Learning Goal0 CRN Benchmark: 13.11.3 S-0 Identify the key ideas and evaluate the results ofpopular protest movements of this era (Civil Rightsmovement, resistance to the war in Vietnam)
The Free Speech Movement,Berkeley, California, 1964. TheFree Speech Movement on thecampus of the University ofCalifornia at Berkeley markedthe first of the large scale studentmobilizations that rockedcampuses across the countrythroughout the rest of the 1960s.Here a student schooled inpassive resistance is dragged bypolice to a waiting bus.
The LBJ Brand on thePresidency0 After prodding from PresidentJohnson, Congress passed thelandmark Civil Rights Act of1964, banning racialdiscrimination in most privatefacilities open to the public.0 It strengthened the federalgovernments power to endsegregation in schools and otherpublic places.0 It also created the federal EqualEmployment OpportunityCommission (EEOC) to eliminatediscrimination in hiring.0 Part of the acts Title VII passedwith sexual clause ensuring somespecial attention for women.
Affirmative Action0 In 1965, PresidentJohnson issued anexecutive order requiringall federal contractors totake "affirmative action"against discrimination.0 Included policies of thegovernment aimed atincreasing access to jobs,schooling, andopportunities to peoplepreviously discriminatedagainst
The GreatSociety0 Johnson added proposalsof his own to Kennedysstalled tax bill to allow fora billion-dollar "War onPoverty."0 He dubbed his domesticprogram the "GreatSociety" - a sweeping setof New Dealish economicand welfare measuresaimed at transforming theAmerican way of life.
Johnson Battles Goldwaterin 19640 The Democrats nominatedLyndon Johnson to run forpresident for the election of1964.0 The Republicans choseSenator Barry Goldwater.0 Goldwater attacked thefederal income tax, the SocialSecurity System, theTennessee Valley Authority,civil rights legislation, thenuclear test-ban treaty, andthe Great Society.
Goldwater and the PremierAttack Ad0 In the 1964 election, Republican Barry Goldwater campaigned on a right-wing message of cutting social programs and aggressive military action.0 Goldwaters campaign suggested a willingness to use nuclear weapons insituations when others would find that unacceptable, something whichJohnson sought to capitalize on.0 For example, Johnson used Goldwaters speeches to imply that he wouldwillingly wage a nuclear war, quoting Goldwater: "by one impulse act youcould press a button and wipe out 300 million people before sun down."0 In turn, Goldwater defended himself by accusing Johnson of making theaccusation indirectly, and contending that the media blew the issue out ofproportion.0 While Johnson wished to de-escalate the Vietnam War, Goldwater was asupporter and even suggested the use of nuclear weapons if necessary.0 The attack ad was designed to capitalize on these comments.
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident0 In August 1964 in the Gulf ofTonkin, U.S. Navy ships hadbeen cooperating with theSouth Vietnamese in raidsalong the coast of NorthVietnam.0 On August 2th and August4th, two U.S. ships wereallegedly fired upon.0 Johnson called the attack"unprovoked" and moved tomake political gains out of theincident.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution0 He ordered a "limited"retaliatory air raid against theNorth Vietnamese bases.0 He also used the event to spurcongressional passage of theTonkin Gulf Resolution;lawmakers [Congress] virtuallygave up their war-declaringpowers and handed thepresident a blank check to usefurther force in Southeast Asia.0 Lyndon Johnsonoverwhelmingly won theelection of 1964.
