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Technical Paper Water Demand Management For Bangalore City


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Technical Paper Water Demand Management For Bangalore City

  1. 1. Water Demand and Supply Management for Bangalore City Mr. Deepak Kumar Mallick1, Mr. R. Vasudevan2 1 Engineer-Civil, Infrastructure Business Unit, TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd., Mumbai – Primary Author for Correspondence. 2 Chief Engineer (Cauvery), Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Bangalore. Abstract The fast growing demand of Bangalore City is not matching the supply of the system. The demand projection for the city is showing that the water deficit in the future will grow higher and higher. Water demand and supply management is required to balance the demand and supply mismatch in the near future. From socio-economic aspect water demand and supply management is mandatory to reduce the deficit of water in the city. Demand management comprises of minimization of water uses and losses. Public awareness is required to reduce the wastage of water and Unaccounted For Water (UFW) reduction to minimize water. UFW reduction in the distribution system not only increase the revenue generation but also serve more demand. The present UFW in the system is very high (37%) and which is targeted to reduce to 16% after the UFW project is complete by BWSSB. Supply management is required to make more water available for the city by using rainwater harvesting, reuse of waste water, ground water recharging and supply of tertiary treated water to the industries and non-domestic bulk consumers. KEY WORDS: Demand, Supply, BDA, BMP, CDP, CRS, Hesarghatta, Arkavathi, Cauvery, MGD, MLD, LPCD, CWSS, BWSSB, CMC, TMC, KSCB, CPHEEO, Rainwater Harvesting, Borewell, UFW, DMA, Leakage, PZT, MNF, Mobile Tanker, Reuse, Network Modeling, Runoff, Tertiary Treatment, Groundwater Recharging, STP. 1. Introduction A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic hub and the fastest growing major metropolis in India which was founded by Kempegowda in the year 1537 AD. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India because of its prominent position as the nation's leading IT employer and exporter. The re-organization of states in 1956 Bangalore became the Seventh Largest City in the Country by 1971, its population exceeding 1.6 million. Its population growth in the decade between 1971-81was beyond any expectation and reached nearly 3.0 million marks raising its place to 5th among Indian Metropolitan Cities. Bangalore attracted the people not only from Karnataka and surrounding areas but people from other states also on account of its salubrious climate, natural beauty and the abounding greenery. Bangalore is now being considered as Class-A1 city, 2007-08. Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) is the Planning Authority for Bangalore Metropolitan area. As a Planning Authority, BDA has to prepare the Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) for Bangalore Metropolitan area. The total jurisdiction of BDA as per Revised CDP is 1279 Sq. Kms. area. The Bruhat Bangaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) area is 800 Sq. Kms. including spotted development. BDA has now taken up re-revision of CDP, which is under progress. Information technology growth increased the migration rate of Bangalore. The population of 2007 is approximately 7.0 million and expected to reach about 10.0 million by 2021. Due to the high growth in population and less availability of water the city is facing tremendous water scarcity. Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) is the water authority for Bangalore city which was constituted under an act of the Karnataka state legislature in the year 1964, and has the primary responsibility to supply drinking water to its consumers and provide adequate sanitary systems with the BDA area. Technical Paper  Page 1of 13 
