Wine Grape Varieties

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wine grapes grown in Hawke's Bay

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Wine Grape Varieties

  1. 1. Major wine grape varieties Grown in Hawke’s Bay
  2. 2. Major wine grape varieties <ul><li>Based on information and experiences of viticulturists from Hawke’s Bay </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cabernet Franc
  4. 4. Cabernet Franc <ul><li>Cabernet Franc is a moderately productive, black variety with medium-sized clusters that have small, round, blue-black berries   </li></ul><ul><li>Cabernet Franc is often grown to produce varietal wine but is more commonly blended with other varieties, particularly Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. </li></ul><ul><li>It grows on a wide range of soils and has produced excellent results on sandy soils and loams </li></ul><ul><li>It ripens sooner than Cabernet Sauvignon </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cabernet Franc <ul><li>It can be spur or cane pruned </li></ul><ul><li>Spur pruning will reduce yields but some growers feel that the variety performs better when cane pruned in New Zealand, commonly 2 cane VSP </li></ul><ul><li>Rootstocks such as 101-14 and Riparia Gloire which reduce vine vigour are commonly used.   </li></ul><ul><li>Cabernet Franc is commonly used as an indicator test plant for determining the virus status of vines </li></ul><ul><li>For example, this variety readily shows symptoms of leafroll virus. Only recently in New Zealand have quality wine producing clones been imported to replace the old “virus-testing” vines and this will improve the quality of the wine  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cabernet Sauvignon
  7. 7. Cabernet Sauvignon <ul><li>Recent studies at U.C. Davis, California, have determined that Cabernet Sauvignon is actually the hybrid offspring of Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc </li></ul><ul><li>Cabernet Sauvignon is a black variety with small to medium clusters and small, blue-black berries with tough skin which helps to give it good resistance to disease  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cabernet Sauvignon <ul><li>Site selection is important for this variety when it is grown in a cool climate due to the length of time it takes to ripen </li></ul><ul><li>Cabernet Sauvignon is a vigorously growing variety that, if grown on the wrong soil, will produce dense canopies and unripe fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Unripe Cabernet Sauvignon has a distinctive herbal, herbaceous green character which is considered undesirable from a winemaking perspective  </li></ul><ul><li>Hot sites that have very free draining soil or soil where the water supply to the roots can be controlled, are needed to achieve a balanced vine </li></ul><ul><li>In New Zealand (southern hemisphere), gentle north facing slopes of clay where the rootzone is restricted, have been successful sites </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cabernet Sauvignon <ul><li>Old, stoney, free-draining riverbeds which store and radiate heat have been proven to give very good quality wines with very good structure </li></ul><ul><li>However, even on ideal sites, growers still perform canopy management techniques to maximize light interception </li></ul><ul><li>Cabernet Sauvignon can be spur or cane pruned and VSP is frequently used as the trellis system </li></ul><ul><li>Spur pruning will reduce yields but this is often desirable as fruit thinning in cool climates is routine to ensure maximum ripening  </li></ul><ul><li>SO4 rootstock was once frequently used in New Zealand, but the tendency of this variety to invigorate the vine has compounded the problem of shaded vines when grown on soils with high vigour potential </li></ul><ul><li>Now, even on sites with low vigour potential, rootstocks such as 101-14 and Riparia Gloire which reduce vine vigour, are commonly used </li></ul>
  10. 10. Merlot   <ul><li>Merlot produces medium-sized to large clusters of berries </li></ul><ul><li>The berries are small, blue-black with good colour </li></ul><ul><li>The bunch has a distinct shoulder that is sometimes removed as a part of fruit thinning </li></ul><ul><li>Merlot bunches often combine, become entwined and appear as huge bunches, whereas in fact there are two bunches </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to recognize this as these are more susceptible to disease because of the reduced air flow and should be targeted when crop thinning </li></ul><ul><li>Merlot will grow on a wide range of soils but has proven to perform well where soil water and vigour are controlled </li></ul>
  11. 11. Merlot  
  12. 12. Merlot   <ul><li>Unripe Merlot will produce green characters, so canopies should not be dense and shaded </li></ul><ul><li>Merlot is often produced as a varietal wine or blended with Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Malbec to produce well balanced wines </li></ul><ul><li>It can be spur or cane pruned and VSP is frequently used as the trellis system </li></ul><ul><li>It grows outwards as opposed to upright and straight </li></ul><ul><li>Spur pruning will reduce yields but this is often desirable as fruit thinning in cool climates is routine to ensure maximum ripening </li></ul><ul><li>Rootstocks such as 101-14, 3309, Schwarzmann and Riparia Gloire which reduce vine vigour, are commonly used </li></ul>
  13. 13. Malbec
