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  1. 1. Wine: Nature’s Drink
  2. 2. Introduction and MicrobialProduction of Wine Prepared by: Othima Sharma M.Sc. Biotechnology 2nd Semester Roll: 301101023
  3. 3. Wine: An IntroductionWine is an intoxicating drink and is made from the grapes as a fermented juice. Wine is also prepared from other fruits. Since, grapes can ferment without the addition of sugar, Enzymes or nutrients they are most preferred to make wines. Nearly all the wines made in the world are prepared from the Vitis vinifera, a species of the grape family. Almost 4,000 wine varieties are made from this species. Apple cider, pears, cherry, plum and berries are some of the fruits used to make wines. Wines are manufactured commercially as well as some fruit wine come as fermented home products. Alcohol content will be 12% in fruit wines and when they
  4. 4. History Wine making and drinking has a long and past history. Experts agree that wine dates from 6000 BC. Wines were cultured in Egypt and in Mesopotamia. Greece, Spain, Mexico, Rome, and United States followed them. Spain played the important role in wine making process. Wine making and grape cultivation spread throughout the world. Wine became the valuable trade. The prosperous people enjoyed the wines and rulers tried to hide this treasure as a clandestine. As Christianity spread to the parts of the world, the monks developed the process by making good use
  5. 5.  From bible to ancient mythology, tales of intoxication by absorbing the fermented grapes flourished. Fossil evidence also traced the leftovers of the wine sediments. It also relieves that the ancient humans documented the bliss of this exciting liquid. Today a variety of vine is found growing all over the world due to the wide variety of climates. The Vitis vinifera species is the primary species in making most of the wines. New routes have been established to the wine industry due to the varieties and vintages that come from all over the world. Due to the captivating history of the wine and profound interest in their wine France novices and
  6. 6. Popular Wine-Making Grapes:Although grapes come in great variety some of them are more popular. The winemakers as well as consumers prefer them the most than any other variety. Some of the popular wine making grapes include:ChardonnayThis one belongs to the white grape family and helps to make the most famous wine in the world. Burgundy and champagne provinces of France act as the origin for this variety. In oak barrels it is usually aged.
  7. 7. MerlotThis red grape belongs to the cabernet sauvignon variety. Merlot is mixed with cabernet for flavour. Wine that is smooth, dry and rich in flavour is made by merlot. Since this grape is found to susceptible to fungus and other mold disease growing this needs little effort.PinotageA red grape found in South Africa is a cross of pinot noir and cinsault grapes. Fruit flavourings are found in a large amount in the wines that made from pinotage.
  8. 8. SangioveseFor Chianti and brunello di montalcino this grape is used in the Tuscany regions of northern Italy. Spicy and smooth textures are its special characteristic. It also has excellent acid level. Vintners of California are trying to grow this grape.Shiraz or SyrahIt is also as syrah in France and Shiraz in Australia. This is a red grape variety. Sweet and riper wines are produced during warmer climates while spicier and peppery flavours are produced during cooler climates.Zinfindel
  9. 9. Wine Grape Varieties: Grape, a juicy fruit found in variety of colors. Grape is used for eating, wine making and as a dry fruit. It is also used in jelly, vinegar, candy, seed extraction, seed oil and jam. Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca regions act as the origin for the grapes. Wine making became the main reason for cultivating grapes. The major grape producing countries in the world are South
  10. 10. In wine production approximately 130 varieties are used. Chardonnay, merlot and cabernet sauvignon grape varieties are used by the wine experts since they think that the wine drinkers focus their attention only on that and other varieties are not known.Wine quality is affected by the factors such as soil, climate, viticulture and wine making techniques. When the grape variety is well suited to the soil and climatic structure the quality of wine is maximized. Wine types with distinct flavour are produced by many native grape varieties.White and red grapes are the major grape varieties.
  11. 11. Wine Grapes CategoriesRed grapesDuring the month of august to November the red grapes grow in plenty. These grapes are rich in vitamin c and have a sweet pulp. Pinot noir, syrah, nebbiolo and zinfandel are some of famous red grapes..White GrapesGrapes that are green, yellow, pink or brown in colour are called white grapes. The worlds famous white wine is the chardonnay, because of its gamut flavours and styles...
