Post WWII: Shifting US- Soviet Relations• April 1945 – What impression of US-Soviet relations is conveyed? – What accounts for this tone?• March 1946 – How has the tone of international relations changed? – What accounts for this shift in attitude?• Political Cartoons – Compare the messages of the 2 cartoons. – Do they distort or merely highlight the messages contained in the passages? – Which is more effective at conveying the intended message, the passages or cartoons?
Learning Objectives• Explain the growth of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union after Germany’s defeat and Truman’s accession to the presidency.• Describe the early Cold War conflicts over Germany and Eastern Europe and the failure of the United Nations to resolve Soviet-American tensions.• Discuss American efforts to “contain” the Soviets through the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and NATO.
The Yalta Conference –February 1945“The Big Three” • FDR, Stalin, Churchill • Compromises for post-war coexistence – Division of Germany into 4 occupied zones (U.S., British, Soviet, French) – Stalin – free elections in Poland, other E. European nations – Soviets would join war against Japan – International Conference in San Francisco (UN)
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & US & the Eastern Bloc Western Nations Democracies [behind the “Iron Curtain”] GOAL “Containment” GOAL spread world- of Communism & the wide Communism eventual collapse of the Communist world.METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” (Korea, Vietnam, Middle East) Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
The Grand Alliance • Competing ideological and geopolitical goals, but in pursuit of a common objective • Tragedy of WWII – true victory would require victors to stop being who they were, & much of what they fought for • Victory over fascism only, NOT authoritarianism!
Historical DifferencesSoviet Union US• Bolshevik • American Revolution Revolution – distrust of authority embraced concentrated • Constrained power authority • Restricted role of• Govt took govt in everyday life away all • Freest society on liberties Earth in ‘45• Most authoritarian govt on Earth
Motivations/AimsSoviet Union (Stalin) US (Truman)• Most casualties – 27 • 2 separate wars million • Post-PH, US never (military/civilian) bombed• Country in ruins from • Industrial mobilization war; Industries helped economy devastated • Chose when and where to• War fought on enemy’s fight terms • GDP doubled in less than• AIMS: security, 4 years rebuilding, “buffer” from further attack • AIMS: couldn’t remain isolationist; collective (sphere of influence); security (UN); rebuild capitalist self- Europe, rebuild Germany, destruction raw materials/markets in E Europe, containment of
Spheres of Influence• FDR feared loss of self-determination in Europe (Atlantic Charter ’41)• “satellite states” – “friendly nations” on Soviet border, border extended West• Red Army installed puppet regimes in rest of E. Europe• Poland – no free elections; SU took 1/3, installed pro-Soviet regime – COST – resentful Poland, distrust of Allies
The “Iron Curtain”From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an ironcurtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that linelies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Cold War in a nutshell…• US & GB – Global security, balance of power, self- determination & economic integration to prevent future wars – **multilateral approach• Soviets – Soviet security – Capitalist fratricide – Domination of Europe – **unilateral
What did Post-War Germany look like? West Berlin - like a capitalist island within communist East Germany
Post-War Germany• Disagreement – SU wants reparations; US – healthy German economy essential to European recovery• Joint occupation by Allies• 2/3 = US, GB, France• 1/3 = Soviets – surrounded jointly occ. Berlin – Small % of industrial facilities – Stalin thought – E. Germ. would be a magnet for West, eventually a unified, communist govt.• NO UNIFICATION – Stalin fearful, Western powers wanted united Germany
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49) Berlin blockade - attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting to the communistsBerlin Airlift - western powers’ airlift of food/supplies to W.Berlin (determination to use all resources to defend Berlin) Berlin could act as the trigger for war between capitalist and communist countries
Results of the Failed Blockade• PR victory for W. Allies• Made Stalin look incompetent/cruel• Fueled passage of Truman Doctrine and creation of NATO
Containment Doctrine • George Kennan • Assumption – SU relentlessly expansionist • prevent extension of communist rule to other countries
Truman Doctrine  (video)• Civil War in Greece.• Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.• U.S. will support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.• The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.• Criticism: needless polarization? Made SU threat mostly military
Marshall Plan • “European Recovery Program”• The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it.• Congress prompted by Soviet coup in Czechoslovakia Secretary of State, George Marshall• Stalin rejected aid offered to E. Europe and SU
America Rearms• National Security Act (47) – Dept. of Defense – National Security Council (NSC) – Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)• “Voices of America” broadcast (48)• Selective Service System (48)• NATO - Defensive military alliance by Western European countries and US (Soviets respond w/ Warsaw Pact (55) - Western Germany being allowed to rearm and join NATO)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) Defensive military alliance by Western European United States countries Luxemburg Belgium and US Netherlands Britain Norway Canada Portugal Denmark 1952: Greece & France Turkey Iceland 1955: West Germany Italy 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955)} U. S. S. R.} Albania} Bulgaria Military alliance formed by the} Czechoslovakia Soviet Union and its satellite nations in response to Western} East Germany Germany being allowed to rearm} Hungary and join NATO} Poland} Rumania
The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?” } The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. } Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
MAD (mutually assureddestruction) deterrence doctrine Downloaded from www.SchoolHistory.co.uk
Election of 1948 • Truman (D) v. Dewey (R) • Eisenhower refuses nomination • Dems split – “Dixiecrats” (Southern Dems) nominate Strom Thurman on States’ Rights Party ticket; opposed to civil rights – Henry Wallace – new progressive party
Democratic Platform "Our immediate task is to remove the last remnants of the barriers which stand between millions of our citizens and their birthright. There is no justifiable reason for discrimination because of ancestry or religion or race or color."
