An Introduction to IoT: Connectivity & Case Studies

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A presentation by Zahid Ghadialy at University of Northampton on 4th Feb 2017

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An Introduction to IoT: Connectivity & Case Studies

  1. 1. @zahidtg
  2. 2. The following presentation is intended for educational purposes only. There are references to information in public domain (books, websites, standard documents, etc.) in this material. Sincere attempt has been made to give credit to all such references wherever possible. The original copyright holders retain the copyright to their material. E&OE. Thanks to Dr. Triantafyllos (Aldo) Kanakis for preparing some of the slides and Parallel Wireless for giving me time off from the hectic schedule to complete this presentation. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4 Sensor/Machine/Thing Connectivity Base Station Flow of data Control Information / Software Updates Core Network / Network Server Backhaul (Wired / Wireless)
  5. 5. Machine 5 Machine Machine Machine
  6. 6. Machine 6 Machine Machine Machine Cloud
  7. 7. IoT is combining data, cloud, connectivity analytics and technology in a way that enables a smart environment in which everyday objects are embedded with network connectivity in order to improve functionality and interaction 7
  8. 8. 8 Source: 3G4G Blog Lets assume there is one of this machine on each floor or a five floor building In total, there are five machines.
  9. 9. Scenario 1 - No connectivity  Someone has to manually go on each floor and check if there are enough coffee beans, chocolate powder, milk powder, etc.  He/She may have to do this say 3-4 times a day. 9 Source: 3G4G Blog
  10. 10. Scenario 2 - Basic connectivity (M2M)  The machine has basic sensors so it can send some kind of notification (on your phone or email or message, etc.) whenever the coffee beans, chocolate powder, milk powder, etc., falls below a certain level.  An app on phone and/or computer may be available 10 Source: 3G4G Blog
  11. 11. Scenario 3: Advanced connectivity (IoT)  Lets say that the coffee machine is connected to the office system and database.  It knows which employees come when and what is their coffee/drinks consumption pattern  This way the machine can optimize when it needs to be topped up.  If there is a large meeting/event going on, the coffee machine can even check before the breaks and indicate in advance that it needs topping up 11 Source: 3G4G Blog
  12. 12. Scenario 4: Intelligent Devices (Advanced IoT)  Lets add intelligence to it so it can even know about the inventory.  How much of coffee beans, chocolate powder, milk powder, etc is in stock and when would they need ordering again.  It can have an employee UI (User Interface) that can be used by employees to give feedback on which coffee beans are more/less popular or what drinks are popular. 12 Source: 3G4G Blog
  13. 13. Scenario 4: Intelligent Devices (Advanced IoT) – continued  This info can be used by the machines to order the supplies, taking into account the price, availability, etc.  Build your own apps – API’s are available  Can robots automate the remaining tasks of cleaning, topping it up, etc.? 13 Source: 3G4G Blog
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 Source: 5G Americas
  16. 16. “There are many different type of devices that can be connected to the Internet of Things. A device can be something big and complex, like a car or a house. It can be something you use in everyday life, such as a golf club, or a printer, or a pair of sneakers. It can be something very, very small, such as a discrete sensor inside your car or house or golf club, a single part of a much larger and more complex device. For that matter, what the IoT calls “things” don’t have to be actual physical things. A thing can be a piece of data – status information such as your location or room temperature – collected through separate general purpose device, such as a thermostat, smartphone or computer. Put another way, the physical thing itself doesn’t have to be in the IoT, although data about the thing must. Know, though, that most IoT devices are simple sensors that monitor something happening nearby. These simple things are either record or transmit the information they gather across the network to some other device or service.” 16
  17. 17.  The right car gets pre-heated depending on: › Day of the week › Whether travelling alone or with the family 17
  18. 18. 18 Source: Philips Hue
