinal purposes  nanoproducts, such as computer chips that work at the nanoscale and nanorobots. WHAT IS NANO - SENSOR…??
  • 4. WHAT IS BIO - SENSOR…?? A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
  • 5. Father of the Biosensor Professor Leland C Clark Jnr 1918–2005  A device incorporating a biological sensing element either intimately connected to or integrated within a transducer.  Recognition based on affinity between complementary structures like:  enzyme-substrate, antibody-antigen and receptor-hormone complex.  Selectivity and specificity depend on biological recognition systems connected to a suitable transducer. BIO - SENSOR…??
  • 6.  It is an analytical device which converts a biological response into an electrical signal.  It detects, records, and transmits information regarding a physiological change or process.  It determines the presence and concentration of a specific substance in any test solution. BIO - SENSOR…??
  • 7. Basic priciple of biosensor involved in three element :-  First biological recognization element which highly specific towards the biological material analytes produces.  Second transducesrs detect and transduces signal from biological target - receptor molecule to electrical signal which is due to reaction occur.  Third after transduction sinal from biological to electrical signal where its amplification is necessary and takes place and read out in detector after processing the values are displayed for monitor and controlling the system . BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR
  • 8. BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR
  • 9.  The biological material is immobilized and a contact is made between the immobilized biological material and the transducer  The analyte binds to the biological material to form a bound analyte which in turn produces the electronic response that can be measured.  Sometimes the analyte is converted to a product which could be associated with the release of heat, gas (oxygen), electrons or hydrogen ions. The transducer then converts the product linked changes into electrical signals which can be amplified and measured BASIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOSENSOR
  • 11. Microorganism Tissue Cell Organelle Nucleic Acid Enzyme Enzyme Component Receptor Antibody The component used to bind the target molecule. Must be highly specific, stable under storage conditions, and immobilized. 1st COMPONENT – BIOLOGICAL ELEMENT
  • 12.  Function To interact specifically with a target compound i.e. the compound to be detected.  It must be capable of detecting the presence of a target compound in the test solution.  The ability of a bio-element to interact specifically with target compound (specificity) is the basis for biosensor. 1st COMPONENT – BIOLOGICAL ELEMENT
  • 13. Acts as an interface, measuring the physical change that occurs with the reaction at the bioreceptor then transforming that energy into measurable electrical output. 2nd COMPONENT – PHYSIOCHEMICAL TRANSDUCER
  • 14. Signals from the transducer are passed to a microprocessor where they are amplified and analyzed. The data is then converted to concentration units and transferred to a display or/and data storage device. 3rd COMPONENT – DETECTOR
  • 15. PRINCIPLE OF DETECTION PIEZOELECTRIC Measures change in mass ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Measures change in electric distribution OPTICAL Measures change in light intensity CALORIMETRIC Measures change in heat
  • 16. a- Bio-element b- Transducer Figure. Schematic Diagram of Biosensor c- Amplifier d- Processor e- Display WORKING OF BIOSENSOR
  • 17.  Biosensors basically involve the quantitative analysis of various substances by converting their biological actions into measurable signals.  Generally the performance of the biosensors is mostly dependent on the specificity and sensitivity of the biological reaction, besides the stability of the enzyme. HOW DOES THEY WORK…??
  • 19.  The output signal must be relevant to measurement environment.  The functional surface must be compatible with the transducer.  High specificity and selectivity (low interference).  Sufficient sensitivity and resolution . IDEAL BIOSENSOR
  • 20.  Sufficient accuracy and repeatability  Sufficient speed of response  Sufficient dynamic range.  Insensitivity to environmental interference or their effects must be compensated IDEAL BIOSENSOR
  • 21. 1. LINEARITY - Linearity of the sensor should be high for the detection of high substrate concentration. 2. SENSITIVITY - Value of the electrode response per substrate concentration. 3. SELECTIVITY - Chemicals Interference must be minimised for obtaining the correct result. 4. RESPONSE TIME - Time necessary for having 95% of the response. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOSENSOR
  • 24.  Based on bioreceptors Enzyme biosensor Microbial biosensor Affinity biosensor  Based on transducer Potentiometric Amperometric conductometric Optical Acoustic or piezoelectric etc. TYPES OF BIOSENSOR
  • 25. • Colorimetric for color: Measure change in light adsorption as reactants are converted to products. • Photometric for light intensity: Photon output for a luminescent or fluorescent process can be detected with photomultiplier tubes or photodiode systems. OPTICAL BIOSENSORS
  • 26. If the enzyme catalyzed reaction is exothermic, two thermistors may be used to measure the difference in resistance between reactant and product and hence the analyte concentration. CALORIMETRIC BIOSENSORS
  • 27. For voltage: Change in distribution of charge is detected using ion-selective electrodes, such as pH- meters. POTENTIOMETRIC BIOSENSORS