  14. 14. Malbec <ul><li>Malbec is a black variety with medium-sized clusters and blue-black, largish berries that produce wine with deep colour </li></ul><ul><li>Malbec is often used as a varietal wine but is more commonly blended with other varieties, particularly Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon </li></ul><ul><li>It can be grown on a wide range of soils and ripens mid season </li></ul>
  15. 15. Malbec <ul><li>This variety is susceptible to disease </li></ul><ul><li>Poor weather at flowering (reduced fruit set) and close to harvest (susceptibility to disease) can have a serious effect on Malbec </li></ul><ul><li>Malbec can be cane or spur pruned </li></ul><ul><li>When spur pruning, growers often leave longer spurs (more than two nodes plus the basal bud) due to the unfruitfulness of the lower buds on the cane </li></ul><ul><li>In New Zealand, rootstocks such as 101-14, 3309 and Schwarzmann which moderately reduce vine vigour, are commonly used </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>  Pinot Noir is one of the oldest cultivated varieties </li></ul><ul><li>This variety is grown for both table and sparkling wine styles </li></ul><ul><li>It is an early ripening variety with small, compact clusters </li></ul><ul><li>The berries are bluish-black with thick skins and colourless juice </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting wine from Pinot Noir is not as strongly coloured as other red varieties. </li></ul><ul><li>Pinot Noir suits cooler climates because at cooler temperatures it produces table wines with more intense flavour </li></ul>Pinot Noir
  17. 17. Pinot Noir
  18. 18. <ul><li>With table wine production, the vines may undergo intensive canopy management in order to produce premium quality fruit </li></ul><ul><li>This is particularly the case in very cool climates, such as Central Otago, New Zealand, in order to achieve ripeness </li></ul><ul><li>It will grow on a wide range of soils but soils that are free draining and limit vigour are ideal </li></ul><ul><li>Pinot Noir has a tendency to mutate and can produce shoots (known as ‘sports’), that are genetically different to the vine they are on </li></ul><ul><li>Pinot Noir is frequently cane pruned and can be grown on rootstocks that do not overly reduce vigour such as 101-14, 3309 and Schwarzmann </li></ul><ul><li>In New Zealand, where the grapes are to be used as table wines, the vines are cane pruned to two canes on a VSP trellis </li></ul><ul><li>For sparkling wine production, 4 cane VSP or even Sylvos is used because yields can be greatly increased as the level of ripeness needs to be lower than for table wine </li></ul>Pinot Noir
  19. 19. Syrah
  20. 20. Syrah <ul><li>Syrah was once thought to have originated from the Persian city of Shiraz but genetic identification work at UC Davis, California, has shown it to be an old Rhone variety </li></ul><ul><li>Syrah and Shiraz are the same variety but they do represent different wine styles  </li></ul>
  21. 21. Syrah <ul><li>This variety is able to be grown in cool climates and like Cabernet Sauvignon, site selection is most important due to the long growing season that both Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah require </li></ul><ul><li>Syrah grows well on sites that are hotter, north facing (southern hemisphere) and which have soils with low vigour potential </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike Cabernet Sauvignon, if the variety is unable to fully ripen then the flavour profile of the wine is more peppery as opposed to green and is still very palatable </li></ul>
  22. 22. Syrah <ul><li>It is a vigorous variety that can grow erratically </li></ul><ul><li>It can be spur or cane pruned </li></ul><ul><li>Spur pruning will reduce yields but this is often desirable as fruit thinning is frequently performed to ensure maximum ripening </li></ul><ul><li>Rootstocks such as 101-14, 3309 Schwarzmann and Riparia Gloire which reduce vigour are commonly used </li></ul>
  23. 23. Chardonnay
  24. 24. Chardonnay <ul><li>Chardonnay is an early to mid-season ripening variety with green skins and it suits a number of climates </li></ul><ul><li>It is widely planted in New Zealand - because it is not a vigorous variety, it can be grown on a very wide range of soils </li></ul><ul><li>Berries and bunches will differ greatly in size, and flavour, depending on the clone and in New Zealand there are a number of clones which are used </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the more recently introduced clones such as Clone UCD 15 and Clone 95, produce smaller, more compact bunches with smaller berries </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, some of the older clones such as clone 4 and Rua 1 produce large bunches and berries and the fruit has less concentration of flavour </li></ul>
  25. 25. Chardonnay <ul><li>These are more suitable for sparkling wine production as opposed to table wine production  </li></ul><ul><li>This variety is most commonly cane pruned as the nodes further along the cane contain the most fruitful buds </li></ul><ul><li>For quality wine production in New Zealand, 2 cane VSP is frequently used </li></ul><ul><li>For lower quality grapes, 4 cane VSP is common and many growers adopt a Scott Henry system to increase the quality of the fruit </li></ul><ul><li>A range of rootstocks can be used to control vigour on heavy soils such as 101-14 and 3309 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sauvignon Blanc