  12. 12. Red grapes:During the month of august to November the red grapes grow in plenty. These grapes are rich in vitamin c and have a sweet pulp. Pinot noir, syrah, nebbiolo and zinfandel are some of famous red grapes.Merlot:This red grape belongs to the cabernet sauvignon variety. This grape is used for making Bordeaux wines. Wine made for merlot has a chocolate taste so it attracts the lover of chocolates. The cultivators of merlot grapes are California, Washington, and long island.Cabernet Sauvignon:
  13. 13. White Grapes:Grapes that are green, yellow, pink or brown in colour are called white grapes. The worlds famous white wine is the chardonnay, because of its gamut flavours and styles. Indias most loving white wine is Chenin Blanc because of its high acidity and susceptibility to botrytis.Weissburgunder (pinot Blanc)This is an alteration of pinot grapes. These have the taste of chardonnay grapes. Italy, Alsace and Austria are the major countries that use this grape for wine production.
  14. 14. RieslingTo prepare ice wine, Riesling grapes are used by Germany. These grapes need warm climate as their most favorable condition. These grapes are planted in Germany, France, New York and California.ChardonnayThese grapes have the taste of peach and melon. Chardonnay grapes are capable of growing in different climatic condition and are used for making champagne. While making wine a small amount of oak chips are added to it. These grapes are cultivated in California, South Africa and burgundy.Sylvaner
  15. 15. Types of WineWines can be classified primarily by the grape variety used to make the wine and the region where the grapes are grown. Wines classified on the basis of grape variety are called varietals and those classified on the basis of region are named by the region itself.There are different types of wines and wine styles. Basically wines can be classified into two general categories. They are white wines which are colourless and red wines which have the colour intensity based on the soaking time. This is the information that most of us know.But wines can be classified by their taste also. The
  16. 16. Apart from the classification of wine by taste the general types of wines are as follows Red wines Red wines are colour wines. Red wines are made from the red grape varieties. These wines get their colour by allowing the skin of the grapes to get contact with the grape juice during the wine making process. Red wines are available in different varieties and taste. The most popular red wines are:
  17. 17. Red Wine And Its TypesRed wines are produced from black, red or blue grapes. Red wine does not get its colour from the juice. Red wine gets its colour when the juice of the grapes is allowed to have contact with the grapes skin for a long time. Red wine does not get its colour by simply soaking the skin; it also has a substance known as tannin. Tannin gives the red wines the density that is ahead of the other white wines. The mouth drying quality of tannin makes you feel the firmness of wine in your mouth. The firmness will be strong if the wine is young.The qualities of wine will become soft and mix harmoniously with the other factor of the wine as the time passes. This act as the main reason for
  18. 18. Though the colour of red wines vary greatly their flavour does not differ much as white wine with their counterparts. The flavour of red wine tends to be deeper due to the presence of tannins.Since red wine has more complex flavour it has to be served at a warmer temperature.Grapes used to make red wine Cabernet Sauvignon Gamay Grenache Merlot Pinot Noir Sangiovese Syrah/Shiraz Tempranillo
  19. 19. Following are the major red wine types:BarberaThis wine is similar to merlot but it is not well known. This wine can be paired with any type of dishes that are prepared from tomato sauce. They have a taste similar to blackberry and plum fruit, with a glossy texture.Cabernet SauvignonIt is considered as one of the worlds best wine. It is often paired with cabernet franc and merlot. It has a full bodied flavour. It can be served along with red meat.Merlot
