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Development and assessment of drinking water supply schemes for solapur town
 

Development and assessment of drinking water supply schemes for solapur town

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Attempts are made to take a total review of various water supply schemes implemented for Solapur citizens since last 125 years. Based on data the present status is discussed and accordingly ...

Attempts are made to take a total review of various water supply schemes implemented for Solapur citizens since last 125 years. Based on data the present status is discussed and accordingly suggestions are given for better management in future.

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    Development and assessment of drinking water supply schemes for solapur town Development and assessment of drinking water supply schemes for solapur town Document Transcript

    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 1DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDR. VADAGBALKAR S.K.I/C Principal and Head, Department of GeologyD.B.F. Dayanand College of Arts and Science, Solapur-413002, Maharashtra State, INDIAEmail: vadagbalkar@gmail.comIntroduction:-Solapur is an ancient historical place dating back to 90 BC. Solapur is one of theimportant town places in Maharashtra state. It is well linked by rail & road with other cities, andis situated 400 km. SE of Mumbai.Its spread is approximately between 17036’ to 17042’ N latitude and 75050’ to 75058’ Elongitude (SOI Topo sheet 47 0/14). It is the 7th largest city in the state by population size,heading towards 12 lakh - to be a metropolitan.Solapur is under the arid to semi arid climatic condition. It receives irregular, erraticscanty rainfall, with annual average of around 500 mm to 700 mm. It is included in rain-shadowzone and drought prone region of part of south central India.Solapur experiences relatively higher temperature throughout the year, reaching highestup to 450- 470in April-May months, and has relative humidity varying between 20 to 90%.Geology and Geo hydrology of Solapur City:-Geologically the area is covered by Deccan basalt of the continental tholeiitic province ofIndia having Cretaceous - Eocene age (about 55 to 65 million years). Two distinct lava flows arerecognized along with various flow units.The thickness of the various flow units in the lava flows vary laterally & vertically throughout the cityarea. Heterogeneity in the distribution of fracture pattern, weathering mantle thickness, flow unitcharacters etc. hinder the movement of groundwater through the different lava flows, which hasresulted in separation of water pockets of different dimensions with variable storage within the variousrock units. It is important to note that temporarily mainly during rainy season, the continuity in watertable may be observed, but not in all seasons. With the utilization of groundwater and passage of time
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 2the water table continuity disappears i.e. there is no continuity in groundwater flow mainly at deeperdepths. Due to which the ground water availability vary.Recharging of upper shallow aquifer during monsoon, takes place. As the stock/storageof water ceases after use, the groundwater availability is at stake, especially at depths.History of Physical Growth:-Solapur Municipality was established on 1st August 1852.Municipal limits were firstdefined in the year 1865 with 13 pethas and population of 30819 (1851-52 census).In 1871Municipal limits were defined precisely as Shelginala on north and GIP railway on the west. Asper 1872 census there were 15 pethas in the town with total population as 54,744. Municipalitydemolished the fort wall.Till 1880 Siddheshwar Tank-raw water was only source of water along with 20 privatewells. In the year 1881 water was supplied through pipes to the town from Ekrukh tank. Afterthis the town developed rapidly with industrial development. In 1913, Railway station, and in1927 part of Shelgi village area were added to the municipal limit to make total area of about1844 hectors (4557 acres).In 1938 an area of about 363 hectors (900 acres) from south and West Side was includedin the municipal limits. In 1955 the limits of municipal council were 23.23 sq. kms andpopulation of about 3, 37,583 as per 1961 census. On 1/5/1964 Solapur Municipal Corporationexisted.To increase the revenue and to keep pace with increasing population and urbanization,limits