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20 Connectivity Base Station Flow of data Control Information / Software Updates Core Network / Network Server Backhaul (Wired / Wireless)
  21. 21. 21 Flow of data Control Information / Software Updates Core Network / Network Server Connectivity (Wired / Wireless)
  22. 22. 22Source: Ericsson Part 1, Part 2
  23. 23. 23Source: Ericsson Part 1, Part 2
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. 25 Source: Samsung Newsroom (April Fools 2016 Joke)
  26. 26. 26 Source: Venturebeat
  27. 27. 27 Source: Forbes/BCG
  28. 28.  MTC (Machine Type Communication)  Device  D2D (Device-to- device)  IoST (Internet of Small Things)  LPWA (Low Power Wide Area)  IoE (Internet of Everything)  Mote (Remote)  IDoT (Identity of Things)  IIoT (Industrial IoT)  TaaS (Things as a Service) 28
  29. 29.  Light  Proximity  Microphones (inc. ultrasound reciver)  Camera (front & back)  Gyroscope  Accelerometer  Magnetometer  Barometer  Humidity  Positioning › GPS / GLONASS / GALILIEO › Wi-Fi › Cellular (A-GPS)  NFC  Pressure  Temperature  Gesture  Fingerprint  Heartbeat monitor 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33  Source: Nick Hunn
  34. 34.  Wired  Wireless › Near Field (NFC) › Short range (Bluetooth, Zigbee, WiFi) › Cellular (2G, 3G, 4G) › LPWA - Low Power Wide Area  Licensed spectrum (NB-IoT)  Unlicensed spectrum (Sigfox, LoRa, etc.) › Satellite
  35. 35.  Serial bus  USB  Ethernet
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37.  Near Field Communication  NFC is very short range communication protocol  Point-to-point communication  Needs both devices within field to communicate › Contactless payments (apple pay, android pay, paypal etc) › Ticket validations (Oyster) › File sharing › Multiplayer gaming  Most smartphones are NFC ready
  38. 38.  Short range communications  Transmission at the ISM band  Low transmission power  Low penetration properties (walls, doors, windows etc)  High transmission rate  High availability › Smartphones › Laptops › Car entertainment units › IoT devices  Low cost  Supports few nodes in a PAN
  39. 39.  Bluetooth 4.0 is not a Bluetooth revision › Completely new technology  Shorter range  Lower transmission power  Poorer penetration properties  Faster discovery and connection setup speed  Lower throughput  Lower cost  Energy saving for wearable devices › Available for IoT applications
  40. 40. 40Source: Qualcomm
  41. 41.  Wider range communications (compared to Bluetooth)  Transmission at the ISM band  Low transmission power (higher than Bluetooth)  High transmission rate  Some penetration properties (better than Bluetooth)  Slower market acceptance  Smaller availability  Supports many nodes (WLAN)  Low cost
  42. 42.  Short range communications  Transmission at the ISM band  Low transmission power  Very good penetration properties (walls, doors, windows etc)  High transmission rate  Highest availability › Smartphones › Computers › Car entertainment units › IoT devices › Smart home devices › Control units  Very low cost  Supports many nodes (WLAN)
  43. 43.  A Wi-Fi family technology  Sub 1GHz operating frequency  Longer range for same transmit power as Wi-Fi  Better penetration properties than Wi-Fi  Target applications › Smart Homes › Connected cars › Healthcare › Remote industry operation › Retail › Agriculture › Smart Cities  Supports multiple nodes (WLAN) HaLow™
  44. 44. 44 Source: Radio Electronics
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. 47 Source: Ericsson Mobility Report, June 2016
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. 49Source: A Survey of Longer-Range IoT Wireless Protocols by Bryon Moyer
  50. 50. 50Source: CW/Sigfox
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. 52Source: A Survey of Longer-Range IoT Wireless Protocols by Bryon Moyer
  53. 53. 53Source: CW/Sigfox
  54. 54.  Low cost modules $2 - $3  Subscription prices as low as £1 per year in large volumes (over 50K)  Aiming for very low-bandwidth applications that favour low volumes of messages per device, typically uplink-heavy (device to cloud) › 12 bytes per message, and at the same time no more than 140 messages per device per day  Sigfox devices can work up to 20 years off two AA batteries Source: Rethink Research 54