  2. 2. 2. History of Water Supply Schemes: Prior to the year 1896, unfiltered water was being supplied to Bangalore from a number of tanks viz., Dharmambudi, Sampangi, Ulsoor etc, supplemented by local wells and Stepped Ponds. In the year 1894, the first protected water supply scheme was started. The source of water was Hesarghatta lake on Arkavathi River, which is situated at 18km North-West of the city. In the year 1925, Hesaraghatta lake started drying up and urgent remedial measures were taken. Based on recommendations, by a Committee headed by Sir M.Visweswaraiah, a reservoir was commissioned on river Arkavathi by building a dam (Chamaraja Sagar) at TG Halli, downstream of Hesaraghatta lake. During 1969, based on recommendations of an Expert Committee, Cauvery Water Supply Scheme I Stage Project was started and commissioned in 1974. Subsequently Stage-II, Stage-III and stage-IV-Phase-1 projects have also been commissioned. 2.1 Hesarghatta Scheme: The population of Bangalore city was 1,80,000 in 1891 and a tank was designed to supply water to a population of 2,50,000 with 57 LPCD. Population was assumed to increase at 16% per decade, and, it was anticipated that the infrastructure would be sufficient to meet the city's needs for 3 decades thereafter. Source: BWSSB website However, the anticipated population of 2,50,000 was attained by 1922 itself. The inadequacy of supply which had begun to be felt from 1918 became acute by 1925, when Hessarghatta lake went almost dry for a year and a new source had to be thought of by that time. 2.2 Chamaraja Sagar Reservoir Scheme: With the drying up of Hesarghatta Lake in the year 1925, the situation demanded urgent remedial measures, for which Government constituted a Committee under the chairmanship of Sir M.Visveswaraiah, in the year 1926. After detailed investigation of all possible sources of supply including the rivers Cauvery and Hemavathy, the Visweswaraiah Committee recommended construction of a reservoir on river Arkavathi by building S.S.M Dam at T.G.Halli, 28 Kms away from the City downstream of Hessarghatta Lake to supply 135MLD to the city. Technical Paper  Page 2 of 13 
  3. 3. Source: BWSSB website 2 stage pumping was introduced with an intermediate pumping station at Tavarekere, and supply stepped up to a maximum 135MLD. 2.3 Cauvery Water Supply Scheme: To meet the Growing needs of the city through new sources of water supply, State Government constituted an Expert Committee in the year 1958 to go into the problems thoroughly and to suggest such measures that ensure adequately reasonable supplies which included meeting the long term requirements of water supply and preparation of comprehensive schemes for providing such requirements. Keeping in view the long range requirements of the city and dependability of the supplies, the Committee recommended to consider tapping the perennial river Cauvery. This recommendation was accepted by the Government during April 1964 and administrative approval was accorded to the Cauvery Water Supply Scheme (CWSS) 1st Stage Project. Construction of this project was completed in about five year. Source: BWSSB website Again, commissioning of CWSS first stage did not quench the thirst of Bangaloreans, because of the continuous increasing in domestic and non-domestic demand for water. The Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board took timely action to take up CWSS Second Stage and subsequently CWSS Third Stage. The total potential created from Cauvery stages-I, II and III was 540MLD. Stage IV is currently being built, with Phase I completed and bringing an additional 270MLD to the city. Construction of Stage IV: Phase II is expected to bring an additional 500MLD, and will be completed by 2011. Technical Paper  Page 3 of 13 
  4. 4. 3. Population, Demand and Supply 3.1 Population Bangalore city has experienced the largest growth rate amongst Indian Cities over the last couple of decades and it continues to grow. The census population of the city municipal limits (BMP Area, 225 sq. km) is 43,01,326 in the year 2001 and outside the municipal area (7 CMCs and 1 TMC Area, 575 sq. km) is 15,67,909. As the growth now is considered to be outside the city as attributed to the planned development such as electronic city, the IT parks in Whitefield and in the North due to the new international airport, the Core Area (BMP Area) population is also expected to maintain a certain moderate to high trend in growth, as the effect of the peripheral growth would also percolate within the city. The Core Area growth which amounts to annual growth rates of 1.8% and 0.78% for the decades of 2001-11 and 2011-21 respectively. For Non-BMP area decade growth rates of 53.82% and 53.52% which amounts to annual growth rates of 4.4% and 4.38% for the decades of 2001-11 and 2011-2021 respectively. The population of the Project Area as projected with these trends is presented below. The above population data includes slum population. The slum population as per the Karnataka Slum Clearance Board’s (KSCB) assessment done during 1999 indicates that the Core Area has a slum population of about 551 678. It works out to about 10% of the total population of the Core Area. KSCB have also considered rehabilitation of the slum, while upgrading some of them from their original condition to better living conditions with suitable amenities provided to them. Therefore, it has been considered that the slum population would be a diminishing percent of the total population in the Core Area as given below. 