of the then municipal area of 23.23 sq. kms were extended. Three times extensions ofMunicipal Corporation limits took place in stages with population increase and need as follows.1stextension-On 1/7/1979 addition of small area of 2.30 sq. kms, of Hotgi and Vijapur roads were included forimplementation of Integrated Urban Development scheme to the area. This resulted in total areaof 25.53 sq. kms with population of 3, 98,361 as per 1971 census.2ndextension–From 1/4/1989 with the additional area of 7.5 sq. kms, the new total area became 33.03 sq. kmswith the population of 5, 11,103 as per 1981 census.3rdextension –As per 1991 census populations was 6, 20,846 with area of 33.03 sq. kms To minimize andovercome the problems and difficulties aroused due to high density and overload on public utilityservices in the old city limits and to raise the revenue etc the surrounding area of 13 villages
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 3which was about 145.54 sq. kms was included in the earlier limits to result in total area of 178.57sqkms. Along with population of 88,471 of new extended area the total population reached to thetune of 7, 09,317 as per 1991 census. Population in 2001 stood at 1,225,284.Brief Data of Water Sources tapped by Solapur Municipal Corporation:-Ekrukh tank is an earthen dam having 2200 mt. length, 23 mt. height and maximumdepth of water 21.70 mt., built on Adila River (1859-1869) by British Rulers, is 6 km. north ofSolapur city. When tank is with full capacity then its total water quantity is 61.61 mm.3TheWatershed area is of 412 sq.kms., having spread in 17 sq. km. area. It has no dead stock of water.Hotgi tank which is 12 kms.- southeast of Solapur city, is an earthen dam of 12 mtheight built in 1944 during British Rule on Hotginala. It has water quantity spread in 192hectors with water storage of 5.27 mm3and watershed basin area of 59.57 sq. kms. It has no deadstock of water.Ujani Dam- on Bhima River built in (1968 to 1980) is 103 km west - north west ofSolapur city on the border of Solapur and Pune District. Its basin area considered is 14856 sq.km. with 29000 hector of land under water and total water reserves - 3, 32,000 mm3of which1520.87 mm3is usable by gravity flow (46%) while 1799.13 mm3is as dead stock (54%) whichcan be used by pumping.Total evaporation (average) in the area is 26.15% per year, i.e. about 581.08 mm. Suchheavy evaporation rate is due to circumferial surface area (exposed) of 33650 hector land andaverage maximum summer temp rising to about 46 C. It is interesting to note that requirement ofBombay city per day is about 3.00 mm3of water and in comparison - maximum dailyevaporation in summer from Ujani dam is 4.038 mm3.Filter/ treatment plants: –• Bhavanipeth – Mainly for Ekrukh dam water(From 1881 and extended 1946)• Soregaon – Mainly for Bhima river water(From 1969 and extended 1983)• Pakani – Mainly for Ujani dam water(From 1998)
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 4• Present storage - supply conditions• Total number of MBR – 2Kondi- 2 Capacity 2.0+2.0 = 4.0 MLHSR -- 1 2.5 ML---------------------6.50 ML• Total number of GSR – 7 Jule SLP - 2 Capacity 3.5+13.5 = 27.0 MLCivil HSP- 2 Capacity 6.5+6.5 = 13.0 MLSidhPeth- 2 Capacity 3.375+3.50 = 6.875 MLDSP Blw - 1 Capacity 3.375 ML------------------50.25 ML• Total number of ESR – 32 Total Capacity 39.91 ML42 Grand total capacity 96.66 MLDevelopment for Water Resources:-In 12th century Shri.Sidheshwarmaharajji enlarged centrally located beautiful tank byshramdan. i.e.for the people with help of people. This has served drinking water resources forvery long time, along with 20 private dug wells till 1881.Water was made available for growing population by the then municipality authoritiesfrom a major irrigation tank- Ekrukh or Hipparaga tank. On 6th November 1879 the waterworks (filter plant/treatment plant at Bhavanipeth) started supplying treated tap water for thecitizens. It was distributing nearly 27 MLD water in the city after initial storage in tworeservoirs.Water supply was augmented with water from Hotgi tank .This raw water even today isused by nearby village populations and industries.As per 1962 records through Ekrukh tank (filter water) water distribution was to theextent of 30.9 MLD and through Hotgi tank (raw water) 2.7 MLD.In 1858 Municipality built a small tank Kambar / Sambhaji tank- 2 kms. S-SE of SolapurCity to meet the increasing demand, but it was captured by the then military Administration andwas of no use as source.