  55. 55.  Agriculture and environment: weather monitoring; irrigation control; soil condition; security; monitoring the health of livestock; measuring river water.  Automotive: vehicle tracking; fleet management  Consumer electronics: personal tracking devices; health products with monitoring of sensor statuses such as location, blood pressure and glucose levels; home automation/domotics.  Emergency services and security: alarms; CCTV; fire detection and protection; access control systems;  Healthcare: devices enabling first responder connectivity or clinical trials monitoring.  Intelligent buildings: heating; ventilation; air conditioning; lighting; security.  Manufacturing and supply chain: devices that monitor waste and fuel consumption, inventory, maintenance variables, etc.  Manufacturing and supply chain: devices that monitor waste and fuel consumption, inventory, maintenance variables, etc.  Retail and leisure: supply chain communication, inventory management, shopping devices and communication.  Utilities: energy theft monitoring, feedback for consumers and repair crews, public safety, waste, leakage and financial control  Smart city and public transport: technologies for public transport, including ticketing and passenger information systems; parking space management and payment; charging and road tolls, traffic volume monitoring; connected road signs, traffic lights and law- enforcement cameras; CCTV, street lighting, waste collection, public alarms and intercoms; tourist information services; static advertising and billboards. Source: Wikipedia 55
  56. 56.  Uses cellular and Sigfox where available  Monthly service plans between $7 - $10  Sigfox can help reduce the costs further Source: http://www.whistle.com/ 56
  57. 57. 57
  58. 58. 58Source: A Survey of Longer-Range IoT Wireless Protocols by Bryon Moyer
  59. 59.  LoRa refer to a wireless modulation allowing a low power high radio budget communication.  LoRaWAN refer to a network protocol using LoRa chips for the communication. It relies on basestation able to monitor 8 frequencies with multiple spread factors (virtually ~42 channels).  It is possible to use LoRa modulation in point to point or star networks without using LoRaWAN.  It could be possible to have LoRaWAN like network with other radio link, but wouldn’t be really practical. Source: Alexandre Bouillot, Quora 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61.  Milton Keynes is to deploy its own low power wide area (LoRa) network with gateways installed at four locations to provide coverage across central areas of the city. Source: Smart Cities World 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. 63
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. 65
  66. 66.  Sigfox provides the network  Device chip costs $2 and connectivity $1 / year roughly  More suitable for wider coverage areas  LoRa provides chips that can be used to build the network  Base station chip costs $20, no need to pay for connectivity  Coverage depends on the private network coverage area 66
  67. 67. 67
  68. 68. 68 Source: EE Times
  69. 69. 69 Source: EE Times
  70. 70. 70 Source: Ericsson Mobility report, June 2014
  71. 71. 71 Source: European Commission
  72. 72. 72 Source: European Commission
  73. 73. 73
  74. 74. 74
  75. 75.  Provided a 4 year notice of 2G switch off  2.3 million customers still on 2G at time of switch off  San Francisco’s bus systems relied on 2G network to show the next bus times but they failed to upgrade their equipment by deadline so all timings were wrong. 75
  76. 76.  Won the deal to supply connectivity for the UK’s Smart Meter Implementation Programme in two of the project’s three regions.  The operator will provide service in the Central and Southern regions for the programme, which will see the deployment of 53 million connected gas and electricity meters across the UK by 2020.  The deal is valued at £1.5bn over a 15-year lifespan  O2 will use 2G (GSM & GPRS) to provide connectivity. They will also use RF mesh to reach premises with poor cellular connectivity  Source: Telecoms.com, Critical articles: Guardian, Nick Hunn 76
  77. 77. 77 Source: European Commission
  78. 78. 78
  79. 79.  Displays (size & resolution)  Processor  Number of Radios in use simultaneously  Amount of data being transferred  GPS & Location services  Data storage IoT devices try and minimise all of the above to save power consumption 79
  80. 80. 80 Source: European Commission
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. 82
  83. 83. 83Source: 3GPP
  84. 84.  Release-12 › MTC introduces ‘category 0’ UE to reduce device complexity › Power Saving Mode (PSM) reduces power consumption when UE does not need to send or receive data  Release-13 › Introduces new categories with complexity reduction and coverage enhancements › extended Discontinuous Reception (eDRX) optimizes battery life for device-terminated applications › network architecture and protocol enhancements for IoT are introduced 84
