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Presentation by Terry Anderson. July 7, 2011

Presentation by Terry Anderson. July 7, 2011
"Approaches to teaching and learning in a distance contexts"

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  • Nicholas Christakis In a fascinating article in today's New England Journal of Medicine, researchers at Harvard University and the University of California, San Diego, show that if a close friend becomes obese, your likelihood of becoming obese soars by 171 per cent. If it's a casual friend or acquaintance, the risk is still a notable 57 per cent, and your friend's friends have a similarly increased risk of obesity. “ It’s important to remember that we’ve not only shown that obesity is contagious but that thinness is also contagious. Fowler and Christakis (2007)

Arab Open University - Kuwait presentation Arab Open University - Kuwait presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Approaches to teaching and learning in a distance contexts Terry Anderson, PhD and Professor
  • Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada * Athabasca University
    • 34,000 students, 700 courses
    • 100% distance education
    • Graduate and Undergraduate programs
    • Master & Doctorate – Distance Education
      • Only USA Regionally Accredited University in Canada
    *Athabasca University
  • Overview
    • Technology and Learning
    • Generations and technologies of distance education pedagogy
    • Type of knowledge appropriate to each generation
    • Your Comments and Questions!
  • Values
    • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience.
    • Student control and freedom is integral to 21 st century life-long education and learning.
    • Continuous education opportunity is a basic human right
  • Distance Education and E-learning are disruptive and lead to re-thinking about quality, privilege, cost and accessibility
  • DE/Online/Elearning/Blended Paradigm Wars Is e-learning just distance education taking steroids??
  • Traditional Technology Generations of Distance Education Conferencing Broadcast Correspondence
  • Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008)
    • Technology sets the beat and the timing.
    • Pedagogy defines the moves.
  • Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy
    • Behaviourist/Cognitive – Self Paced, Individual Study
    • Constructivist – Groups
    • Connectivist – Networks and Collectives
  • 1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies
    • “ tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em,
    • tell ‘em
    • then tell ‘em what you told ‘em”
    Direct Instruction
  • Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965)
    • Gain learners' attention
    • Inform learner of objectives
    • Stimulate recall of previous information
    • Present stimulus material
    • Provide learner guidance
    • Elicit performance
    • Provide Feedback
    • Assess performance
    • Enhance transfer opportunities
    Basis of Instructional Systems Design ( ISD )
  • Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution”
    • Chunking
    • Cognitive Load
    • Working Memory
    • Multiple Representations
    • Split-attention effect
    • Variability Effect
    • Multi-media effect
      • ( Sorden, 2005)
    “ learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
  • Behaviourist/Cognitive Knowledge Is:
    • Logically coherent, existing independent of perspective
    • Largely context free
    • Capable of being transmitted
    • Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
    • Readily defined through learning objectives
  • New Developments in Behavioural/Cognitive Systems
    • Reflection Amplifiers
    • Social Indicators
      • Global feedback
      • Digital footprints
      • Archives
      • Competition and games
    • Multiple Representations
    • Student modeling and adaptation - analytics
  • Slide Adaptivity in ubiquitous learning
    • Extensive modelling of learner’s actions, interactions, “mood”, trends of preferences, skill & knowledge levels, implicit and explicit changes in skill & knowledge levels
    • Real-time monitoring of learner’s location, technology use, and change of situational aspects
  • Open Student Models
    • “ the learner model now plays a new role – not only can the learner contribute information to help increase the accuracy and therefore the utility of their learner model for adaptation purposes, but the model can also become a learning resource for the student in its own right. “ Susan Bull et al. 2007
  • Learning Analytics
    • Unlike traditional adaptive hypermedia and intelligent tutoring systems that work on a known closed corpus of material,
    • Learning analytics is used across multiple, unknown activities and interactions across the net, mining information about patterns of behaviour in order to extract useful information about learning which can then be applied to improve the experience.
    1st International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge 2011
  • Open Scholarship, Content and Open Educational Resources (Oers) Because it saves time and money!!!
  • Issues in Distance Education Series aupress.ca www.irrodl.org
  • Are you More than Your Content?
    • lack of motivation for distance education content developers to use OERs ??