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 5With increasing demand and acute problem of water scarcity to meet the needs in 1969water from Bhima River 30 kms South of Solapur city – at Takali - on the Maharashtra -Karnataka boundary was tapped as important source. From jack well in river bed through pumphouse, the water is brought to Soregaon filter / treatment plant and then supplied to city. Thiswas mainly for extended land limits.However this scheme ran efficiently for nearly 14 years (1969 - 1983). In fullest capacitythe supply was 54 MLD, further augmented with additional 54 MLD to get around 90 MLD asper design. However actually about 70 - 75 MLD is available in good conditions of storage ofwater.With nearly 20 dams up stream in Pune district and less rains, the continuous flow in theBhima river was not maintained during last few decades and again the supply became unevenand irregular with many times nil with total drying of river.A new proposal scheme of lifting water from Ujani dam by Corporation was sanctionedby Maharashtra Government. Ujani dam is a tail end dam on Bhima River in Maharashtra statesituated 103 kms WNW of Solapur city on the boundary of Solapur Pune districts.Water is made available through pipe line lifting up to Khandali, then by gravitymovement to Pakni filter / treatment plant and then lifting up to Kondi to stock in two MBRelevated reservoirs of 25 lakh liter capacity of each. From these reservoirs gravity distribution isadopted. Water is lifted to elevated storage reservoirs from the storage ground sunk provided indifferent sectors.Due to dead stock available in Ujani dam even in present adverse conditions of no waterin dam (gravity storage) the system is working. It is supplying about 60 MLD water since 1998.Solapur city receives water from 3 sources:A). Ekrukh Scheme:Ekrukh lake is located 8 Km. to the north of the city. Water is drawn through an intake towerconveyed to a break pressure tank through a 250 mm diameter connecting pipe line and furtherfrom break pressure tank to BhavaniPeth water works through 750 mm diameter gravity main.Treated water from BhavaniPeth is pumped to several service reservoirs (ground and elevated)for distribution in the city.This source is functioning since 1876. However in 1930 capacity of source was upgradedto 27.5 MLD capacities but maintaining actual water supply from this source to 22.5 MLD. Onaccount of various development activities taking place on the upstream side of Ekrukh Lake, thecapacity to draw water from this lake has been reduced to 10 MLD during good capture. In lastfew decade years it is observed that many times during summer the lake dries up leading to watershortage.B)Bhima River Scheme:
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 6Head works consisting of intake well, 1200 mm diameter connecting pipe line, Jackwelland pump house, located on Bhimariver at Takali. Raw water is pumped through a 1200-mmdiameter. Rising main consist of M.S. Pipe from Headwork to break pressure tank and frombreak pressure tank to water treatment plant at Soregaon. Treated waters is pumped to a masterbalancing reservoir called Hill Service Reservoir which is a ground structure situated at thehighest elevation in the vicinity of the city (at Jule Solapur). From the Hill Service Reservoirwater supply gravitates to the various pump houses of the elevated service reservoirs and groundservice reservoirs for distribution in the city.The total water reservation in Ujjani dam is 12.00 TMC. Four times in a year water is letout so as to feed AujBandhara (208 km downstream)- recharge for Takali source. Water reachesthis point, after 15 days. Nearly 3.00 TMC water is let out each time, whereas the capacity of AujKT weir and TakaliBandhara is 0.2 TMC. Also, Irrigation Dept. is pressing hard to take waterfrom Ujjani dam through conduit pipe to the treatment plant to reduce wastage of water on theroute.C)Ujjani. Scheme:This scheme is designed to supply 80.00MLD of water. Head-works is constructed inUjjani catchment. Raw water is pumped through 1016 mm diameter M S Pumping main 45 Kmto break pressure tanks. 1100 mm diameter P S C gravity main has been laid upto watertreatment plant at Pakani. Treated water is pumped through 1016-mm diameter M. S. pumpingmain to twin 2.5 ML reservoirs at Kondi. Water from twin reservoirs is conveyed by gravitythrough 1100 P.S.C. gravity mains 6.84 Km. upto junction point. From junction point two branchgravity mains have been laid. 864-mm diameter M.S. gravity main 8.705 Km. feeds Hill ServicesReservoirs and 406 mm diameter M.S. gravity main 2.735 Km. feeds sump at BhavaniPeth waterworks.Designed capacity of this scheme is 80.00MLD, 20.00 MLD water is reserved for MIDCas per the agreement with SMC and Designed carrying capacity of gravity main from KondiMBR to HSR is 60.00MLD. Hence only 6OMLD water can be drawn from Ujjani source.Status of Water Storage System:-Sr. No. Water works existing Design capacity (MLD) Present utilization (MLD)1 BhavaniPeth 27.50 10.002 Soregaon 108.00 40.003 Ujjani dam 80.00 60.00.Total 215.50 110.00There are 42 storage reservoirs (ESR’s & GSR’s) at 34 places of total capacity with HSRand MBR 96.66 MLD in the city.Water supply:-Zones Estimated Population (as of 2011) Water supply(MLD)