  20. 20. Pinot NoirGrapes used to prepare this wine are difficult to grow and it is rarely mixed with other varieties. Chicken, lamb and salmon can be served along with this wine. Pinot noir wines have a fragile taste and fresh fruity smell and plain notes.Syrah or ShirazThese wines match well with beef, steak, stew, and wild games. It has a fruity taste and fascinating tannins.ZinfandelThe grape used to make this wine is considered to be worlds most versatile grape. Wines prepared from this grape have heavy red colour. The wine can be served along with tomato sauce, pizza or
  21. 21. White winesWhite wines are generally colourless and they are made from the white grape varieties. Some of the white wines can be made from the red grapes. In such a case the skin of the grapes is not allowed to have any contact with the grape juice. The white wines generally range from dry to sweet wines. The most popular white wines are:ChardonnayRiesling
  22. 22. White Wine And Its TypesWhite grapes are used to prepare most white wines. By letting the skin to soak along with the juice wines can get its colour. Since this is the fact it is possible to make white wine from black grapes. This can be done by extracting the juice carefully and keeping the skin aside. The most famous white wine is champagne. It is prepared from the black grapes (pinot noir and pinot and meunier.The amount of tannin is also reduced in the wine when the skin and stem is not allowed to soak in the juice. The mouth drying quality of tannin makes you feel the firmness of wine in your mouth. Sometimes the white wines are allowed to ferment or age in oak
  23. 23. Grapes used to make white wineChardonnay Chenin Blanc Gewurtztraminer Muscat Pinot Gris Riesling Semillon Sauvignon Blanc
  24. 24. Following are the famous white wines usedall over the world:ChardonnayThis wine can be described as sparkling or still wine. It can be served with fish and chicken dishes. It has a wide bodied and velvety citrus flavour. It has a buttery quality that resembles coconut, toast, toffee or vanilla when it is fermented in an oak barrel.GewurztraminerThis wine can be served along with the Asian food and sausages. It has allspice, lychee, peach and rose aroma with fruity flavour.
  25. 25. RieslingThese are fresh tasting wines and improve with age. They can be served along with chicken, fish and pork. This wine is very light and is an evocative of fresh applesSauvignon BlancThese wines are often considered as versatile food wines. They can be served along with poultry. They have an herbal and fruity flavour but sometimes it is also smoky.
  26. 26. Common White Wine Flavour DescriptionsCitrusApplePearGrapefruitLemonLimePineappleMelonButterHoneyFloralHerbEarthy
  27. 27. Rose winesRose wines are also called as Blush wines. Rose wines are not true not truly red, instead they have enough of reddish tinge to make them differentiate from the white wines. Rose wines are prepared from the red grape varieties. The most popular rose wine variety is: Zinfandel
  28. 28. Rose WinesRose wines are also called as Blush wines. Rose wines are not true not truly red, instead they have enough of reddish tinge to make them differentiate from the white wines. The colour of the rose wines varies depending on the colour of the grape variety used for making the grapes. Most of the times rose wines seem to have orange colour then pink or purple. Rose wine can be produced in a number of ways. But most of the times the rose wines are prepared by crushing the red grapes as a
  29. 29. Drinking rose wine in the hot weather give the feeling of crispness and lightness and is also very refreshing. So it is often referred as summer wines. Generally rose wines are simpler than the heavy white and red wines.The styles of rose wines vary generally. Rose wines from Europe are so dry while rose wines from the United States are sweet. The most popular rose wine is the White Zinfandel from California.either alone These grape varieties are usedMost of the rose wines are with the other in the or is blend made from red grapes. The red grape varieties that are used in the preparation preparation process. Generally the skin of the grapes is not allowed to have a of the rose wines are:Pinot Noir detailed contact with the grape juice.
