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  2. 2. • Coordination is all about synchronizing the operations of units and people working therein so that they contribute their maximum to achieve organizational objectives.
  3. 3. BASIC FEATURES • Relevant for group efforts and not individual efforts. • Coordination is a continuous and dynamic process. – Continuous because it is achieved through the performance of functions – Dynamic because functions may change over a period of time. • Emphasizes unity of efforts. • Responsibility of every manager.
  4. 4. ESSENCE OF MANAGEMENT • Coordination tries to synchronize group efforts for achieving organizational goals. Each such effort should tend to help others in the group in achieving the composite effort deemed essential for goal accomplishment. • Coordination on the other hand, involves the integration of human efforts for achieving the goals which are not functions but the basic objective of all managerial functions.
  5. 5. NEED OF COORDINATION • • • • Large number of personnel. Specialization. Functional differentiation. Interdependence – Sequential interdependence. – Reciprocal interdependence. • Individual versus organisational interest.
  6. 6. ROLE OF COORDINATION IN ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE • Proper coordination pulls all the functions and activities together so that each function and activity becomes complimentary to each other and contribute positively to the performance of others. • Coordination brings satisfaction to the people of the organisation. • Coordination ensures the smooth flow of information.
  7. 7. TYPES OF COORDINATION • INTERNAL COORDINATION – Vertical coordination. • Superior-subordinate. – Horizontal coordination. • Synchronization between departments. – Substantial • How interrelated activities should be divided so that they are performed in a synchronized way. – Procedural coordination. • Prescribing the procedure for performing activities. • EXTERNAL COORDINATION
  8. 8. TECHNIQUES OF EFFECTIVE COORDINATION • Coordination by chain of command. – Vertical coordination ensures that various levels do not act out of accord with each other or with policies and objectives of the organization. • Coordination by leadership – Managers should bring identity of interests and outlook in group efforts by using leadership skills and motivation.
  9. 9. • Coordination by committees. – Horizontal coordination. Solve problems which arise out of relationship between different units. • Staff Meetings – Gives everyone a sense of unity. – To learn from superior manager about problems. – To provide subordinates an opportunity to bring up questions which superior manager should know about. – To provide a forum in which friction points or areas of inadequate coordination • Self coordination.
  10. 10. ESSENTIALS OF EFFECTIVE COORDINATION • • • • • • Well defined authority and responsibility Well defined work procedures. Effective communication system. Provisions of check and inspection. Effective organisation structure. Proper organization climate.
  11. 11. PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION • Principle of direct contact – Coordination achieved through direct contact among people whose activities are to be coordinated. • Coordination at early stages – Coordination at early stages of work cycle. Involving members in decision making process regarding objective setting, strategy and policy formation.
  12. 12. • Principle of continuity. – Coordination should be treated as a continuous process. • Principle of dynamism. – Coordination do not work on rigid and fixed basis but on dynamic basis. Dynamism is required because changes occur in external factors and the organisation has to incorporate change
  13. 13. • Principle of timing. – Members should synchronize the timing of their work performance. • Principle of reciprocal relationship. – Reciprocal relationship exists between two or more parties in which each party effects the functioning of others and, in turn, is effected by others.