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 71 155741 19.782 168088 21.353 153882 19.544 156483 19.875 155578 19.766 163228 20.73Total 953000 121.03Presently the total water supplied in the city is 121.03 MLD. Water is supplied on alternate daysfor 2-3 hours in an area which is around 127 LPCD.Water is supplied on alternate days because of deficiency in storage capacity anddistribution network. SMC has taken a project under UIDSSMT scheme to improve storagecapacity and distribution networking. After completion of this project and AugmentationSource Project SMC can supply water to citizen as per norms of Service Level Benchmarking.Water metering system is prevalent only for commercial establishments (3 % coverage).Water Distribution System:SMC has nearly 324.41 km of distribution line, pipeline ranging from 700-80 mmdiameter. There is a 218 km transmission line, its pipeline ranging from 1200-250 mm diameter.There are 42 ESRs and GSRs.Coverage of water supply connections95 percent of the population in the city receives tap water accounting to 110 MLD. Theremaining 5 percent population in fringe areas is covered through tankers due to non availabilityof water distribution network. This amounts to 11.03 MLD.Extent of non-revenue water (NRW):-As mentioned above water sources for Solapur city are Ujjani dam, Bhimariver andHipparga lake. Bhimariver is 30 km away from the city and Ujjani dam is 110 km away from thecity. Hence the transmission line of water supply is very long. Due to long distance oftransmission line leakages are around 17-18 percent. At several places villagers report tobreaking the pipes to fetch water.Also through 1800 public stand post (Nalkondali) free water supply is given to schools, slumhouseholds, garden, hospitals, Municipal offices, SMC staff, vegetable market, swimming pool,fire brigade etc. Some parts of the city receives water supply through tankers.Water distribution network of SMC is a very old and has leakages in valves and pipes of watersupply distribution network.All these factors lead to non revenue water, which is around 40 percent.Quality of water supplied :-A total of 5033 water sample from different sources was tested; of which 4619 samplesmeet the specified potable standards. This reflects that 91.7 percent water meets the desiredstandard. Since most of the water distribution lines are old, there are leakages leading to watercontamination. Water Supply distribution network of Solapur Municipal Corporation is very oldand has leakages at several places. In gaothan areas, water pipelines are laid very close to
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 8drainage lines, leading to contamination. Visible leaks are detected by watch and ward methodand are attended from time to time. However there is no probing system (preventivemaintenance) available at the ward level. There are separate units for 3 sources which monitorsall transmission lines from source to MBR.Cost recovery in water supply services:-The rate at which water is supplied to the city is as follows:For ½ inch connectionsDescription Amount chargedFlat rate for residential use Rs. 2205.00 per yearFlat rate for Non residential use Rs. 6624.00 per yearMeter rate for Residential use Rs. 9.00 per KL (1000 Liters)Meter rate for non residential use Rs. 28.80 per KLFor ¾ inch connectionsDescription Amount charged per year ( In Rs)Flat rate for residential use Rs. 5501.00 per yearFlat rate for Non residential use Rs. 18486.00 per yearMeter rate for Residential use Rs. 9.36 per KL (1000 Liters)Meter rate for non residential use Rs. 28.08 per KLFor 1 inch connectionsDescription Amount charged per year ( In Rs)Meter rate for Residential use Rs. 10.08 per KLMeter rate for non residential use Rs. 30.24 per KLTotal O& M cost for water supply services is 2334.83 lakhs. Income earned form chargesare 1981.94 lakhs. This amounts to 84.88 percent of the costs required.Efficiency in collection of water supply-related charges:-The demand for water tax amounted to 38.113 cr and the total tax recovered was 17.902crores in the current year. This shows that the collection efficiency is 46.97 percent.Operation and maintenance:-
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 9The O&M of water supply services is done at zone level and at head office level. Pipelinemaintenance up to 12 inches diameter, leakage detection, valves repairs etc. are maintained byzone offices, while maintenance of main lines, pumps, water treatment plant etc. is done by headoffice.Present Situation:-Presently if all conditions are fulfilled with good storage at each source then the wateravailability is as follows.Sr.no. Source Design Actual1 From Ekrukh Tank 20 MLD 4 to 5 MLD2 From Bhima River (Takli) 70 MLD 50 to 55 MLD3 From Ujani dam 60 MLD 50 to 55 MLDTotal 150 MLD 104 to 115 MLDWith requirement of 110 liters per capita: per day for 10 lakh population water requiredwill be 110 MLD. Additional water requirement is considered 30 MLD which totals up torequirement of 140 MLD I.e. present system is just sufficient to meet the demand in goodenvironment. However when Ekrukh and Bhima River are not working efficiently then citizensare facing acute water problems. Therefore for future there must be new augmenting schemesotherwise the water scarcity will ride over the citizens.Demand rate of water supply per capita - estimated by technical committee forecastingpopulation of city given by Gokhale Institute, Pune.Water supply Demand MLDYEAR 1996 2011 2026Total demand 149.60 182.50 256.00Existing water supply 112.50 112.50 112.50Net demand 40.00 70.00 140.00For design purpose for the year 20ll - 24 hours capacity is considered as 80 MLD.Due to leakages and wastage of water in old city area it is considered 155 lit / pc / day.YEAR POPULATION2001 9,12,9412006 10,87,5382011 13,28,322