    • Many DE developers and Faculty define themselves by the production of quality content – not by the consumption and customization of content created by others.
  • Cog/Beh teams demand:
    • Effective Project Management
    • Synchronous and asynchronous distributed communications
    • Archiving, and version control
    • Interoperability
    • Reuse
    • Distribution
  • Enhancing teacher presence through Voice Annotation of essay and project assignments.
    • Phil Ice (USA)
      • Increased impact of feedback
      • Students appreciate voice
      • Increased amount of feedback
      • SAVES TIME!!
      • Using Adobe Acrobat
    Ice, P., Curtis, R., Phillips, P., & Wells, J. (2007). Using asynchronous audio feedback to enhance teaching presence and students’ sense of community, 11(2), 3-25. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(2), 3-25
  • Many ways that technologies enhance production and learning of 1 st generation Cognitive/behaviourist pedagogy.
  • 2 nd Generation DE Social Constructivist Pedagogy
  • Social Constructivist Learning Pedagogy
    • New knowledge is built upon the foundation of previous learning
    • The importance of context
    • Errors and contradictions are useful
    • Learning as an active rather than passive process,
    • The importance of language and other social tools in constructing knowledge
    • Focus on negotiation, meta-cognition and evaluation as a means to develop learners’ capacity to assess their own learning
    • Need for knowledge to be subject to validation and application in real world contexts
      • (from Honebein, 1996; Jonassen, 1991; Kanuka & Anderson, 1999)
  • Constructivist Knowledge is:
    • Learning is located in contexts and relationships rather than merely in the minds of individuals.
      • Greenhow, Robelia & Hughes (2009),
    Kathy Sierra http://www.speedofcreativity.org/
  • Constructivist learning is based on Group Learning Providing:
    • Motivation
    • Feedback
    • Alternate and conflicting viewpoints
  • Why Groups?
    • “ Students who learn in small groups generally demonstrate greater academic achievement, express more favorable attitudes toward learning, and persist …
    • small-group learning may have particularly large effects on the academic achievement of members of underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women…”
      • Springer; Stanne, & Donovan, (1999) P.42
  • Impact (Mean effect size) of Cooperative versus Individualistic Learning contexts From Johnson and Johnson (1989). Cooperation and competition. Theory and research
  • Advances in Social Constructivist Learning Tools
    • Collaborative tools
      • Document creation, management, versioning
      • Time lines, calendars,
      • Strong notifications
    • Security, trust
      • hosting on institutional space?
      • Behind firewalls, away from search engines
    • Decision making and project management tools
    • Synchronous and asynchronous conversations/meetings
  • User Model & Adaptation for Groups:
      • TRAC system “extract patterns and other information from the group logs and present it together with desired patterns to the people involved, so that they can interpret it, making use of their own knowledge of the group tasks and activities” (Perera, 2009).
  • SNAPP Moodle analytics
  • Gestures, body language rich human presence tools
    • Avatar Kinect
  • Asynchronous Group Technologies Voicethread.com
  • Problems with Groups
    • Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN
    • Often overly confined by leader expectation and institutional curriculum control
    • Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice
    • “ low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin & Deepwell 2005
    • “ Pathological politeness” and fear of debate
    • Group think (Baron, 2005)
    • Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course
    • Constructivist learning in Groups is necessary, but not sufficient for advanced forms of learning.
  • 3 rd Generation - Networked Learning using Connectivist Pedagogy
    • Learning is building networks of information, contacts and resources that are applied to real problems.
  • Connectivist Learning Principles George Siemens , 2004
    • Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.
    • Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
    • Capacity to know is more critical than what is currently known.
    • Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning .
    • Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
    • Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge)
    • is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
  • Connectivist Knowledge is
    • Emergent
    • Distributed
    • Chaotic
    • Fragmented
    • Non sequential
    • Contextualized
  • Networks add diversity to learning
    • “ People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90
  • Connectivist Learning is Emergent
    • the very uncertainty and lack of predictability of learning outcomes will be the key factor that adds value to a learning community
    • emergent systems will provide the necessary triggers to enhance knowledge and understanding
    • emergent learning will be one of the critical triggers to unleash individual creativity (Kays & Sims, 2006, p. 411)
  • Connectivist Learning is Scalable
    • “ In the real world, social groups become more impersonal as they get larger; on the Web, individuals retain their faces no matter what the size of the group – even in the faceless mass of the public.”