TRUTH REVEALED0 In 2005, an internalNational Security Agencyhistorical study wasdeclassified; it concludedthat the Maddox hadengaged the NorthVietnamese Navy onAugust 2, but that therewere no North VietnameseNaval vessels presentduring the incident ofAugust 4.0 The report stated regardingAugust 2:0 At 1505G, Captain Herrickordered Ogiers gun crews toopen fire if the boatsapproached within tenthousand yards.0 At about 1505G, the Maddoxfired three rounds to warn offthe communist boats.0 This initial action was neverreported by the Johnsonadministration, whichinsisted that the Vietnameseboats fired first
No attack0 Regarding August 4:0 It is not simply that there is a different story as to whathappened; it is that no attack happened that night. [...] Intruth, Hanois navy was engaged in nothing that night butthe salvage of two of the boats damaged on August 20 US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara failed to inform USPresident Lyndon B. Johnson that the U.S. naval task groupcommander in the Tonkin Gulf, Captain John J. Herrick, hadchanged his mind about the alleged North Vietnamesetorpedo attack on U.S. warships he had reported earlierthat day.0 In 1965, President Johnson commented privately: "For all Iknow, our Navy was shooting at whales out there."
The Great Society Congress0 Congress passed a flood oflegislation, comparable to outputof the Hundred Days Congress.0 Escalating the War on Poverty,Congress doubled the funding ofthe Office of EconomicOpportunity to $2 billion.0 Congress also created two newcabinet offices: the Departmentof Transportation and theDepartment of Housing andUrban Development (HUD).0 The National Endowments forthe Arts and the Humanities wasdesigned to lift the level ofAmerican cultural life.
Immigration andNationality Act of 19650 The Immigration andNationality Act of 1965abolished the quota system thathad been in place since 1921.0 It also doubled the number ofimmigrants allowed to enter thecountry annually.0 The sources of immigrationshifted from Europe to LatinAmerican andAsia. Conservatives chargedthat the problem of povertycould not be fixed with moneyspent by the Great Societyprograms, yet the poverty ratedid decline in the followingdecade.
Giving Thanks for Medicare. An elderly woman showed her gratitude toPresident Lyndon B. Johnson for his signing of the Medicare Bill in April, 1965,providing basic medical care for the aged. In tribute to former presidentTruman’s unsuccessful effort to pass a national medical insurance programtwenty years earlier, Johnson flew to Truman’s Missouri home to sign the billthat he claimed would deliver “care for the sick and serenity for the fearful”. Noone acknowledged that Truman’s earlier plan had been much morecomprehensive or that Johnson, a young Texas congressman, had opposed it.
Battling for Black Rights0 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 gavethe federal government morepower to enforce school-desegregation orders and toprohibit racial discrimination in allkinds of public accommodationsand employment.0 President Johnson realized theproblem that few blacks wereregistered to vote.0 The 24th Amendment, passed in1964, abolished the poll tax infederal elections, yet blacks werestill severely hampered fromvoting.0 Congress passed the Voting RightsAct of 1965, banning literacy testsand sending federal voter registersinto several southern states.
Watts Riot0 Days after the Voting RightsAct of 1965 was passed, abloody riot erupted in Watts, ablack ghetto in Los Angeles.0 Blacks were enraged by policebrutality and burned andlooted their ownneighborhoods for a week.0 The Watts explosion markedincreasing militantconfrontation in the blackstruggle
MALCOLM X0 Malcolm X deepened thedivision among blackleaders.0 He was first inspired bythe militant clacknationalists in the Nationof Islam.0 He rallied black separatismand disapproved of the"blue-eyed white devils."0 In 1965, he was shot andkilled by a rival Nation ofIslam.
Malcolm X. The charismaticblack leader was ahypnotizing speaker whocould rivet and arouse crowswith his call for blackseparatism. At the end of hislife, Malcolm began to temperhis separatist creed.
Black Power!0 The violence or threat ofviolence increased as theBlack Panther partyemerged, openly carryingweapons in the streets ofOakland, California.0 Just as the civil rightsmovement had achieved itsgreatest legal and politicaltriumphs, more riots erupted.0 Black unemployment wasnearly double than for whites.
Combating Communism inTwo Hemispheres0 In April 1965, President Johnson sent 25,000 troops to theDominican Republic to restore order after a revolt againstthe military government started.0 Johnson claimed, with shaky evidence, that the DominicanRepublic was the target of a Castrolike coup.0 He was widely condemned for his actions.0 In February 1965, Viet Cong guerrillas attacked anAmerican air base at Pleiku, South Vietnam, promptingJohnson to send retaliatory bomb raids and, for the firsttime, order attacking U.S. troops to land.0 By the middle of March 1965, "Operation RollingThunder" was in full swing - regular full-scale bombingattacks against North Vietnam.
