GEOGRAPHY OF THE AMERICA’S:*Understanding geography is important to our understanding of the past and present. -Geography is linked to history. -To understand history, you must understand geography. -All of human history has taken place in and is influenced by the environment we live in. -The environment a person lives in affects the development of their culture.Question: What do all 3 events have in common? General George Washington at Valley Forge in 1777. Erie Canal in New York in the 1800’s.Columbus landing inNew World in 1492.Answer: ALL 3 took place in the environment.
GEOGRAPHY:GEOGRAPHY: The study of thephysical, biological, and culturalfeatures of the Earth’s surface.●Geography is the environment inwhich we live. Rivers and mountains are physical or geographic features.ENVIRONMENT: The surroundings inwhich we live. Gold, trees, and cotton are●Geography includes: examples 1. Physical/geographic features of natural 2. Human, animal, and plant life resources. 3. Weather 4. Climate 5. Natural resources Plants and animals are part of the geography.
PHYSICAL FEATURES: (LANDFORMS, MountainsGEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES) -Features onthe Earth’s surface such as mountains, rivers,lakes, and deserts. Lakes Desert RiversNATURAL RESOURCES: Materials humanstake from the environment to use to survive. Logs Ex: Plants, Trees, Oil, Water, Soil Oil Soil for growing crops.
WEATHER: The condition of the Lightening StormEarth’s atmosphere at a given time andplace. -What it is doing right now outside! -Sunny, rainy, snowy, cloudy, hot,cold, dry, wet…… Rainy Day The Earth can be divided into climate zones. Each zone has a unique climate or average weather over a period of time. Cloudy Day Hot Sunny Day Snowy DayCLIMATE: The average weather of aplace over a period of 20-30 years. -Made up of temperature andprecipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail)
Quick Check Quiz #1:Directions: Answer the following questions and write your answers on the correct line in your student packet.1. In order to understand and comprehend history and historical events, you must: a. understand economics c. understand geography b. understand religious beliefs d. understand different cultures2. Which of the following has the largest influence or affect on the development of a person or groups culture? a. environment c. physical features b. natural resources d. weather3. Which of the following terms describes the surroundings in which we live? a. geography c. natural resources b. environment d. climate4. Which of the following terms describes features on the Earth’s surface such as mountains and rivers? a. natural resources c. geography b. weather d. physical features
5 Themes of Geography: Typical New England Colonial Village in the●To understand geography, historians 1600-1700’s.study the 5 Themes of Geography. 1. Location: Uses Latitude andLongitude lines on maps. 2. Place: 3. Interaction Between People andTheir Environment: 4. Movement: 5. Region:1. Location: Tells where a place is. A. Relative Location: Tells where aplace is in relation to another place. Example: Gloversville is 1 hournorthwest of Albany, New York. Example: The school is to the rightof the covered bridge. Example: The Inn is next to theMinister’s House.
B. Exact (Absolute) Location: Tells where a place is by using Latitude andLongitude lines on maps.LATITUDE: Lines on a map that measure distance north and south from the Equator.LONGITUDE: Lines on a map that measure distance east and west from the PrimeMeridian. Longitude: Lines that run north andLatitude: Lines that run east and west south and are located west (left) andand are located north (above) and east (right) of the Prime Meridian.south (below) of the equator. They run up and down the map. Equator Prime Meridian
When you combine the two sets of lines, you get a grid. This allows you to find exact orabsolute locations on the Earth’s surface.
UNDERSTANDING GEOGRAPHY: AMERICA’S LOCATION: ●The United States is part of the continent of North America. ●North America is one of the seven continents on the Earth. 3 1 5 4 6 2 7
AMERICA’S LOCATION: America’s location is in the Northern and WesternHemisphere’s. North North America America
Quick Check Quiz #2:Directions: Answer the following questions and write your answers on the correct line in your student packet.1. If I said that Gloversville is 10 minutes east of Johnstown, I would be using which of the following? a. region c. exact (absolute) location b. place d. relative location2. Using lines of latitude and longitude are part which of the following? a. exact (absolute) location b. relative location3. The United States is part of which continent? a. South America c. Africa b. Europe d. North America4. The United States is in which hemisphere or hemispheres? a. Northern c. Northern and Western b. Western d. Eastern and Western
2. Place: Describes an area’s physical and human features.A. Physical Features: (LANDFORMS, GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES) Mountains Rivers and Lakes Forests All of these are things found in nature that are natural. JobsB. Human Features: Houses, transportation, jobs,language, and religion. Buildings Cities Vehicles All of these are man made things that are not found in nature without being made by man.
3. Interaction Between People and Their Environment: Vineyard A. People adapt to their environment bychanging the way they live in order to survive. B. People change the environment byphysically changing it. ●As humans, we can either change our environment, or we have to change to fit into it. This picture shows land that has been cleared by humans in order to plant and grow crops. Clearing land and planting crops is an example of humans changing the environment to suit our needs. Sometimes, humans cannot change the environment. Therefore, humans need to change to fit into and survive in the environment. For example, we cannot change mountains or stop snow from falling. Therefore, we need to change to survive.4. Movement: Movement of people, goods, and ideas.5. Regions: An area with certain unifying characteristics. -Physical or human.
POLITICAL/SOCIAL REGIONS OF THE UNITED STATES:The United States is broken down into 6 general sections. This breakdown is forpolitical/social purposes. 1. Northeast 3. Midwest 5. Mountain States 2. Southeast 4. Southwest 6. West Mountain Northeast States Midwest West Southeast Southwest
MAP: A representation of the features of the Earth or part of the Earth.1. TYPES OF MAPS: There are 2 main types of maps; physical and political maps.PHYSICAL MAP: POLITICAL MAP:A map that shows landforms A map that shows states, nationalon the surface of the Earth. boundaries, cities, capitals, roads, and other human features.
2. PARTS OF A MAP: All maps have 4 basic parts. A. Title B. Legend/Key C. Scale D. Compass Rose
Quick Check Quiz #3:Directions: Answer the following questions and write your answers on the correct line in your student packet.1. “Interaction Between People and Their Environment” can be seen in which of the following situations? a. you turn on the tv to watch sports c. you read a book about a president b. you put on a sweatshirt because it is cold outside d. you go to bed because you are tired2. Cutting down trees to build houses, planting crops in a field, and building a dam to create a lake are examples of which theme of geography? a. location b. interaction between people and their environment b. place c. movement3. Which of the following types of maps shows landforms on the surface of the Earth? a. political map c. demographic map b. natural resource map d. physical map4. Which of the following is a part of a map? a. compass rose c. legend/key b. scale d. all of the above