Truman’s Second Term• Truman wins 2nd term; 5th term for New Deal Coalition; Dems win Congress• liberalism - still a force in American politics• “Fair Deal” – Improved housing** – Universal healthcare – Full employment – Higher minimum wage** – Price supports for farmers – Extending Social Security** – Civil rights – integrated the armed forces• Opposed by conservative R’s and D’s
A Herblock cartoon from March 1949 depicts a glum-looking President Harry S. Truman and “John Q. Public” inspecting worm-ridden apples representing Truman’s Fair Deal proposals such as civil rights and rent controls. The alliance of conservative southern Democrats and Republicans in Congress who successfully blocked many of Truman’s initiatives is portrayed by the worm labeled “Coalition.”Image courtesy of Library of Congress
Discussion QuestionWas the primary threat from the Soviet Union military or ideological? Was the danger that the Soviet army would invade Western Europe or that more and more people in Europe and elsewhere would be attracted to communist ideas?
Learning Objective• Describe the expansion of the Cold War to East Asia, including the Chinese Communist revolution and the Korean War.
Revolution & War in Asia:The Cold War Heats Up! Think about: Which superpower was moresuccessful in achieving its aims as the Cold War “heated up”?
China Goes Communist… Communists vs. Nationalist govt. Chiang Kai-Shek Mao Zedong (Nationalist Govt.) (Communist leader)•1945-59 – U.S. sent $3 •worked to winbillion in aid peasants•American people liked •Encouraged literacy,Chiang, but not govt. improved foodofficials!•Govt. corruption – grain tax productionduring famine; opened fire on •Recruits flocked tocity dwellers protesting Red Army10,000% in rice prices! •1945 – much of N. China = communist
• After WWII – stopped cooperating to beat Japanese• 1949 – Chiang and Nationalists flee to Taiwan (Formosa) - PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
How did Americans feel about China?? • Attacks on Truman!! (did he “lose China”?)• State Dept. says “internal forces;” Chiang couldn’t keep support of people FEAR OF COMMUNISM SKYROCKETED!
The Korean War• Japan controlled Korea from 1910-1945• 1945 – troops N. of 38th parallel surrendered to Soviets; troops in S. to U.S.• Another GERMANY! – 2 nations (1 communist/ 1 democratic)• N attacks S w/ SU backing (June 50)
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory”
The UN’s first war… SU wasn’t there to VETO the vote!(protesting Taiwan’s presence in UN)
He’s baaaaaaaaack…In charge ofUS forces inthe Pacificand of theoccupationof Japan, hewasappointedcommanderof the jointforces inKorea.
BLUE AREA ISTHE PORTIONOF SOUTHKOREA UNDERUS/ROKCONTROLAUG 1950
• UN/SK forced to Pusan• MacA’s Counterattack – Landing at Ichon – 2 prong attack on N Koreans – NK troops surrendered, chased back across 28th parallel
US forces struggled with guerilla tactics from the North and a refugee crisis that clogged roads and UN lines… No Gun Ri -up to 400 South Korean civilians gathered by the bridge were killed by US forces from the 7th Cavalry Regiment. Some were shot above the bridge, on the railroad tracks. Others were strafed by US planes. More were killed under the arches in an ordeal that local survivors say lasted for three days. (BBC – Cold War)
SEPT. 29TH : SEOUL ISLIBERATEDOCT 19TH: PYONGYANGCAPTUREDOCT 25TH : UN TROOPSAPPROACHED THE YALURIVERP.R.C. BEGAN TO ISSUEWARNINGS
The Chinese Fight Back!• Why?? – Wanted NK as buffer to protect Manchuria – Threatened by US fleet off coast• 300,000 Chinese troops outnumbered SK/UN 10:1• 2 years of standoff/capture and recapture of Seoul 4xs before ceasefire
CHINESECROSSED THEYALU RIVER :350,000 MEN &15,000 SOVIETMADE TANKS
Problems at Home• MacArthur v. Truman – MacA OPENLY criticized Truman – Pushed for war with China; eliminate Communist govt.• April 11, 1951 – Truman fires MacArthur• American people OUTRAGED! – 69% supp. MacA "old soldiers never die; they just fade away." General Douglas MacArthur: Farewell Address to Congress delivered April 19, 1951
Settling for a Stalemate• Truce talks begin July 1951• Agreement: – ceasefire @ 38th parallel – Demilitarized zone (DMZ) between two sides• STALEMATE: Communism contained but Korea is still 2 nations!
The Cost at Home…• 34,000 lives• $67 billion• Increased fear of communism• Rejection of Dems in 1952 election – Election of Dwight D. Eisenhower (R) & Nixon (R)
Discussion Question Was Truman right to fire MacArthur when and how he did?
Analyzing the 4 Options • Read through each of the 4 options. • Determine which you feel would have been the best policy for the US to follow in the late 40s. • Why did you select this policy? What are its inherent positives and negatives?