South Vietnam’s Woes0 The South Vietnamese watched astheir own war became moreAmericanized.0 Corrupt and collapsiblegovernments fell one afteranother in Saigon, yet Americanofficials continued to talk ofdefending a faithful democratically.0 Pro-war hawks argued that if theUnited Sates were to leaveVietnam, other nations woulddoubt Americas word andcrumble to communism.0 By 1968, Johnson had put morethan 500,000 troops in SoutheastAsia, and the annual cost for thewar was exceeding $30 billion.
Overburdened0 Over commitment in SoutheastAsia tied Americas handselsewhere.0 In June 1967, after numerousmilitary threats presented byEgypt, Israel launched a pre-emptive attack on Egypts airforce, starting the Six-DayWar.0 Following the war, Israelgained the territories of theGolan Heights, the Gaza Strip,and the West Bank.0 Arab Palestinians and theirArab allies complained aboutIsraels doing, but all to noavail.
Vietnam Vexations0 Antiwar demonstrationsincreased significantly asmore and more Americansoldiers died in the VietnamWar.0 Protesters sayings included,"Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kidsdid you kill today?”0 Senator William Fulbrightstaged a series of televisedhearings in 1966 and 1967 inwhich he convinced thepublic that it had beendeceived about the causesand "winnability" of the war.
A Most Unpopular War0 When Defense SecretaryMcNamara expressed discomfortabout the war, he was quietlyremoved from office.0 By early 1968, the war hadbecome the longest and mostunpopular foreign war in thenations history.0 The government failed to explainto the people what was supposedto be at stake in Vietnam.0 Casualties, killed, and woundedhad exceeded 100,000, and morebombs had been dropped inVietnam than in World War II.
The Vietnam Quagmire. Marine PFC Phillip Mark Wilson of Wolforth, Texas,carries a rocket launcher across a stream near the “demilitarized zone” [DMZ] thatseparated North and South Vietnam. Wilson was killed in action soon after thisphoto was taken, just five days after his 21st birthday.
Goodbye to Civil Liberties0 In 1967, Johnsonordered the CIA to spyon domestic antiwaractivists. He alsoencouraged the FBI toturn itscounterintelligenceprogram, code-named"Cointelpro," againstthe peace movement.
Vietnam Topples Johnson0 In January 1968, the Viet Congattacked 27 key South Vietnamesecities, including Saigon.0 The Tet Offensive ended in amilitary defeat for the VC, but itcaused the American public todemand an immediate end to thewar.0 American military leadersresponded to the attacks for arequest of 200,000 more troops.0 President Johnson himself nowbegan to seriously doubt thewisdom of continuing to raise thestakes.
Tet Offensive0 1968; National Liberation Front and NorthVietnamese forces launched a huge attack on theVietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated aftera month of fighting and many thousands of casualties;major defeat for communism, but Americans reactedsharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
An Era of New Democrats0 Eugene McCarthy and Robert F.Kennedy both entered the racefor the 1968 Democraticpresidential nomination.0 On March 31, 1968, PresidentJohnson issued an address tothe nation stating that hewould freeze American trooplevels and gradually shift moreresponsibility to the SouthVietnamese themselves.0 Bombing would also be scaleddown.0 He also declared that he wouldnot be a candidate for thepresidency in 1968.
The Assassination of MLK JR0 On April 4, 1968,Martin Luther King, Jr.was shot and killed by asniper in Memphis,Tennessee.0 Black voter registrationeventually increased,and by the late 1960s,several hundred blacksheld elected office in theOld South.