3.2 Demand Water demand has been categorized into the following: i. Domestic demand - Population residing in houses with consumer service connections - Slum population is receiving water through public taps. Domestic demand is 150LPCD as per CPHEEO manual for Mega/Metro cities excluding UFW and bulk demand. Technical Paper  Page 4 of 13 
  5. 5. ii. Non-domestic demand, comprising of all demand other than domestic, viz. - Commercial demand - Industrial demand - Institutional demand - Parks and Gardens Assessment based on experience in other Indian cities and observations made within Bangalore, it is assumed that the non-domestic demand would be of the order of about 10% of the domestic demand. iii. Other Allowances - Fire demand - Allowance for Leakage As per the norms of the CPHEEO, a demand at the rate of 100*[SQRT (P)], where P is the total population in thousands and demand in kilolitres per day, has been assumed for fire demand. CPHEEO guidelines indicate limiting the UFW to 15% of the Gross Demand. 3.3 Supply Water from the Cauvery Water Supply Scheme Stages I, II, III, IV Phase-1 and IV phase-2 is brought into the city. Water from Chamrajsagar Waterworks on the Arkavathy River is also conveyed to the western part of the city. It is not possible to supply water from Chamrajsagar waterworks near the River Arkavathy to its design capacity due to lack of sufficient flows in the river. Thus the available water being pumped to the city as against the design capacities is given below. Source Established during Potential (MLD) Actual Supply-2008 (MLD) 1. Arkavathi River a) Hesarghatta 1896 36 b) T.G.Halli 1933 148 38 2. Cauvery River a) Stage-1 1974 135 135 b) Stage-2 1982 135 135 c) Stage-3 1993 270 270 d) Stage-4 Phase-I 2002 270 270 e) Stage-4 Phase-II* 2011* 500* 500* TOTAL 1494 1348 * The Cauvery Water Supply Stage IV-Phase-2 is under implementation and will be completed by 2011. Technical Paper  Page 5 of 13 
  6. 6. 3.4 Demand versus Supply A comparison of projected demands and supply capacity are summarized below. Demand Supply Deficit Remark Year (MLD) (MLD) (MLD) BWSSB is serving only 225 sq. km and the demand is 73% 1148 578 570  2001 of the total demand. Actual Deficit is 490MLD. 1333 848 BWSSB is serving only 300 sq. km. so the actual demand 2007 485  served is approximately 65% of the total demand. Actual Deficit is 110MLD.   Completion of Stage IV, Phase-2 Project. 1476 1348 128  2011 135MLD from Reuse of Water by 2013. 1638 1483 155  2015 1809 1483 326  2021 It can be concluded that after the implementation of Phase-2 project 1348MLD can be made available for the city. Unless the Cleaned Water Scheme with recycling and re-use of treated wastewater is implemented, or there is groundwater made available with appropriate treatment there will be a huge gap between demand and supply in the Bangalore city. This implies BWSSB is unable to meet the demand of the whole city of (800 sq. km). However BWSSB was supplying water to the core area (225 sq. km) and some adjascnet areas (76 sq. km) till 2008. In the future due to the increase in city municipal boundary the supply area will be increased to 800sq. km. In this scenario it can be seen that the 24X7 supply is not possible to meet the demand of the city. Since the present water loss due to leakages is 37% in the whole system. so the actual deficit is more then the projected values. So demand and supply management is required to solve the water scarcity of the city. Since the Cauvery and Arkavati schemes are unable to meet the demand of the whole city BWSSB constructed borewells to meet some of the demands. According to BWSSB records, there are approximately 6,000 borewells maintained by the Board and 50,000 are residential borewells in the record. As a result, the ground water table is dropping rapidly.Also there is little place for ground water to get recharged within the City limits. Till now there is no restrictions/permission required for constructing residential bore wells by public. For that reason the ground water table is going down rapidly in the city which is alarming now. Technical Paper  Page 6 of 13 