  27. 27. Sauvignon Blanc <ul><li>Sauvignon Blanc is a white aromatic variety </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatic varieties contain terpenes which give a distinctive floral aroma which is fresh and fruity when young, but is volatile and changes with oxidation and aging  </li></ul><ul><li>Sauvignon Blanc produces moderate to large crops of medium sized clusters and berries </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters can be loose or tight depending on the clone </li></ul><ul><li>It is an early ripening variety which makes it suitable for cool climate production </li></ul><ul><li>Sauvignon Blanc in cool climates produces distinctive herbaceous flavours in the fruit such as gooseberry, capsicum and cut grass </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sauvignon Blanc <ul><li>In cool climate regions such New Zealand, these flavours have made the wine distinctive </li></ul><ul><li>Sauvignon Blanc is a vigorous variety the grows very erect and upright and is grown on a wide variety of soils </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore, the variety can be grown across varying soil types and still produce excellent quality </li></ul><ul><li>This is something that is virtually impossible with other varieties </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sauvignon Blanc <ul><li>Uniform soil types within a single vineyard are essential to get premium quality from even ripening and flavour development </li></ul><ul><li>But with Sauvignon Blanc, varying soil types can add to complexity and flavour </li></ul><ul><li>When this variety is grown in dryer or warmer climates, the flavour spectrum moves towards more tropical fruit flavours.   </li></ul><ul><li>This variety is highly susceptible to rain around harvest when it can cause berry splitting and disease </li></ul>
  30. 30. Sauvignon Blanc <ul><li>It is most commonly cane pruned as nodes further along the cane have more fruitful buds </li></ul><ul><li>In the Marlborough region of New Zealand, the vine is very often grafted to SO4 rootstock with each vine carrying 4 canes on two fruiting wires </li></ul><ul><li>Although SO4 rootstock is regarded as invigorating, it suits the conditions and soil types that this region has </li></ul>
  31. 31. Gewürztraminer
  32. 32. Gewürztraminer <ul><li>The German word Gewürz means “spice” </li></ul><ul><li>This aromatic variety is a moderately vigorous variety that produces medium to large crops of medium sized clusters and berries </li></ul><ul><li>The skins of this variety are light brown after veraison </li></ul><ul><li>In New Zealand, the variety has a reputation for poor setting, especially if poor weather occurs at flowering </li></ul><ul><li>Poor setting causes ‘hen and chickens’, which is when the bunch consists of both small and large berries and many growers are frustrated that the variety only produces reasonable crops every two years </li></ul><ul><li>This has been improved by the importation of new clones that set more consistently </li></ul>
  33. 33. Gewürztraminer <ul><li>Poor setting causes ‘hen and chickens’, </li></ul>
  34. 34. Gewürztraminer <ul><li>Also, growers often use trellis systems such as Sylvos or 4 cane VSP that maximize the crop level in order to achieve a satisfactory yield </li></ul><ul><li>Like other white varieties, Gürztraminer can grow on soil with a higher vigour potential </li></ul><ul><li>This variety ripens early in the season and is often picked to maximise flavour and not sugar levels </li></ul>
  35. 35. Gewürztraminer <ul><li>For example, it can easily reach 24 o Brix but will be harvested at 22 o Brix when the flavours are at their best </li></ul><ul><li>Gewürztraminer is susceptible to late season rot </li></ul><ul><li>A range of rootstocks, such as 101-14 and 3309, are used to control Phylloxera rather than vigour </li></ul><ul><li>SO4 rootstock is often used but not where the soil is lacking in magnesium due to the low uptake of this element by this rootstock </li></ul>
  36. 36. Riesling
  37. 37. Riesling <ul><li>Riesling is an old white German variety, which when grown in cool climates, can produce very good quality wine </li></ul><ul><li>It is an aromatic variety and is often grown for sweet wines as well as table wines </li></ul><ul><li>Riesling bunches are small and very compact and ripen later in the season </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to Riesling being susceptible to late season disease and although it is not a vigorous variety, there is a strong requirement for canopy management techniques that open the canopy and allow air movement and light interception </li></ul>
  38. 38. Riesling <ul><li>The variety is most commonly cane pruned as the nodes further along the cane contain the most fruitful buds </li></ul><ul><li>A range of rootstocks can be used to control vigour on heavy soils such as 101-14, Schwarzmann and 3309 </li></ul>
  39. 39. Pinot Gris
  40. 40. Pinot Gris <ul><li>Pinot Gris is a white variety which is a mutation of the red variety, Pinot Noir </li></ul><ul><li>Pinot Gris vines are moderate to low vigour, low-yielding, and early-ripening </li></ul><ul><li>The bunches and berries are small and clusters with a variety of colours are common </li></ul><ul><li>It can be grown on a range of soils but free draining loams are ideal </li></ul><ul><li>The variety has good resistance to poor weather and disease </li></ul><ul><li>The variety is most commonly cane pruned as the nodes further along the cane contain the most fruitful buds </li></ul><ul><li>A range of rootstocks can be used to control vigour on heavy soils such as 101-14, Schwarzmann and 3309 </li></ul>

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