Sources of funding for Australianuniversities, 2010
UK DCMS 13 CI sectorsAdvertising Interactive leisure softwareArchitecture MusicArts and antique markets Performing artsCrafts PublishingDesign Software and computer servicesDesigner fashion Television and radioFilm and video Source: DCMS 1998 4
‘New Labour’ and Creative Industries• The role of creative enterprise and cultural contribution … is a key economic issue … The value stemming from the creation of intellectual capital is becoming increasingly important as an economic component of national wealth … Industries, many of them new, that rely on creativity and imaginative intellectual property, are becoming the most rapidly growing and important part of our national economy. They are where the jobs and the wealth of the future are going to be generated (Chris Smith, in DCMS, 1998).• Creative talent will be crucial to our individual and national success in the economy of the future (Tony Blair, in DCMS, 2001).• In the coming years, the creative industries will be important not only for our national prosperity, but for Britain‟s ability to put culture and creativity at the center of our national life (Gordon Brown, in DCMS, 2008).
US: Copyright and Creative Industries CREATIVE COPYRIGHT (ARTS) INDUSTRIES INDUSTRIES 6% of GDP 2.9% of GDP ?Source: IIPA 2006; Americans for the Arts 2008 8
Problems with ‘Concentric Circles’• „There is no longer a stable hierarchy of value … running from “high” to “low” culture‟ (John Frow, 1995: 1).• „The logic of many [publicly] funded arts organisations is poorly equipped to respond to the plethora of new artists, art forms, audiences, genres, and subcultures emerging in a rapidly changing cultural dynamic‟ (Marcus Westbury and Ben Eltham, 2010: 42).• Under the new model of culture … cultural policy is no longer confined to a small budget line and a narrow set of questions about art. On the contrary, if we understand culture … as a networked activity, where funded, home-made and commercial culture are deeply interconnected – then we can start to appreciate the wider value of culture in and to society (John Holden, 2009: 449-450).
UNESCO Cultural Domains• Direct domains – Cultural and natural heritage; – Performance and celebration; – Visual arts and crafts; – Books and print media; – Audio-visual and interactive media; – Design and creative services;• Related domains – Tourism, hospitality and accommodation; – Sports and recreation.
Fifth Techno-Economic Paradigm (Perez)Age of Oil, the Automobile and Mass Production (1930s -1980s)Mass production/mass marketsEconomies of scale: bigger is betterStandardisation of productsEnergy intensity (oil based)Synthetic materials (e.g. plastics)Functional specialisation: hierarchies within organisationsCentralisation of urban form: metropolitan centres/suburbanisationNational powers/economies within an international frameworkAge of Information and Telecommunications (Networked ICTs) (1990s – present)Information-intensive (microelectronics-based ICTs)Decentralised integration: network structuresSegmentation of markets/proliferation of niche products and servicesKnowledge as capital: intangible value added as key to new wealth creationEconomies of scope, and product/service specialisation combined with scaleGlobalisation: interaction between the global and the localProduction/geographical clusters and networks of collaboration/learningInstantaneous global communication across multiple platforms/devices
From mass communications media to socialmedia: the crisis of news MASS COMMUNICATIONS MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA (20TH CENTURY) (21ST CENTURY)MEDIA DISTRIBUTION Large-scale; barriers to entry Dramatically reduced barriers to entryMEDIA PRODUCTION Complex division of labour; media Easy to use web 2.0 technologies; small, professionals as content ‘gatekeepers’ multi-purpose teams as “preditors” (Miller)MEDIA POWER Assymetrical – one-way communications Greater empowerment of flow users/audiences through interactivity and choiceMEDIA CONTENT Tendency towards standardised “mass Segmentation of media content markets appeal” content and “long tail” economics (Anderson)PRODUCER/CONSUMER Mostly impersonal, anonymous and Potential to be more personal; rise of the commoditised (audience as mass market produser (Bruns); user networks andRELATIONSHIP target) communitiesPAYMENT SYSTEM Audiences cross subsidised by Not clear as yet: subscription, advertisers (commercial media) or tax “freemium”, free? revenues (public service media) 18