  7. 7. 4. Demand Management Several factors influence the residential and nonresidential demand for water. In the aggregate, per capita water demand is very stable. Residential water usage is largely a function of basic demographics, particularly household size, property size, and income. Nonresidential water varies substantially according to type of industry. The production of some goods (such as food and beverages, paper products, and microchips) is highly water intensive. Demand management deploys various techniques for conserving water and improving the efficient use of water by end users. Improvements to economic efficiency are achieved whenever the total benefits of a measure are outweighed by the total costs of implementation. Demand management evolved in the context of least-cost or integrated resource planning, which balanced supply and demand management considerations. Managing demand can complement or supplant traditional and emerging supply-management options for BWSSB. Demand management involves measures that promote the efficient use of water, including load management and load reduction or conservation. Water conservation also can be understood as the economically and/or socially beneficial reduction of water withdrawals, water use, or water waste. Conservation can forestall future supply- capacity needs; it can be implemented on the supply side as well as the demand side; and it can consist of both temporary measures used during emergencies and permanent measures used to improve long-term efficiency. Demand management or strategic load management complements supply management because controlling the level and timing of demand can improve overall efficiency of system operations and help eliminate, reduce, or defer the need for an investment in new capacity by the BWSSB. Reductions in peak and off-peak demand affect the total capacity requirements of the system and thus the total cost of providing water service. All demand management activities that decrease the demand which affect supply management since existing system capacity is released for other customers and other uses. That is, the freed or redirected utility capacity can be compared to that provided by more traditional means. Thus, the benefits of demand management can be measured in terms of avoided costs, or the incremental savings associated with not having to produce additional units of water or water service. Avoided cost can be used to compare demand management and supply management options and encourage BWSSB to seek out least-cost alternatives for meeting future water needs. Although demand management should not be equated with drought management, the experience of BWSSB and customers in implementing efficiency practices can be beneficial during periods of water shortage. Some of the basic demand management techniques can be accelerated during supply emergencies or droughts. Demand management consists. I. Minimization of water uses. II. Minimization of Water Losses. 4.1 Minimization of Water uses In our everyday life knowingly or unknowingly we misutilize the water. Some of the examples are given below. Mis-use Proper Use Saving Remark Full Flushing Toilet – 9 Half Flushing Toilet – 4.5 Litrs Save – 4.5 Litrs Use Half flush for liquid Litrs waste. Dish Washing under Dish Washing using filled sink Save – 48 Litrs Use filled sink to wash running tap for 5 mins – 60 – 12 Litrs vegetables or dishes. Litrs 10 Minutes bath under 10 Minutes bath with the tap off Save – 60 Litrs Turn off the tap while running shower – 90 Litrs while soaping up – 30 Litrs soap up or shampoo. Technical Paper  Page 7 of 13 
  8. 8. Brushing teeth tap running Brushing with teeth usingSave – 44.5 Use glass to rinse for 5 mins – 45 Litrs mug/glass – 0.5 Litrs Litrs mouth. Washing Cars using Washing Car using bucket Save – 40 litrs Use bucket water to hose/nozzle – 50 Litrs water – 10 Litrs wash the water Watering the lawn Watering the lawn once in a Save – 250 Don’t water garden/lawn everyday 10mx10m – 300 week – 50 litrs Litrs unnecessarily and follow Litrs a fixed schedule. Washing Car Daily – 350 Washing Car once in a week – Save – 300 Don’t wash more than Litrs 50 Litrs Litrs once a week. Wipe it off regularly. To minimize the water loss due to misutilization public awarness is required. Fixing leaking taps, Pipes etc., immediately and check regularly for leaks by their owners. Teach and educate people and the value of water for a better tomorrow. 