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 10Due to new connections in extension area it is considered 70 lit / pc / day, as availablewater supply.Present facts and Policy:The storage capacity of drinking water is relatively low throughout the city area.In somepart of the city water is pumped and in some part water is distributed through gravity. It is alsodepend on the zonal reservoirs. Water is distributed through pipes consist of different diameters.The water supply system in the city covers whole developed area including slums. Total waterstorage capacity is less than the required quantity and therefore the reservoirs are filled upcontinuously during a day and distribution is done after a gap of one day in the area. Same area isdivided in two parts for distribution as well different times of the day are selected duringdistribution to cater the needs.Demand of water in various wards is different. It depends on density of population,industrial and commercial units and institutions. The supply of water is depending ontransmission and distribution losses, stock of water, duration and pressure of water etc. If thedemand of water is not matching with supply in wards then it results into unequal distribution ofdrinking water. Some wards get round the clock water whereas some wards hardly get water inthe region.All these factors resulted into increase in pressure on existing civic infrastructure. In theregion, drinking water is not supplied on equitable basis and coverage is low. The reasons aretopography, faulty andold pipeline, inadequate distribution system, transmission and distributionlosses of water etc.Water tariffs are low and it is not regularly paid by the consumers. Drinking water is usedfor commercial and construction purposes. Water use laws are weak and they are easily violated.Water provided by the tankers in far flung areas have lower coverage. Such water cannotbe stored by the households because it is provided in a lower quantity and poor households donot have storage facilities.Treated potable water is used by household units for cooking, washing, bath and drinkingpurposes. The Schools, Colleges, Hospitals, Commercial complexes, servicing units etc. are alsousing the potable water for drinking, cleaning. The fact to realize that potable water is used onlarge scale by all for sanitation, gardening, cleaning, and washing and for toilet purposes too i.e.large part of treated water is going as waste and further flowing through gutters to pollute theland and water.In Solapur city area, demand of drinking water is continually increasing due to variousfactors. Increasing and spreading urbanization is a major factor. Water supply distribution isunequal in the extension regions. The far flung and newly added areas are not covered under the
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 11water distribution system. In some wards, water supply pressure is very low. Unequaldistribution of drinking water in terms of quality and quantity leads to water stress. The poorurban population spaced apart is often neglected from the distribution of drinking water and it isa major challenge. Under such odd situations use of groundwater is the only way left out.Thereby the extension areas are having maximum number of bore wells. However quality ofsuch water is not tasted and is used directly for all purpose including drinking. This has posednumber of health problems e.g. problems linked with digestive systems, kidney, skin, weakbones etc.Water charges structure is low. It is not even to the level of maintaining the cost oftreatment. Due to illegal and multiple connections, water tariff is not regularly paid. It is mainfactor behind lower revenue and recovery of the capital cost. Therefore there is need of drinkingwater supply management. It will be achieved through the citizen’s participation. MunicipalCorporation must involve non-government organizations, research institutions and academiciansin supply management process. There is need of regular revision of tariff structure.The funds received by the Municipal Corporation must be utilized for water storage tanksand distribution system in respective area. Building small to big water tanks and modern butrestricted distribution system linked with population concentration will reduce the lower waterpressure in the boundary area. In the metropolitan area water distribution and transmission loss ishigh. Municipal Corporation can introduce the private partnership to locate and reduce theleakages and improve distribution system. The old distribution system must be replaced by newone. A systematic map of all distribution system must be prepared, updated and made availableto citizens along with office.Future & Suggestion:- Additional pipeline similar to present one with double capacity is utmost essential and isan urgent need to implement the scheme at earliest. Two separate pipe lines- onereserved for treatment and another for general use as rawwater will help in development of the city. Supply of raw water to the different villages placed on lateral sides may be thought off tocater their needs as well to divide the incurring cost. Further small units of treatmentplants may be constructed in a collective group of villages. The importance of additional pipeline is that there will be no evaporation loss orpercolation loss of water which is presently occurring when water is supplied throughcanals and stream and river beds. Supply of filtered water in restricted and required capacity for drinking purpose alongwith supply of raw water separately for general utility may be thought off. Similarlynumber of small to middle capacity centers for purification/ filtration of used water maybe installed at suitable places.