  30. 30. Sparkling WinesSparkling wines have a small amount of intense effervescences. Champagne is the most famous sparkling wine in many regions in the world. The famous sparkling wines are: Rose Champagne Prosecco Sparkling Red Wine
  31. 31. Sparkling WinesSparkling wine is a delicious, invigorating wine that also be called as champagne, bubbly and shimmer wine. Sparkling wine contains large amount of carbon dioxide. This carbonated beverage is made in all parts of the world. The carbon dioxide makes the wine to fizz, bubble and to be effervescent.The grape varieties that are used in making sparkling wines are Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, and Chenin Blanc. Sparkling wines are produced mainly from the
  32. 32. There are different types of sparkling wines produced all over the world. Sparkling wines are made from different wine making grapes with different production processes. But the characteristic of all the sparkling wines are common.Carbon dioxide that forms the bubbles in the sparkling wines is formed in the fermentation process itself. To make a sparkling wine there are more than one fermentation process. The wine makers all over the world will use their preferred production method.Champagne is the king of sparkling wine. It is a proper name given to sparkling wines produce in the Champagne region of France. Prosecco is the name
  33. 33. Semi-sparkling winesFully sparkling wines are sold between the 5 to 6 atmosphere pressures in the bottle. This pressure is three times more than the pressure found in the automobile tire. Sparkling wines are those that have the atmospheric pressure between 1 to 2.5. The amount of the atmospheric pressure in the bottle is determined by the amount of sugar added to the wine during the triage stage which comes at the beginning of the secondary
  34. 34. Sweet Wine or Dessert WinesDessert wines are prepared from the residual sugar that is left in the finished wine. This gives the wine a very sweet taste. Dessert wines vary from off-dry to super, sticky sweet wines. The dessert wines are considered to be the sweetest wines. The famous dessert wines are: Sweet white wines
  35. 35. Dessert WinesGenerally by definition a dessert wine is a wine that has high sugar content. The sugar content will be high then the normal table wines. A dessert wine has 3 to 28 percent residual sugar in them. Dessert wines are available in different types since they are made from differential grape varietals.Dessert wine is said to be potent, sweet and it is also full of flavour. The sweet flavour of the wine makes them as a compliment to the desserts. To raise the alcohol content in the wine extra spirits are added to it. In
  36. 36. Dessert wines can be white and red in colour. The white dessert wines are served chill while the red dessert wines are served at the room temperature. Dessert wines go well with the fresh bakery sweets and fruits. It is also advisable to serve heavier taste for the winter season and lighter taste for the summer season.Dessert wines come in different flavours like peach, almond, oak, and herbs. Combining the dessert wine with the creamy desserts will be a
  37. 37. Some of the famous dessert wines include:MadeiraVermouthMarsalaSherryCream SherryPortDessert wines come in many styles and types. All are much sweeter than the habitual wines.Like the other wines in the world the dessert wines are also defined by the grape variety which is used to prepare it. It is also described by the region where it is grown and how it is produced.
  38. 38. Fortified WinesFortified wines are those that are produced with a small addition of the grape spirit. Fortified wines generally include the dry and sweet styles. The famous fortified wines are: Port wine Madeira Sherry
  39. 39. Fortified WinesFortified wine is a wine to which the spirits of the distilled beverages like brandy are added. In order to increase the alcohol content of the wine the spirits are added before the fermentation process is complete. This kills the yeast leaving the residual sugar behind. The spirits change the profile of the flavour thus producing a very distinctive and unique wine. Thus the end product wine will have both the sweet and strong characteristic.Many varieties of the fortified wines are
  40. 40. Different varieties of fortified wines are:Madeira wineMarsala winePort wineSherryVermouthWines doux naturalsLow-end fortified wines
  41. 41. Table WinesTables wines are also called as "Dry Wines." This is the wine that is mostly produced in most the regions in the world. The famous table wines are: Dry white wine Rose wine Dry red wine
  42. 42. Table WinesWines that have a very low volume of alcohol content is said to be table wine. Generally to the wine terminology the table wine can take two different meanings one can be the wine style and the other is the quality level.Table wines are generally served along with food hence they get the name table wine. Table wines are the most famous and only wine that is found in the dinner table all over the world.Table wines are generally pretty and are within your means. It is easily reachable if your are at the right age to purchase alcohol.
  43. 43. Popular table wines are:Cabernet SauvignonMerlotChardonnayAdams AppleMuscatPortPinot NoirKaskaskia ConcordDouble Decker RedElderberry
  44. 44. What makes dessertwine sweet?Dessert wines of the past were often sweet because they are not fermented completely. The main reason for the sweetness of the dessert wine is the naturally occurring glucose and fructose in the grapes which will be increased if the grapes are allowed to ripen for a long time in the vineyard.France and Italy are the most famous producers of dessert wines.