4.2 Minimization of Water losses Minimization of water loss is reduction in UFW. The major contributor to the UFW is the Leakages in the system. Presently UFW is 37% in Bangalore. This means BWSSB is generating revenue from the 63% of the Total water it produces. Under Stage IV, Phase-2 Project BWSSB has taken up “Distribution Improvement and UFW Reduction” work as a part of the project and to minimze the UFW from 37% to 16% in the city. So that not only more revenue will be generated but BWSSB will also be able to meet additional demand in the city.   Source: The Manager’s Non‐Revenue Water Handbook (A Guide to Understand Water Losses)‐ Malcolm Farley, Gary Wyeth Reduction of UFW is done by dividing the total distribution network into smaller hydraulic isolated areas with in the characteristic of eash distict area can be monitored, accessed and Inflow and outflow across the boundaries are metered is called District Metering Area (DMA). DMAs may be futher subdivided into smaller areas. DMA establishment is done by Pressure Zero Test (PZT).   Technical Paper  Page 8 of 13 
  9. 9. After estlabishing the DMAs the UFW reduction is done by the methods mentioned below:- - Minimum Night Flow (MNF) Approach - Mobile Tanker and Pump Approach - Metering Illegal Consumption - Metering Error - Replacing Inaccurate and Damaged Consumer Meters - Metering Public Taps - Network Modelling - Public Awarness After the target leakage level is reached the same is maintained in the future. Successful implementation of UFW project minimize water loss and more demand can be served with the same supply. 5. Supply Management Supply management is required to increase the supply of water from existing as well as alternate sources to meet more demand and an equitable distribution of water. The supply of water to the city can be consolidated by following methods. I. Storing rain water runoff in lakes for reuse II. Rainwater harvesting for borewell recharging and ground water recharging III. Recycling of wastewater for indirect potable and non-potable applications IV. Public awareness for rain water harvesting for watering garden/lawn/cleaning cars/reuse of water 5.1 Storing rain water runoff in lakes for reuse Rainwater Harvesting in urban areas is the process of collecting, filtering and using of rainwater, which falls on the rooftop (terrace or tile roof) and in the portico of the house. Rainwater harvesting can be adopted in three methods. These are; recharging of borewells near the house, recharging of ground water sources and collection of rainwater for reuse. There is sufficient rainwater potential available in Bangalore city. 30 years rainfall data (1975-2004) is given below and the average annual rainfall of 940 mm over the area of 800 sq. km. yield 752 million m3 of water per year. The minimum rainfall recorded was 521 mm in the year 1990 which yields a minimum of 417 million m3 of water per year and the maximum rainfall recorded was 1411mm in the year 1998 which yields a maximum of 1129 million m3 of water per year. The weighted mean average rain fall for the 30 years is 964 mm. Standard deviation (σ) for these above data is 231 so after deducting the deviation from the mean value to get the lower side value is 733 mm = (964-231) mm. If we can consider 30% of the rainfall can be harvested, it amounts to 176 million m3 per year or 176000 million litres (482MLD). At present most of this water flow away Technical Paper  Page 9 of 13 
  10. 10. contaminated by sewage mixing and no attempts have been made to arrest in place and utilised for water supply needs. Rainwater harvest needs drains, small and large in every street and area followed by storages like lakes. The topography of Bangalore has supported the creation of large number of manmade lakes. The total storage capacity of the existing lakes in Bangalore city is about 250MLD. It means only 250MLD can be harvested through these lakes and excess 482MLD requires additional storage facility to harvest. Presently 127 lakes are in Bangalore city and out of which only 81 lakes are live. Out of these 81 lakes 5 such lakes have potential, which are mostly free from sewage contamination and could be more readily used for storing rainwater after improvements to recharge ground water for indirect potable use with minimum treatment and structural rehabilitation. Most of the lakes in Bangalore are environmentally deteriorating and the storage capacities have been reduced