The Cold War 1945-1991 Kaelyn See, Samuel Leyva,Melissa Orellana, Luigi Gatuslao
Beginning TensionsAtlantic Charter: The Big Three created 8 common principles in hope for a better future for the world. Two Separate Visions1. Americans favored removal of the military alliances and the construction of relationships between nations based on diplomatic means. Great Britain Russia VS.2. uneasy about the wanted land to implications of the self- secure protection for determination ideal for its future aggression own enormous empire
Wartime Diplomacy• Soviet Union demanded a 2nd front in Western Europe; U.S. and Britain refused• Teheran Conference with the Big Three o Stalin agreed to enter the war in the Pacific when the battles in Europe end o Roosevelt promised a 2nd front• Conflict over Poland o Roosevelt and Churchill Pro-Annexation of Poland by Soviet Union, but against changing it to a communist government
Yalta Conference• Peace conference in February 1945• Soviet Union enters war, Roosevelt compensates by returning some of their lost land• The United Nations o General Assembly Every member would be represented o Security Council Permanent representatives of 5 major powers with power to veto Temporary delegates from other nations• Division of Germany and Berlin between the United States, Britain, France, and the Soviet Union• "Lublin" Poles vs. "London" Poles
The Failure at Potsdam (July 17-August 2,1945) • Truman upset with Soviet violations of the Yalta accords. • Truman expanding democracy in Poland = recognizing the Warsaw government • Potsdam Conference (Truman, Churchill and Stalin) discussed border conflicts regarding communist ideals • Stalin confirmed his adjustments of the Polish-German border (divisions remained in Germany)GERMANY STILL DIVIDED! WESTERN ZONES RUSSIAN ZONES -anti-communist -communist -friendly with the U.S. -Pro-Soviet
The China Problem Chiang Kai-Shek Mao Zedong -Anti-communist -communist• -unwilling to ally with U.S. -Weak/unpopular VS. -Stronger/popular• The United States continued to support Chiang’s anti- communist government• Since there are many conflicts within China, the U.S. restored their trust in Japan as an ally.• The U.S. lifted all restrictions on industrial development and encouraged rapid economic growth in Japan.
The Containment Doctrine• New containment American policy = THE SOVIETS!!! Stalin spreading Truman’s doctrine of communism increasing the arms throughout the forces of Greece and Mediterranean Turkey• Doctrine Ideals taken from George F. Kennan - Proper way of dealing with Soviets is "a long term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies."• Soviet pressure on Turkey was relieved and the Greek governments defeated their communist efforts.
Marshall Plan• Gave Europe money to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism.• Conflicting views changed after coup in Czechoslovakia.• Communist strength declined and opportunities for American trade revived.
Mobilization at Home• The Atomic Energy Commission of 1946 oversaw all nuclear research.• The National Security Act of 1947 expanded the Presidents powers to pursue the nations international goals.• The Department of Defense oversaw all branches of the armed services.• A National Security Council would oversee foreign and military policy.• A Central Intelligence Agency would be responsible for collecting information through open and covert methods.
The Road to NATOBIG POWER Parts of U.S AGAINSTGermany & England SOVIETS!!! Berlin: France Truman supplied Western Germany Stalin imposed blockade with food, fuel, around Eastern Germany etc. for 10 months (June 24, 1948) NATO - April 4, 1949 (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)Stalin lifted - 12 Nations signedblockade - Communist - attack on one nation = attack to all
Reevaluating Cold War Policy• Americans scares of Soviet bomb testing• The fall of the Chiang Kai-shek’s government + America’s unwillingness to revitalize connections with Japan = end of the American occupation in Asia by• 1952.• The National Security Council (1950)- U.S. not depend on other nations to take the initiative in resisting communism.• The NSC-68 o strive to stop communism anywhere it occurred o called for a major expansion of military power o an increase of defense budget
Limited Mobilization• Truman set up the Office of Defense Mobilization to fight inflation by holding down prices and discouraging high union wage demands. (FAILED) Cause Effect 1951- Truman seized the railroads after Workers ultimately got what they railroad workers walked off on the job demanded 1952- Truman seized steel mills after The Supreme Court ruled that the wide steel strike President had exceeded his authority• Truman was forced to relent.• When the war went into a stalemate, it infuriated Americans because it left 140,000 Americans dead.