  85. 85. 85Source: Qualcomm
  86. 86. 86 Source: LTE and 5G Technologies Enabling the Internet of Things - 5G Americas Report
  87. 87. 87 Source: Nick Hunn
  88. 88. 88
  89. 89. 89Source: Nokia
  90. 90. 90
  91. 91.  Automated Vehicles (GNSS – GPS, GLONASS, etc.)  Location Based Services  Pay as you drive Insurance  Tracking of shipping containers  Weather and Pollution monitoring  eCall (in combination with cellular)  Communications with Aircrafts, Ships, etc. out of cellular range  Fleet management and control  Oil Platforms monitoring 91
  92. 92.  By 2023, there are estimated to be 5.8 million satellite M2M and IoT connections globally - NSR 92
  93. 93. 93
  94. 94. 94
  95. 95. 95
  96. 96. 96
  97. 97. 97
  98. 98. Source of Satellite presentations: techUK Satellite Applications & Services Conference 98
  99. 99. 99Source: Satellite Applications Catapult
  100. 100. 100
  101. 101. 101
  102. 102. 102Source
  103. 103. 103 Source: Bigbelly
  104. 104. 104Source: gridComm
  105. 105. 105Source: IBM
  106. 106. 106 Source: Lion Tracking Collars
  107. 107. Source: Illegal Amazonian logging traced by Cargo Tracck™ and Gemalto’s M2M modules 107
  108. 108. 108Source: Onfarm
  109. 109. Enguage offers an electronic system that notifies authorities when a fire extinguisher is blocked, missing from its designated location or when its pressure falls below safe operating levels. Alerts can be sent directly through an instant email, phone call or pager notification to proper agencies and supervisors. 109
  110. 110. 110Source: TechHive
  111. 111. 111
  112. 112. 112Source: https://findlapa.com/ Source: https://www.thetileapp.com/
  113. 113. 113 Source: Libelium
  114. 114. 114
  115. 115. 115
  116. 116. 116 Sector Use Case Top Requirements Industry High Volume (e.g. mining) Range, Coverage, Reliability, Cost Agriculture Dynamic (e.g. animal tracking) Battery, Range, Coverage, Reliability, Cost Static (e.g. irrigation of fields) Battery, Range, Coverage, Reliability, Cost Utilities Powered (e. g. Electricity) Indoor, SLA, Reliability Not Powered (e.g. Water/Gas) Indoor, SLA, Reliability Logístics Management & Tracking (e.g. Fleet) Easy Install., Mobility, Coverage, Cost Basic Monitoring (e.g. shipment conditions, warehouse) Battery, Easy Install., Mobility, Coverage, Cost Smart Cities Dynamic Systems (e.g. Traffic Management) SLA, Coverage, Reliability Basic Sensoring (e.g. air pollution) SLA, Coverage, Reliability
  117. 117. 117 Sector Use Case Top Requirements Payments TPV Indoor, Interoperability, SLA, Reliability Fraud Detection Indoor, Interoperability, SLA, Reliability Wearables (incl. e-Health) Continuous Tracking (e.g. Diabetes) Indoor, Battery, Mobility, SLA, Coverage, Reliability Spot Tracking (e.g. steps tracking) Battery, Easy Install., Mobility Security High Volume (e.g. video) Indoor, Throughput, Security, SLA, Reliability Low Volume (e.g. presence detection) Indoor, Security, SLA, Reliability Connected Cars Integrated solution (e.g. traffic management) Easy Install., Mobility, Coverage, Cost Basic Monitoring (e.g. location) Easy Install., Mobility, Coverage, Cost
  118. 118. 118 Sector Use Case Top Requirements Buildings (incl. Home) Complex Solution (e.g. energy management) Indoor, Security, SLA, Reliability Basic Solution (e.g. presence/ air pollution) Indoor, Security, SLA, Reliability IoT Complex Systems Autonomous Car or Drones Ecosystems Battery, Security, Range, SLA, Coverage, Reliability Source: LTE and 5G Technologies Enabling the Internet of Things - 5G Americas Report
  119. 119. 119
  120. 120. @TomRebbeck @mulloom2 @mazlan_abbas @JamesMonighan @ioticlabs @arkessa @TechThings_IOT @RWW @NetOfEverything @MachinaResearch @VodafoneIoT @TelefonicaIoT @Inteliot @DT_M2M @Cisco_IoT @WeightlessSIG @LoRaAlliance @sigfox 120
  121. 121.  Cisco VNI Whitepaper, Feb 2016  LTE and 5G Technologies Enabling the Internet of Things - 5G Americas Report, Dec 2016  Ericsson Mobility Report – June 2014, June 2015, Latest  CW - 'Radio Systems for Mission-Critical IoT Communications'  CW - 'Boring but lucrative, the real Internet of Things‘  CW - ‘IoT Security: Will the Internet of Things be Secure Enough to Run Your Life?’  CW - 'Don't panic about IoT Security, new technology will sort it out'  CW - 'Connected vehicles - the ultimate IoT sensor?‘  Postscapes – IoT examples 121
  122. 122. 122

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