What is coordination?
It is an act of
different people or
things work together
for a goal or effect to
fulfill desired goals in
Hand & Eye
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Types of coordination
Depending upon the nature and coverage , coordination may be studied under
different types .they are as follows
Internal and external coordination
Coordination between units of the same organization is termed as
internal coordination. It summarises the activities of different units so as to make the
organisation more effective . Organisations are not free from the influence of
external environment . Hence, establishing a close link between organisations and
external environment is a must either to survive or surpass the growing competition.
External environment includes technology ,competition, market
forces, customers,government policy etc., external co-ordination tries to coordinate
all these forces upto the advantage of an organization.
Vertical and horizontal coordination
Coordination between different levels of hierarchy down the line is termed
as “vertical coordination”.it ensures that all levels of people ,from top to the bottom,
work in harmony .it is greatly facilitated by a technique like deligation of authority to
the lower levels of hierarchy. Coordination between people of the same cadre and
between different departments at the same level is termed as “horizontal
Procedural and substantive coordination
Procedural coordination implies the specifications of different units in the
same organization. On the other hand, substantive coordination is concerned with the
content of organizational activities.
COORDINATION IS THE ESSENCE OF
"Co-ordination is the Essence of
Management." The meaning of
this sentence implies, Coordination affects all the
functions of management. In
other words, Co-ordination
affects Planning, Organising,
Motivating and Controlling.
According to Harold Koontz and
Cyril O'Donnell, "Planning is
deciding in advance what to
do, how to do it, when to do it and
who is to do it."
There are many steps in Organising. All these steps must be
coordinated, for achieving the objectives of the business. The
Top Level Managers must coordinate the efforts of the Middle
Level Managers. Similarly, the Middle Level Managers must
coordinate the efforts of the Lower Level Managers.
Furthermore, the Lower Level Managers must also coordinate
the efforts of the workers.
Staffing involves Recruitment and
Selection, Training, Placement, Promotion, Transfer,
etc. All these steps must be properly coordinated.
Similarly, the efforts of all the individuals, groups
and departments must be coordinated for achieving
the objectives of the business.
Directing means giving necessary
information, proper instructions and
guidance to sub-ordinates. This results
in coordination. Therefore, Direction is
affected by Coordination.
Many types of communication methods are used in a
business. These methods include, Formal
communication, Informal Communication, Upward
Communication, Downward Communication, Oral
Communication, Written Communication, etc. It is
important to note that, all these types of communication
must be properly coordinated.
There are many types of Motivation.
These are, Positive Motivation, Negative
Motivation, Financial Motivation, and
Non-Financial Motivation. All these
types of Motivation must be properly
Every manager must be a good leader. He must
coordinate the efforts of his subordinates for
achieving the objectives. That is, he must
coordinate the human resource. He must also
coordinate the material and financial resources
of the organisation.
In Controlling the standards are first fixed. Then the
performances are measured. Performances are compared
with the standards, and the deviations are found out. Then
the deviations are corrected. So, controlling involves many
steps. All these steps must be properly coordinated. If
coordination is not proper, Control will surely fail.
Requisites for excellent coordination
• Direct contact
• Early start
• Clear-cut objective
• Simplified organization
• Clear definition of authority and responsibility
• Effective communication
• Effective leadership and supervision
coordination is not a distinct function ,but represents the
essence of management.
The outcome of the coordination is to attain the common
Coordination is essential in all work situations where
people work together
coordination is a continuous and an on going process
coordination does not arise spontaneously or by force . It
is the result of concerted action
coordination is required in group efforts but not in
• Integration of group efforts
• Helps to resolve conflicts
• Higher efficiency
• Reduces wastages
• Encourages initiatives