  45. 45. How does wine get its colour? The most recognizable wine characteristic is the wine colour. Wine colour is also an element that affects the wine tasting since many heavy wines mostly have deeper colour. Tastevin a shallow cup is an accessory that is used
  46. 46. The colour of the wine mainly depends on the grape variety. This is because the colour pigments are present in the grape of the skin and not in the juice. The colour also depends on the winification method and the amount of time during which the skin is allowed to have contact
  47. 47. Australian Rubired is a good example of mixing more varieties of grapes to get the required colour.Red grape juice can also get the white colour if they are quickly pressed and the grape juice is not allowed to have contact with the skin. The colour also depends on the acid presence in the wine. The colour of the wine is altered when the wine is allowed to aged. During the aging process due to different reaction between the molecules there rises a browning effect in the wine which turns the wine from red colour to
  48. 48. The stability of the wine colour is increased by the presence of complex mixtures like anthocyanins with procyanidins.Main colors of wine are: RedWhite (light coloured wine)Rose (pinkish in colour)Yellow (or straw colourOrange wine (white wine which has some time incontact with the skin)Others:Burgundy (colour), a shade of purplish red
  49. 49. Wine storageThe quality of wine can be affected if it is not stored properly. As time goes the wine changes its colour, aroma becomes stronger and then flavour acquires its own character. If not stored properly the wine will not realize its full potential, no matter how good or great its growing capability is. Some might think that cool spot in the garage and basement is ideal for wine storage but only some of these places have the wine storage capacity.Temperature around 13 deg c or 55 deg F is
  50. 50. Wines prepared now-a-days are meant to be consumed with in a year of purchase. They are smooth and are ready to drink as they reach their stable state. Todays wine is prepared for immediate consumption. Before the youth and freshness integral, most wines of the world are consumed when they are young.To attain their maturity better quality wines need 4 years of decaying period. But white wines within 2-3 years from the date of vintage are at their best level. This is because white wines need no time for maturing. As soon as champagne is brought out of the cell it can be consumed. Long term or short term storage period depends on the type of wine you tend to store.
  51. 51. Conditions that affect wine storageWine storage is affected by many factors. Listed below are most important factors that affect the wine storage:TemperatureTo store the wine for a long period its temperature should be maintained properly. Wines stored for a week or months can also be affected by the temperature under which it is stored.Wines are stored in the temperature between 45º - 60º F; while the optimal temperature range is 50º to 55º F. wines are stored in caves where the underground temperature is 13 C (55º F).Blush, rose and dry white wines are best at 46 deg -
  52. 52. VibrationEnsure that you store the wine bottle such that when you try to take a particular bottle you need not move others. Wine should remain in the stored place until it is opened. Make sure that there is no incessant vibration from other machinery or heavy traffic. Since vibration can disturb the symmetry and common growth of the wine. Storage locker should be built to allow proper air movement and to reduce vibration. Anti-vibration mats can be used to
  53. 53. HumidityStorage of wine becomes dangerous when appropriate humidity is used. The corks can dry out or crack and allow more air to flow inside the bottle when the humidity is maintained as low as possible. Moulds will develop damaging the cork as well as the labels when the humidity is maintained at the high level.For most wines the humidity is maintained at 70% which is enough to keep the cork in
  54. 54. DarknessTannins in the wine are oxidized causing damage to the wine when UV rays reach them. Even dark coloured bottles do not offer much shield from the UV rays. So, dark place is only suitable for wine storage. Incandescent or sodium vapour lamps can be used instead of fluorescent lighting.Clean airThe environment that is free from smells and debris is essential for storing wine. To prevent from mildewed whiff good ventilation is needed. Wines get contaminated when unrelated smells enter through the cork. For the wines to mature, choose a
  55. 55. Wine CoolersWine coolers are used to store wine bottles and chill them to the right temperature. It is also called wine refrigerator. Regular refrigerator are suitable for storing wine. Since, it may be too cool or constant opening of the door cause a fluctuation in the wine temperature. Temperature that is essential for the integrity of the wine is maintained by the cooler. Along with the some refrigerator units the wine cabinets is fixed. Wine cooler maintains a temperature of about 55º to 58º F and about
  56. 56. The wine cooler is an equipment that may refer to:Small table top used to chill a single bottle. These coolers are useful particularly in the warmer climates to serve the wine at the right serving temperature. These coolers are suitable for white, rose and sparkling wines.Large ones in the refrigerator style used to store dozens of bottles. This model is used by the people who are accessible to the wine basement. These units allow the user to select
  57. 57. Wine ProductionWine Production was first seen 6,000 years ago. But it wasn’t until 1857 that Pasteur correctly described the science behind fermentation and Wine Production.Because crushed grapes contain all that is needed to create wine, ancient wine producers simply allowed nature to take its course. As time went on, people realized that by intervening at certain times, they could make a wine with more predictable characteristics.
