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Introduction:
IoT Networking- Part I
Dr. Sudip Misra
Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Email: smisra@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in
Website: http://cse.iitkgp.ac.in/~smisra/
Research Lab: cse.iitkgp.ac.in/~smisra/swan/
Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Introduction
 Characteristics of IoT devices
 Low processing power
 Small in size
 Energy constraints
 Networks of IoT devices
 Low throughput
 High packet loss
 Tiny (useful) payload size
 Frequent topology change
 Classical Internet is not meant for constrained IoT devices.
2Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Introduction
3Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Introduction
4Introduction to Internet of Things
 Analogy
 Roots - Communication Protocol and device
technologies
 Trunk- Architectural Reference Model (ARM)
 Leaves – IoT Applications
 Goal
 To select a minimal set of roots and propose a
potential trunk that enables the creation of a
maximal set of the leaves.
Source: FhG, I. M. L., et al. "Internet of things-architecture iot-a deliverable d1. 3–updated reference model for iot v1. 5."
Enabling Classical Internet for IoT Devices
 Proprietary non-IP based solution
 Vendor specific gateways
 Vendor specific APIs
 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) IP based solution
 Three work groups
 IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN)
 Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks (ROLL)
 Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE)
5Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Source: I. Ishaq, et al. , "IETF standardization in the field of the internet of things (IoT): a survey", J. of Sens. and Act. Netw. 2, vol. 2 (2013):
235-287.
Proprietary non-IP based solution
6Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
 Drawbacks
 Limited flexibility to end users:
vendor specific APIs
 Interoperability: vendor specific
sensors and gateways
 Limited last-mile connectivity
Source: I. Ishaq, et al. , "IETF standardization in the field of the internet of things (IoT): a survey", J. of Sens. and Act. Netw. 2, vol. 2 (2013):
235-287.
IETF IP based solution
7Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
 Three work groups
 IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN)
 By header compression and encapsulation it allows IPv6 packets to transmit
and receive over IEEE 802.15.4 based networks.
 Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks (ROLL)
 New routing protocol optimized for saving storage and energy.
 Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE)
 Extend the Integration of the IoT devices from network to service level.
Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE)
8Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
CoRE
9Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
 Provides a platform for applications meant for constrained
IoT devices.
 This framework views sensor and actuator resources as
web resources.
 The framework is limited to applications which
 Monitor basic sensors
 Supervise actuators
 CoAP includes a mechanism for service discovery.
CoRE: Service Discovery
10Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
 IoT devices (act as mini web servers) register their resources to
Resource Directory (RD) using Registration Interface (RI).
 RD, a logical network node, stores the information about a
specific set of IoT devices.
 RI supports Representational State Transfer (REST) based
protocol such as HTTP (and CoAP- optimized for IoT).
 IoT client uses Lookup interface for discovery of IoT devices.
11Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
IoT Network QoS
IoT Network QoS
 Quality-of-service (QoS) of IoT network is the ability to
guarantee intended service to IoT applications through
controlling the heterogeneous traffic generated by IoT devices.
 QoS policies for IoT Network includes
 Resource utilization
 Data timeliness
 Data availability
 Data delivery
12Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
Resource utilization
 Requires control on the storage and bandwidth for data
reception and transmission.
 QoS policies for resource utilization:
 Resource limit policy
 Controls the amount of message buffering
 Useful for memory constrained IoT devices
 Time filter policy
 Controls the data sampling rate (interarrival time) to avoid buffer overflow
 Controls network bandwidth, memory, and processing power
13Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
Data timeliness
 Measure of the freshness of particular information at the receiver end
 Important in case of healthcare, industrial and military applications
 Data timeliness policies for IoT network include
 Deadline policy
 Provides maximum interarrival time of data
 Drops the stale data; notify the missed deadline to the application end
 Latency budget policy
 Latency budget is the maximum time difference between the data transmission
and reception from source end to the receiver end.
 Provides priority to applications having higher urgency
14Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
Data availability
 Measure of the amount of valid data provided by the sender/producer to
receiver/consumer
 QoS policies for data availability in IoT network include
 Durability policy
 Controls the degree of data persistence transmitted by the sender
 Data persistence ensures the availability of the data to the receiver even
after sender is unavailable
 Lifespan policy
 Controls the duration for which transmitted data is valid
 History policy
 Controls the number of previous data instances available for the receiver.
15Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
Data delivery
 Measure of successful reception of reliable data from sender
to receiver
 QoS policies for data delivery include
 Reliability policy
 Controls the reliability level associated with the data distribution
 Transport priority
 Allows transmission of data according to its priority level
16Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
17Introduction to Internet of Things

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IoT Networking

  • 1. 1 Introduction: IoT Networking- Part I Dr. Sudip Misra Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Email: smisra@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in Website: http://cse.iitkgp.ac.in/~smisra/ Research Lab: cse.iitkgp.ac.in/~smisra/swan/ Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
  • 2. Introduction  Characteristics of IoT devices  Low processing power  Small in size  Energy constraints  Networks of IoT devices  Low throughput  High packet loss  Tiny (useful) payload size  Frequent topology change  Classical Internet is not meant for constrained IoT devices. 2Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
  • 3. Introduction 3Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
  • 4. Introduction 4Introduction to Internet of Things  Analogy  Roots - Communication Protocol and device technologies  Trunk- Architectural Reference Model (ARM)  Leaves – IoT Applications  Goal  To select a minimal set of roots and propose a potential trunk that enables the creation of a maximal set of the leaves. Source: FhG, I. M. L., et al. "Internet of things-architecture iot-a deliverable d1. 3–updated reference model for iot v1. 5."
  • 5. Enabling Classical Internet for IoT Devices  Proprietary non-IP based solution  Vendor specific gateways  Vendor specific APIs  Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) IP based solution  Three work groups  IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN)  Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks (ROLL)  Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) 5Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things Source: I. Ishaq, et al. , "IETF standardization in the field of the internet of things (IoT): a survey", J. of Sens. and Act. Netw. 2, vol. 2 (2013): 235-287.
  • 6. Proprietary non-IP based solution 6Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things  Drawbacks  Limited flexibility to end users: vendor specific APIs  Interoperability: vendor specific sensors and gateways  Limited last-mile connectivity Source: I. Ishaq, et al. , "IETF standardization in the field of the internet of things (IoT): a survey", J. of Sens. and Act. Netw. 2, vol. 2 (2013): 235-287.
  • 7. IETF IP based solution 7Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things  Three work groups  IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN)  By header compression and encapsulation it allows IPv6 packets to transmit and receive over IEEE 802.15.4 based networks.  Routing Over Low power and Lossy networks (ROLL)  New routing protocol optimized for saving storage and energy.  Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE)  Extend the Integration of the IoT devices from network to service level.
  • 8. Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) 8Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things
  • 9. CoRE 9Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things  Provides a platform for applications meant for constrained IoT devices.  This framework views sensor and actuator resources as web resources.  The framework is limited to applications which  Monitor basic sensors  Supervise actuators  CoAP includes a mechanism for service discovery.
  • 10. CoRE: Service Discovery 10Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things  IoT devices (act as mini web servers) register their resources to Resource Directory (RD) using Registration Interface (RI).  RD, a logical network node, stores the information about a specific set of IoT devices.  RI supports Representational State Transfer (REST) based protocol such as HTTP (and CoAP- optimized for IoT).  IoT client uses Lookup interface for discovery of IoT devices.
  • 11. 11Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things IoT Network QoS
  • 12. IoT Network QoS  Quality-of-service (QoS) of IoT network is the ability to guarantee intended service to IoT applications through controlling the heterogeneous traffic generated by IoT devices.  QoS policies for IoT Network includes  Resource utilization  Data timeliness  Data availability  Data delivery 12Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
  • 13. Resource utilization  Requires control on the storage and bandwidth for data reception and transmission.  QoS policies for resource utilization:  Resource limit policy  Controls the amount of message buffering  Useful for memory constrained IoT devices  Time filter policy  Controls the data sampling rate (interarrival time) to avoid buffer overflow  Controls network bandwidth, memory, and processing power 13Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
  • 14. Data timeliness  Measure of the freshness of particular information at the receiver end  Important in case of healthcare, industrial and military applications  Data timeliness policies for IoT network include  Deadline policy  Provides maximum interarrival time of data  Drops the stale data; notify the missed deadline to the application end  Latency budget policy  Latency budget is the maximum time difference between the data transmission and reception from source end to the receiver end.  Provides priority to applications having higher urgency 14Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
  • 15. Data availability  Measure of the amount of valid data provided by the sender/producer to receiver/consumer  QoS policies for data availability in IoT network include  Durability policy  Controls the degree of data persistence transmitted by the sender  Data persistence ensures the availability of the data to the receiver even after sender is unavailable  Lifespan policy  Controls the duration for which transmitted data is valid  History policy  Controls the number of previous data instances available for the receiver. 15Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.
  • 16. Data delivery  Measure of successful reception of reliable data from sender to receiver  QoS policies for data delivery include  Reliability policy  Controls the reliability level associated with the data distribution  Transport priority  Allows transmission of data according to its priority level 16Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things Source: Rayes, A., & Salam, S. (2016), "Internet of Things from hype to reality: the road to digitization", Springer.