• Coordination is all about synchronizing the
operations of units and people working
therein so that they contribute their maximum
to achieve organizational objectives.
• Relevant for group efforts and not individual
• Coordination is a continuous and dynamic
– Continuous because it is achieved through the
performance of functions
– Dynamic because functions may change over a period
• Emphasizes unity of efforts.
• Responsibility of every manager.
ESSENCE OF MANAGEMENT
• Coordination tries to synchronize group efforts
for achieving organizational goals. Each such
effort should tend to help others in the group
in achieving the composite effort deemed
essential for goal accomplishment.
• Coordination on the other hand, involves the
integration of human efforts for achieving the
goals which are not functions but the basic
objective of all managerial functions.
NEED OF COORDINATION
Large number of personnel.
– Sequential interdependence.
– Reciprocal interdependence.
• Individual versus organisational interest.
ROLE OF COORDINATION IN
• Proper coordination pulls all the functions and
activities together so that each function and
activity becomes complimentary to each other
and contribute positively to the performance
• Coordination brings satisfaction to the people
of the organisation.
• Coordination ensures the smooth flow of
TYPES OF COORDINATION
• INTERNAL COORDINATION
– Vertical coordination.
– Horizontal coordination.
• Synchronization between departments.
• How interrelated activities should be divided so that
they are performed in a synchronized way.
– Procedural coordination.
• Prescribing the procedure for performing activities.
• EXTERNAL COORDINATION
TECHNIQUES OF EFFECTIVE
• Coordination by chain of command.
– Vertical coordination ensures that various levels
do not act out of accord with each other or with
policies and objectives of the organization.
• Coordination by leadership
– Managers should bring identity of interests and
outlook in group efforts by using leadership skills
• Coordination by committees.
– Horizontal coordination. Solve problems which
arise out of relationship between different units.
• Staff Meetings
– Gives everyone a sense of unity.
– To learn from superior manager about problems.
– To provide subordinates an opportunity to bring up
questions which superior manager should know
– To provide a forum in which friction points or areas
of inadequate coordination
• Self coordination.
ESSENTIALS OF EFFECTIVE
Well defined authority and responsibility
Well defined work procedures.
Effective communication system.
Provisions of check and inspection.
Effective organisation structure.
Proper organization climate.
PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION
• Principle of direct contact
– Coordination achieved through direct contact
among people whose activities are to be
• Coordination at early stages
– Coordination at early stages of work cycle.
Involving members in decision making process
regarding objective setting, strategy and policy
• Principle of continuity.
– Coordination should be treated as a continuous
• Principle of dynamism.
– Coordination do not work on rigid and fixed basis
but on dynamic basis. Dynamism is required
because changes occur in external factors and the
organisation has to incorporate change
• Principle of timing.
– Members should synchronize the timing of their
• Principle of reciprocal relationship.
– Reciprocal relationship exists between two or
more parties in which each party effects the
functioning of others and, in turn, is effected by