because of silting and solid waste and garbage dumping. There is no maintenance of tank bunds and spillways. Some places the untreated/overflowed sewage water is flowing to the lakes directly. So the following rehabilitation works have to be done. i. De-silting and De-weeding ii. Strengthening of tank buns and spillway structures iii. No access to the public near to the lakes iv. No sewage water should be allowed without proper treatment and control of solid waste 5.2 Rainwater harvesting for bore well recharging and ground water recharging Rainwater Harvesting in urban areas is the process of collecting, filtering and use of rainwater, which falls on the area, should be done to prevent them from drying up and improve their water table. It is usually done by the following method. There are no restrictions for constructing residential borewells till now. For that reason the ground water table is going down rapidly in the city. So ground water recharge is required to maintain the ground water table. We can recharge our borewells and keep them alive always. Those having open wells too can adopt this system. By directing the filtered rainwater to the open wells, their water tables could be improved. Source: & Ground water recharging in urban areas is done by collecting the rainwater from the rooftops and the portico of the house and by making it easily absorbed within the veranda space. 5.3 Recycling of wastewater for Indirect Potable and Non-potable applications Bangalore city is having a well developed sewerage system in the core area. In Bangalore city 13 STPs exists and under BWSSB-Phase-II project another 9 STPs are proposed, where some locations are adjacent to the Technical Paper  Page 10 of 13 
  11. 11. existing STPs. The total existing capacity of the STPs are 718MLD and after the completion of Phase-2 project it will be 1032MLD.The details are given below. Source: DRR for Sewerage Treatment Plant, BWSSB-Phase-2 Project To meet the present deficit and the future demand BWSSB is taking interest to execute a reuse of waste water scheme in the Vrishabhavati Valley to get additional 135MLD of water using ultra filtration method and to make the Arkavathi scheme work with design capacity. After the completion of BWSSB Stage-IV, Phase-II project in Vrishbhavati valley the STPs will be V-valley STP (180MLD). Presently a 60MLD tertiary treatment plant exists in the V-valley which supplies the recycled water for non-domestic purpose. BWSSB has planned to expand the tertiary treatment plant to 135MLD. The treated water is to be pumped to Tavarekere which is around 20k.m from V-valley and then the water has to be treated using ultra filtration membrane and then discharge to the Arkavathi River 7km upstream of the Chamraj Sagar (Intake for Arkavati Scheme) to use the Arkavathi scheme with full design capacity. After successful completion of this project the full capacity of 148MLD of water will be available for the city from T.G.Halli. It is a first of its kind in India for indirect potable use. Source: DRR for Sewerage Treatment Plant, BWSSB-Phase-2 Project It is possible to use tertiary treated water for industrial purpose. BWSSB is currently supplying tertiary treated water for industrial or non-domestic use. Technical Paper  Page 11 of 13 
  12. 12. Five major Tertiary Treatment Plants such as Yelahanka 10MLD plant which supplies water to Bangalore International Airport Limited (BIAL), Near HAL Airport tertiary treatment plant which is supplying to the near by gulf court, Cubbon Park and Lalbagh each 1.5MLD plant which is used for park maintenance and Vrishabhavathi valley 60MLD plant supplying to various small industries and non-domestic bulk consumers at a very affordable rates. It will help to conserve more fresh portable water. So in the future more tertiary treated water can be used for industrial supply so that more water will be available for drinking purpose. 5.4 Public awareness for rain water harvesting for watering garden/lawn/cleaning cars/reuse of water Public awareness is one of the major factors for water demand and supply management. Public should get the proper knowledge about the value of water and the conservation of water. It is BWSSB or Government’s duty to educate people not to misuse the water and the various methods adopted for water conservation. Rainwater harvesting can be made compulsory for each house hold and Government should give some subsidy for this. Individual household can do rain harvesting when water falling on a flat rooftop should be made to run through a pipe connected to the roof and prevented from running off to the drainage on the roadside. This is one time investment for individuals and the return in long term is much higher than the initial investment. Also the water supply of BWSSB to those individuals will be reduced and BWSSB can serve more demand with the same supply. 