The PresidentialSweepstakes of 19680 On June 5, 1968, the night of the California primary, Robert Kennedy wasshot and killed by an Arab immigrant, Sirhan Sirhan, resentful of thecandidates pro-Israel views.0 When the Democrats met in Chicago in August 1968, angry antiwarzealots, protesting outside the convention hall, violently clashed withpolice.0 Hubert H. Humphrey, vice president of Johnson, won the Democraticnomination.0 The Republicans nominated Richard Nixon for president and Spiro T.Agnew for vice president.0 The Republican platform called for a victory in Vietnam and a stronganticrime policy.0 The American Independent party, headed by George C. Wallace, enteredthe race and called for the continuation of segregation of blacks.
The Siege of Chicago, 1968. Antiwar protesters staged demonstrations in the streets ofChicago during the Democratic National Convention in August, 1968. Some 2,500 membersof the radical Youth International Party [known as the Yippies] planned a peaceful “festivalof light” across the street from the convention hall, but instead found themselves drawn ina melee with the police and National Guardsmen. The confrontation badle tarnishedDemocratic candidate Hubert Humphrey’s presidential campaign. His Republicanopponent Nixon, won the presidency with calls for an “honorable peace” in Vietnam and“law and order” at home.
Victory for Nixon0 Richard Nixon won theelection of 1968 asHumphrey was scorchedby the LBJ brand.0 Nixon did not win a singlemajor city, attesting to thecontinuing urban strengthof the Democrats, who alsowon about 95% of theblack vote.
The Obituary of LyndonJohnson0 No president since Lincoln had donemore for civil rights than LBJ.0 By 1966, the Vietnam War broughtdissent to Johnson, and as war costssucked tax dollars, Great Societyprograms began to wither.0 LBJ was persuaded by his advisors thatan easy victory in Vietnam would beachieved by massive aerial bombing andlarge troop commitments.0 His decision to not escalate the fightingoffended the "hawks," and his refusal toback off altogether provoked the"doves."
The Cultural Upheaval ofthe 1960s0 Everywhere in 1960sAmerica, a newly negativeattitude toward all kinds ofauthority took hold.0 Disillusioned by thediscovery that Americansociety was not free ofracism, sexism,imperialism, andoppression, many youngpeople lost their morals.
Radical Protests0 One of the first organizedprotests against establishedauthority took place at theUniversity of California atBerkeley in 1964, in theFree SpeechMovement. Leader MarioSavio condemned theimpersonal university"machine."0 Angered by the war inVietnam, some middle classsons and daughters becameradical political rebels.
The Sexual Revolution0 The 1960s alsowitnessed a "sexualrevolution."0 The introduction of thebirth control pill madeunwanted pregnancieseasy to avoid.0 “Whether a woman haschildren or not is thebiggest singledeterminant of whethershes educated or not,poor or not, and healthyor not,…” –GloriaSteinem
Gays Become Militant0 By the 1960s, gay menand lesbians wereincreasingly emergingand demanding sexualtolerance.0 The MattachineSociety, founded in1951, was an advocatefor gay rights.
The Stonewall Riots0 Stonewall Rebellion(1969) Uprising insupport of rights for gaypeople sparked by anassault by off-duty policeofficers at a gay bar in NewYork. The rebellion led to arise in activism andmilitancy within the gaycommunity and furtheredthe sexual revolution of thelate 1960s.“Lets pay them off!"
The First Gay Pride Parade, New York City, 1970. On the first anniversary ofhomosexuals’ celebrated resistance to police harassment at the Stonewall Inn, onJune 27, 1969, two hundred men and women marched from Greenwich Village toCentral Park, initiating a tradition that now has spread to many other Americancities and around the globe, attracting thousands of paraders, onlookers, and evenprominent politicians.
Worries in the 1980s of AIDSand other sexuallytransmitted diseases finallyslowed the sexual revolution.
Societal Unrest0 Students for a DemocraticSociety (SDS), had, by theend of the 1960s, spawned anunderground terrorist groupcalled the Weathermen.0 The upheavals of the 1960scould be largely attributed tothe three Ps: the youthfulpopulation bulge, protestagainst racism and theVietnam War, and theapparent permanence ofprosperity.