  • 28. The change in frequency is proportional to the mass of absorbed material. Piezo-electric devices use gold to detect the specific angle at which electron waves are emitted when the substance is exposed to laser light or crystals, such as quartz, which vibrate under the influence of an electric field. PIEZO - ELECTRIC BIOSENSORS
  • 29.  Principle Many chemical reactions produce or consume ions or electrons which in turn cause some change in the electrical properties of the solution which can be sensed out and used as measuring parameter.  Classification (1) Amperometric biosensor (2) Conductimetric biosensor (3) Potentiometric biosensor ELECTROCHEMICAL BIOSENSORS
  • 30. •Amperometric for applied current: Movement of e- in redox reactions detected when a potential is applied between two electrodes. •Potentiometric for voltage: Change in distribution of charge is detected using ion-selective electrodes, such as pH-meters. •Conductimetric for impedance ELECTROCHEMICAL BIOSENSORS
  • 31.  Measuring parameter : Electric current  Based on oxidase enzymes that generate H2O2 and consume oxygen.  Formation of H2O2 can be detected by the help of Pt-electrode. AMPEROMETRIC BIOSENSORS
  • 32.  Glucose reacts with glucose oxidase(GOD) to form gluconic acid. Two electrons & two protons are also produced.  Glucose mediator reacts with surrounding oxygen to form H2O2 and GOD.  Now this GOD can reacts with more glucose.  Higher the glucose content, higher the oxygen consumption.  Glucose content can be detected by Pt- electrode. GLUCOSE BIOSENSORS
  • 33.  Steps involved in electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors:  Formation of the DNA recognition layer  Actual hybridization event  Transformation of the hybridization event into an electrical signal ELECTROCHEMICAL DNA BIOSENSORS
  • 34. Motivated by the application to clinical diagnosis and genome mutation detection  Electrodes  Chips  Crystals DNA BIOSENSORS TYPES
  • 35. Pregnancy test - Detects the hCG protein in urine. EXAMPLE OF BIOSENSOR
  • 36. Glucose monitoring device (for diabetes patients) Monitors the glucose level in the blood. EXAMPLE OF BIOSENSOR
  • 38. WHAT IS NANO BIOSENSOR…?? Comparison of nano-rangeNano - very small Includes many fields Its the Miniatured Biology Nanotechnology- manipulating matter at nanoscale.  BIO-SENSOR AT NANOSCALE
  • 39. Nanoparticles have novel property. Integration of material science, molecular engineering, chemistry and biotechnology. Improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomolecule detection Efficient biomolecular recognition, pathogenic diagnosis and environment monitoring. WHY NANO BIOSENSOR…??
  • 40. PROPERTIES PARTICLES USED  Gold nanoparticle  Carbon Nanotubes  Magnetic particles  Quantum dots Unique • physical • chemical, • mechanical, • magnetic and • optical properties, • markedly enhance the sensitivity and specificity of detection. NANOPARTICLES…??
  • 41.  Allows the placement of small structures with precision, simplicity and low cost.  Small particles high efficiency  Leads to economic growth  Enhances national security  Improves the quality of life  Job oppurtunities NEED FOR NANOPARTICLES…??
  • 42. Material Medical •Stronger •End of Illnesses (i.e. cancer, heart disease) •Lighter •Universal Immunity (i.e. aids, flu) •Cheaper •Body Sculpting (i.e. change your appearance) •Durable •Precise ADVANTAGE OF USING NANOPARTICLES…??
  • 43. Dr. Michael Strano at the University of Illinois, "We have developed molecular sheaths around the nanotube that respond to a particular chemical and modulate the nanotube's optical properties." CURRENT RESEARCH SPOT-NOSED Project: A layer of olfactory proteins on a nanoelectrode could react with low-concentration odorants. This technology could be used by doctors to diagnose diseases at earlier stages.
  • 44. Nanosphere lithography (NSL) derived triangular Ag nanoparticles were used to detect streptavidin down to one picomolar concentrations. CURRENT RESEARCH The School of Biomedical Engineering has developed an anti-body based piezoelectric nanobiosensor to be used for anthrax, HIV hepatitis detection.
  • 45.  Food Analysis  Study of biomolecules and their interaction  Drug Development  Crime detection  Medical diagnosis (both clinical and laboratory use)  Environmental field monitoring  Quality control  Industrial Process Control  Detection systems for biological warfare agents  Manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and replacement organs APPLICATIONS OF BIOSENSORS
  • 46. NANO-NOSE:  Food quality check using nanoparticles.  Detection of various protein.  For detection of diseases.  Various proteins are sensed out in body fluids.  Advantage:  Highly sensitive  96% accuracy  Quick detection APPLICATIONS AT NANOSCALE
  • 47. Biological Applications DNA Sensors: Genetic monitoring, disease diagnosis Immunosensors: HIV, Hepatitis, other viral diseases drug testing, environmental monitoring… CURRENT APPLICATIONS
  • 48. Biological Application Cell-based Sensors: functional sensors, drug testing… Point-of-care sensors: blood, urine, electrolytes, gases, steroids,drugs, hormones, proteins, other… CURRENT APPLICATIONS
  • 49. Biological Applications Bacteria Sensors: (E-coli, streptococcus, other): food industry,medicine, environmental, other. Enzyme sensors: diabetics, drug testing, other. CURRENT APPLICATIONS
  • 50.  Health and safety issues  Nanoparticles can cause serious illness or damage human body.  Untraceable destructive weapons of mass destruction.  Social & Political issues  Advisability of increasing scope of the technology creates political dilemma  Creates social strife through increasing wealth gap  Loss of jobs (in manufacturing, farming, etc)  Carbon Nanotubes could cause infection of lungs  Oil & Diamonds could become worthless DISADVANTAGES
  • 51.  Examples of Future Use of NT  Electronic Paper  Nokia Morph  Contact Lens FUTURE OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY