Ch 29: The Cold War


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Alan Brinkley
American History: A Survey, 10th edition
Chapter 29

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  • YouTube: VENONA vs. Rosenbergs (2:54)
  • Ch 29: The Cold War

    1. 1. The Cold War
    2. 2.  Origins of the Cold War The Collapse of Peace Society and Politics After the Cold War
    3. 3.  Soviet-American Tensions  Different visions of the post-war world  US: nations shed military alliances; used democratic international mediators  Soviet Union: sought to control areas of strategic influence Wartime Diplomacy  1943: Tensions began because the Allied refused to invade as the Soviets fought Germany on the Eastern front and because disputes over the governance of Poland were unresolved at the Tehran Conference
    4. 4.  Yalta  Big Three (Churchill, Truman, Stali n) meet in 1945 to create the UN  Disagreements: The future of the Polish government; finally agree to give each other a German “zone”  US: German reconstruction  Soviet Union: Heavy reparations
    5. 5.  Failure of Potsdam  The new US President Truman wanted to “get tough” with Soviets; mentioned he had a “powerful new weapon”  Stalin received newly independent nations  Failure: Frequent disagreements led to future discontent (Soviet extension of totalitarian control in new nations) The China Problem  The US had a vision of an open world “policed” by the major powers  Problem: the Chinese government, unpopular and corrupt, believed America had imperialist motives in China and gave conflicting consideration to the Soviet Union and the US
    6. 6.  The Containment Doctrine  US no longer wanted an “open” world but a “contained” Soviet (and communistic) expansion  Doctrine: Military and economic efforts to prevent communism; “domino theory” (if one falls, all will fall) The Marshall Plan  1947 plan by Secretary of State George Marshall to aid all European nations to strengthen pro-US governments against communism
    7. 7.  Mobilization at Home  Established Atomic Energy Commission to control nuclear research  National Security Act of 1947 created the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligent Agency The Road to NATO  Truman merged German “western zones” into West Germany Reevaluating Cold War Policy  NSC-68 report: US should lead the noncommunist world and oppose communist expansion everywhere; expanded military power
    8. 8.  German “zones” were divided between the Soviet Union, US, France, and Great Britain at the Potsdam Conference Berlin Blockade  City of Berlin was also divided into four zones  1948-1949: Soviets blocked aid into Berlin  Western Allies organized the Berlin Airlift  “Operation Little Vittles”Strategically, how could the Soviets take control of Berlin so easily?
    9. 9.  Problems of Reconversion  Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 provided education and economic aid to returning soldiers; increased spending prevented economic collapse  Problems: high inflation, union strikes, and displaced minorities and women as soldiers returned to labor Fair Deal Rejected  Fair Deal: liberal reforms; opposed by Republicans who wanted to reduce government spending, cut taxes for the wealthy and refused to raise wages  Republicans also sought to decrease the power of unions through the Taft-Hartley Act, making “closed-shop” illegal (requiring union membership before being hired)
    10. 10.  Election of 1948  Truman sought re-election; Dixiecrats and progressives refused full support  Republicans nominated Dewey; Truman won and Democrats won House and Senate Fair Deal Revived  Minimum wage increase, Social Security expansion; desegregated the armed forces Nuclear Age  Nuclear weapons viewed with fear though awed the public with technological advancements
    11. 11.  The Divided Peninsula  Korea divided at the 38th Parallel (Communist North, Syngman Rhee’s South)  North invaded south in 1950 in hopes of reuniting; US won UN resolution for support of South Korean armies – result was “containment” and “liberation”
    12. 12.  From Invasion to Stalemate  MacArthur advanced into the North; Chinese entered conflict with Korea in late 1950  UN armies retreated to 38th Parallel; stalemate until 1953  Truman wanted peace, MacArthur opposed it (relieved of command in 1951) Limited Mobilization  War led to limited mobilization: Truman created the Office of Defense Mobilization to combat rising inflation, the government seized railroads and steel mills during union strikes, and increased government spending stimulated the economy  Unable to quickly end a “small” war, fear grew of communists at home
    13. 13.  When: June 25, 1950 – July 27, 1953 What: Conflict between the Communist North (supported by the Soviets) and non-Communists in the South of Korea (supported by the US); the US entered the war to stop communism from spreading (containment policy); if one country falls to communism so too will surrounding countries (domino theory) Before the war: After WWII, Korea was divided along the 38th Parallel into Soviet (North) and US (South) zones of occupation; after awhile, their relationship grew increasingly strained and the North invaded the South During the war: Frontlines went back and forth around the 38th Parallel, agreement was made and war ended; about 5 million soldiers and civilians died
    14. 14.  HUAC and Alger Hiss  “Red Scare” was prompted by fear of Stalin and growing Communism  Republicans sought to use those feelings to win support against Democrats; Congress created HUAC  Former State Department official Alger Hiss was investigated revealing he complied with communists further increasing fear
    15. 15.  Federal Loyalty Program and the Rosenberg Case  1947: Truman began program to determine “loyalty” of federal employees as the FBI monitored radicals  1950: Congress passed the McCarran Internal Security Act forcing communist groups to register with the government  The Rosenberg’s were questioned following the Soviet explosion of an atomic bomb  Anticommunist hysteria was now at the national, state, and local levels
    16. 16.  McCarthyism  1951: Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy leveled charges of communist agents in the State Department and other agencies; his subcommittee was at the fore of anticommunism Republican Revival  Korean stalemate and anticommunism sentiments led to the Democrats’ disappointments  Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson; Republicans nominated General Dwight Eisenhower (and Richard Nixon as his running mate)  Eisenhower won by a huge margin; Republicans gained control in both Houses of Congress
    17. 17.  Harry S Truman  Truman on Ending a War: Atomic Bombs (2:55) The Korean War  Unforgettable: The Korean War (5:43) The Cold War  The Cold War (2:31) The “Red Scare”  Project VENONA vs. Rosenbergs (2:54)  Red Scare and HUAC (5:33)  1950: The Hollywood Ten (15:02) Nuclear Weapons  1951: Duck and Cover (9:15)