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 12 New elevated reservoirs in different areas should come up at earliest to cater the needs ofthe growing population. The reservoirs position must be sector wise and may also beinterconnected. Distributaries in different areas must be restricted to the number of populations of thesectors. The planning should be as per capacity of reservoir and the requirement ofpopulation of the sector. If required the sectors should be divided accordingly Artificial recharge / rain water harvesting schemes must be implemented in thegeologically suitable areas of the town, especially in the extended areas. MunicipalCorporation must create more awareness of roof rain water harvesting method andconduct training to architect engineers, plumbers etc. There should be compulsion of continuous extended narrow pit surrounding the border ofHouse, Flat, Bungalow, business complexes etc. to accommodate either rain water or anyother to recharge the ground water along with plantation around. Through percolation pits, with proper care of not polluting the water i.e. treated waterafter use, must be passed into the ground or through bore wells, dug wells etc. if areavailable. It may be stored in dug wells, artificial tanks etc. and may be reused afterproper treatment especially for sanitation, washing, gardening etc. Quarries must be started near Ekrukh tank in acquired areas of Government. Theexcavated material must be used for construction and as road material. The largeexcavated areas after few decades will serve as storage tanks. Further these quarries maybe interconnected to get the supply of raw water or the water may be made available tofilter plants or put in Ekrukh tank. Minimum water supply must be provided at flat rate. If the use of water is increasing thenthere must be more tariffs. Corporation can charge heavily for extra and excess use ofwater than the prescribed or standardized requirement for a family / individuals etc.Water tariff for the commercial units must be much higher than the domestic units. Municipal Corporations must reduce the connection deposit to increase the number ofwater connections. Free supply in any case must be banned; instead some minimumcharges must be levied to avoid misuse of water. A real need is to educate the people for proper, disciplined and minimum use of water.The filter water use must be restricted. They must be trained for using raw water, re-circulated water. To educate the city peoples in collaboration with the teachers, studentsand social organizations about the proper use of the drinking water, different methods ofwater conservation, preparing small advertisement, water supply situation etc. Inter connecting Bhima& Krishna Rivers at upper reaches in SahyadriGhat, if considered,may fulfill the required conditions of flooding of Ujani Dam regularly as ghat regionreceives regular and high rain fall. Getting water from Alamatti Dam in Bijapur District of Karnataka may be thought as oneof the option in special cases or as permanent source.
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 13 Ground water resources are depleting and must be used only in adverse and severescarcity period i.e. they must be considered as stand by source or arrangement and not aspermanent and regular dependable source. Underground inverted bunds in suitable casesand places will serve for the storage of ground water when monsoon is available. New sites for preparation of minor to medium size tanks must be located scientifically inthe different parts of the city especially in the parts of extended areas of corporation. Thismay be used as alternative source for nearby sectors. Treatment of all types of utilized water on surface at different divisions and sectors isessential to control the pollution of ground water. The recirculation of treated used water / waste water from industries, drainages filterplant etc. must be implementedAcknowledgement:-Author is thankful to the authorities of different Government offices and Solapur MunicipalCorporation for providing the data.
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 14Part of Toposheet no. 47-0/12Depicting features ofSolapur City and surroundingSatellite picture of Solapur and surrounding area depicting 3 Nala basinsSina RiverAerial View of Part of Solapur City with sidheshwar tank AERIAL VIEW OF SHRI. SIDHESWAR TEMPLECourtesy - Photo by shri. Ramdas Katkar - Divya Marathi, ( 14th Jan. 2013- from 1000 feet)Ekrukh Tank? (Dry condition in summer) View of Hotgi LakeViews of Ch. Sambhaji Raje - Kambar TankWATER PUMPED from BHIMA RIVER at TAKALI( WATER FLOWS from UJANI DAM to AUJ bandhara)
    • DEVELOPMENT and ASSESSMENT OFDRINKING WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES FOR SOLAPUR TOWNDr. VadagbalkarShrinivasKrishnaji Page 15A View of Ujani Dam in the year 1998 M.B.R. at KondiComputerized image of terrain of Solapur and surrounding