      • (Weinberger, 2002, p.24)
    Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) http://change.mooc.ca/
  • Connectivist Learning designs Awareness and Receptivity Connection forming Selection Filtering Contribution and Involvement Reflection and Metacognition Pettenati, M. (2007).
  • Connectivist Learning Activities and Web 2.0
    • S haring,
    • A ssessing by rating or commenting,
    • L inking, and
    • T agging
    7] El Helou, S., Li, N., & Gillet, D. (2010). The 3A Interaction Model: Towards Bridging the Gap between Formal and Informal Learning. International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interaction Washington D.C.: IEEE Computer Societ
  • Special Issue of IRRODL on Connectivism March. 2011
    • Editors George Siemens and Grainne Conole
    Free Subscriptions at www.irrodl.org
  • Transparency, Persistence
    • “ shared awareness allows otherwise uncoordinated groups to begin to work together more quickly and more effectively (forming networks)” Clay Shirky 2008 p. 162
    • “ adjacent possibilities” Stuart Kaufman – ideas sufficiently close geographically or conceptually to propel interaction, contradictions & adoption
  • “ Your Friends Make you Fat” They can also make you smart! Fowler & Christakis (2007) A study of Obesity http://www.world-science.net/othernews/070725_obesity.htm
  • “ It’s important to remember that we’ve not only shown that obesity is contagious but that thinness is also contagious. Fowler and Christakis (2007) ”
  • I Don’t have time for another Network
    • “ In almost all fields, connecting with others online is the work”
    • Stephen Downes (2008) Seven Habits of Highly Connected People
  • How do we Build Networks of Practice ?
    • Motivation – learning plans, self and net efficacy, net-presence, modeling and exposure
    • Structural support
      • Exposure and training
      • Transparent systems
      • Wireless access, mobile computing
    • Cognitive skills – content + procedural, disclosure control
    • Social connections, reciprocity
      • Creating and sustaining a spiral of social capital building
        • Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998)
  • Challenges of Connectivist Learning Models
    • Privacy
    • Control
    • Dealing with disruptive change
    • Institutional Support
    • Sustaining motivation and
      • commitment
  • Access Controls in Elgg
  • Leveraging the Collective Dron and Anderson, 2011 Sets Set Group Network
  • Applying the Generations
  • Anderson, Krathwohl et al (2001) revision of Bloom’s (1956) model of the cognitive domain Graphics f rom Atherton (2010)
  • Cog/Beh 1 st Gen Constructuvist. 2 st Gen Connectivist. 3 st Gen
  • Ist Gen Cog/Behav is Hard
    • Rigid Structures
    • Increased transactional distance
    • Scalable
    • Reduces choice,
    • Reduces Insecurity
    Jon Dron 2011
  • 2 nd Gen Constructivist is Softer
    • Less Structure -> more dialogue (Michael Moore)
    • Doesn’t scale
  • 3rd Generation Connectivist
    • Emergent, soft
    • Scalable
    • Forces learner
    • control
  • 3rd Generation Connectivist
  • 3rd Generation Connectivist
  • 3 Generations of DE Summary Anderson, T. & Dron, J. (2011) Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy . IRRODL
  • Recommendations for teachers
    • Be as fearless as your students.
    • Seek out and create opportunities to collaborate with and learn from your peers.
    • Develop your own personal learning system
    • Explore, experiment and have fun
  • Conclusion
    • Behavioural/Cognitive models are useful for memory and conceptual knowledge acquisition.
    • Constructivist models develop group skills and trust.
    • Connectivist models introduce networked learning and are foundational for lifelong learning in complex contexts.
    • 21 century literacys and skills demand effective use of all three pedagogies.
    • Don’t argue quality with those from different generations .
    Anderson & Dron (in press) 3 generations of DE Pedagogy. International Review of Research in Distance and Open Learning (IRRODL)
    • Terry Anderson [email_address]
    • Blog: terrya.edublogs.org
    Your comments and questions most welcomed!
  • Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) http://change.mooc.ca/ Welcome to Change: Education, Learning, and Technology! [To Register for this Course, Click Here!]