POSTWAR Servicemen’s• NO general Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill of Rights): economic collapse provided economic and educational assistance to because the end of veterans, increasing the war came so spending even further. early... YAY! But• that wasnt the end of increased consumer demand soon it. compensated.• serious inflation for more than two years (14 to 15 percent annually)
The Fair DealAfter Japan surrendered, Truman submitted the “Fair Deal” which consisted of a twenty-one-point domestic program, calling for:• expansion of Social Security benefits• raising of the legal minimum wage from 40 to 65 cents an hour• a program to ensure full employment through aggressive use of federal spending and investment• a permanent Fair Employment Practices Act• public housing and slum clearance• long-range environmental and public works planning• government promotion of scientific research
Fair Deal New Deal• created by Harry S. • created by Franklin Truman D. Roosevelt • designed to keep • designed to take US growing after the US out of the the war Great Depression. • improved civil rights legislation • more New Deal legislations than • created federal Fair Deal housing programs Legislation
The "Eat Less" Response • Inflation rapidly increased, and Republican conservatives DIDNT help. • Robert Taft, most influential conservationist advised consumers to "eat less." • Taft-Hartley Act: most importantly, made illegal the "closed shop" o damaged weak unions o made difficult the organizing of workers who had never been union members at all (esp. women, minorities and South)"We have got to break with the corrupting idea that we can legislate prosperity, legislate equality, legislate opportunity."
Election of 1948 Democratic Party States Rights Party Republican Party Progressive Party Harry S. Truman (Dixiecrat Party) Thomas E. Dewey Henry A. WallacePopular Vote: 49.5% Strom Thurmond Popular Vote: 45.07% Popular Vote: 2.37% Electoral Vote: 303 Popular Vote: 2.41% Electoral Vote: 189 Electoral Vote: 0 Electoral Vote: 39
A Fair Deal Revived?Social Security system: increased benefits by 75 percent and extended to 10 million peopleNational Housing Act: authorized 810,000 units of low-income housing, accompanied by long-term rent subsidiariesMinimum wage: increased to 75 centsShelley v. Kraemer (1948): the Supreme Court ruled that courts could not be used to enforce private “covenants” meant to bar blacks from residential neighborhoods.
The Nuclear Age• The Americans feared the nuclear weapons which was demonstrated in: o Film film noir - a kind of filmmaking that had originated in France and had been named for the dark lighting that was characteristic of the genre Example: Twilight Zone o Everyday Life Air Raid drills Fallout Shelters
The Divided PeninsulaSouth Korea North Korea• anti-communist (democratic) • communist• didnt want to unite Korea • wanted to unite Korea• wasnt directly supported by • supported by Soviet Union the U.S.• Divided along the 38th parallel• The U.S. got the UN to support South Korea and General Douglas MacArthur• American attack at Inchon sent North Koreans out of S. K. lands.• Truman gave permission to push communist passed the 38th parallel
From Invasion to Stalemate• UN defeated North Korean pressures in their capital, Pyongyang• 8 divisions of the Chinese army supported the North Koreans and captured the South Korean capital, Seoul.• UN gained their land + pushed N.K. north of the 38th = War fell into a stalemate• General MacArthur o won public support of attacking China o relieved of his command o American public outraged = resentment towards Truman• The stalemate of the Korean war continued; however, negotiations between the opposing sides began in Panmunjom in July 1951 and the war dragged on until 1953.
HUAC and Alger Hiss• HUAC held widely publicized investigations to prove that there was communist subversion.• Turned to movie industry, arguing that communists had infiltrated Hollywood.• "The Hollywood ten" refused to answer questions about their political beliefs. • Alger Hiss passed classified state documents to the Soviet Union. • Hiss sued Whittaker Chambers for slander. • Hiss was convicted of perjury and served several years in prison.
The Federal Loyalty Program andthe Rosenberg Case• McCarran Internal Security Act (1950): requires all communist organizations to register with the government.• Julius & Ethel Rosenberg proved American conspiracy.• Klaus Fuchs testified to conspiracy.• David Greenglass admitted to channelling secret information to the Soviet Union.• The Rosenbergs were convicted.
The Republican Revival Democrat Republican Adlai E. Stevenson Dwight D. Eisenhower 44% Popular Vote 55% Popular Vote 89 Electoral Votes 442 Electoral Votes * Truman withdraws from running for president * Eisenhowers running mate was Richard Nixon