6. Conclusions BWSSB or Government of Karnataka has to take some necessary actions to solve the water problem in the city. BWSSB should find some alternative and economical way to solve the water scarcity of the city. The water loss due to UFW in the distribution system has to be minimized so that not only more revenue will be generated but also more water will be available to serve more population. BWSSB should execute the UFW project successfully to reduce the UFW from 37% to 16% and in the future they should maintain the lowest leakage level possible in the system. BWSSB have to give training to its staff and workers to use new techniques/equipments to minimize UFW in the system. Reuse of water has to be implemented by BWSSB fast to get the additional supply in the system. There are tertiary treatment plants in the city and BWSSB should increase the capacity and number to meet the maximum industrial demand “or” application for indirect potable/non-potable use. Public awareness should be properly done and educate people to conserve water. BWSSB have already done many activities of rain water harvesting. BWSSB should emphasize more on rainwater harvesting and spread the public awareness all over the city to save the water. “Water is a finite resource and There is always a tomorrow” Technical Paper  Page 12 of 13 
  13. 13. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank, the consultant consortium, Nippon Jogesuido Sekkei Co. Ltd., Mott Macdonald Ltd., TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd. and BWSSB Staff for providing valuable information and comments to write this technical paper. The authors also thank the management of TCE & BWSSB for their encouragement in writing this paper. References The following documents were referred during this paper writing: i) Final report of Pre-feasibility study for storing rainwater runoff in lakes, TCE. ii) Reuse of Waste Water in Vrishabhavati Valley, Integrated Water Management Project, NMT. iii) Various BWSSB Project Reports. iv) Bangalore boom will be a doom – Without Water Conservation, M.N.Thippeswamy, Souvenir, World Water Day – 2007. v) Internet Web Literatures from the following sites: Technical Paper  Page 13 of 13 
  14. 14. Address for Correspondence:  Deepak Kumar Mallick  NJS‐MM‐TCE, BWSSP(II)  Project Office: 9th Floor, BWSSB Building,  Cauvery Bhawan, K.G.Road,  Bangalore‐560009, KARNATAKA.  Mobile: 09343196909  Tel: 080‐41694731, 32, Fax: 080‐41694730  E‐mail:    Brief Biodata of Authors  Mr. Deepak Kumar Mallick, Engineer‐Civil, TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd., Mumbai. (Primary Author for Correspondence)  Mr. Deepak Kumar Mallick is working as Engineer‐Civil in TCE Consulting Engineers Ltd  since August 2006. He has a B.Tech(H) Degree in Civil Engineering from IIT, Kharagpur  with  2.5  years  of  experience  in  design  and  implementation  of  mega  infrastructure  projects for metros and big cities in India. His areas of special focus have been water  supply,  sanitation,  storm  water  drainage  and  sewage  treatment  plants  for  Urban  Infrastructure projects.  Presently  he  is  working  in  Bangalore  Water  Supply  and  Sewerage  Project,  Stage‐IV‐ Phase‐2, JBIC Funding. Prior to this he has worked on Urban Water Supply and Sanitary  Improvement Project MP under ADB funding for two major cities, Bhopal and Jabalpur.      Mr. R. Vasudevan, Chief Engineer (Cauvery), Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Bangalore.  Mr. R.Vasudevan is Chief Engineer (Cauvery) in Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage  Board. He has a B.E Degree in Electrical Engineering from Bangalore University. He has  more  than  37  years  of  experience  in  water  supply  and  sanitation  field.  His  areas  of  special focus have been Project Management, Metering, Procurement, Water Supply,  Sanitation, Storm Water Drainage, Water Treatment Plants, Sewage Treatment Plants,  Pipeline  &  Pumping  stations.  He  has  played  a  key  role  in  project  implementation  of  Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Project, Stage‐I, II, III and IV‐Phase – 1 & 2.