  58. 58. Red & White Wine ProductionOne of the first things they realized was that red wine production required that the grapes be fermented in contact with their skins. This gives the wine colour and body. In contrast, most white wine production does not occur in contact with the grape skins. Whites are valued for their fresh fruit characteristics, and skin contact would impart unwanted bitter tannins.Sparking Wine ProductionSparkling wine production is a complex process
  59. 59. Fortified Wine ProductionFortified wines have a spirit added to them which is usually Brandy. Fortified wine production can make either sweet or dry wines. If the spirit is added during fermentation, some residual sugar will remain in the wine and a Port will result. If the spirit is added at the end of fermentation, a dry Sherry will be made.Sweet Wine ProductionThere are a number of sweet styles made in California using a many different Wine Production techniques. Grapes affected by botrytis cinerea or “noble rot” make deeply concentrated wines with high residual sugar. Another technique vintners
  60. 60. White Wine Production
  61. 61. Steps Involved:HarvestDeciding on a harvesting date for White Wine Production depends on the varietal and the style of wine. Some grapes are more acidic than others and need more time on the vine for sugar development. Other varietals are vinified into lower alcohol wines and do not need the same amount of sugar during fermentation. No matter what the grape type, balance is critical.Destemming and Crushing White GrapesDestemming and crushing white grapes is optional in the White Wine Production process. Some wineries treat white varietals in the same way that they treat
  62. 62. PressingWhether they are destemmed and crushed or not, pressing white grapes is a very gentle process that must be done carefully. If the grape bunches are left intact during this process, it is known as whole cluster pressing. This White Wine Production technique minimizes the amount of malic acid and tannins in the must.Adding to Fermentation ContainersAfter pressing, the winemaker has another decision. What type of fermentation containers will be used? The style of the wine will dictate which container will
  63. 63. ClarificationThe next step in White Wine Production is clarification. The must can be cooled for a period of time to remove excessive sediment. Fining agents can also be added at this time, which will remove the natural yeast.Selecting Yeast TypeOnce the wine is in its container and has been clarified, the winemaker adds a selected yeast type that has been cultivated in the lab. This gives him/her more control over the rest of the White Wine Production process.White Wine Alcoholic Fermentation
  64. 64. Sulfur Dioxide AdditionAfter the grapes are pressed and the must is moved to the fermentation containers, sulfur dioxide is immediately added to prevent oxidation and spoilage. White wines generally require less sulfur than red wines.Barrel AgingBarrel aging white wine only works for certain varietals, notably Chardonnay and Pinot Blanc. Some other white grapes are aged in barrels, but most rely on their fresh, fruity forward characteristics.
  65. 65. White Wine Malolactic FermentationOne of the most important stylistic decisions a winemaker has is whether or not he/she will allow white wine malolactic fermentation. This process converts sharper malic acid to softer lactic acid. Because tart acidity frames most white wines, the majority of white wines skip this part of the White Wine Production process. Barrel aging and malolactic fermentation often go hand in hand.White wines that undergo barrel aging and malolactic fermentation are often allowed to
  66. 66. RackingWhite wines that are not malolactically fermented undergo racking immediately after alcoholic fermentation is complete. Wines aged sur lies are racked after they have been aged sufficiently. No matter when racking is done, the sediments are allowed to settle at the bottom of the container. The wine is then siphoned off of the top and separated from the sediment.Clarification & BottlingAfter racking is complete, white wines can be further clarified using a number of White Wine Production methods. These include filtration, fining, cold
  67. 67. Red Wine Production
  68. 68. Steps InvolvedAs opposed to other wine types, the main distinction in Red Wine Production is that the skins are allowed to macerate in the must for some period of time. This is what gives red wine its colour, tannins, and allows the best to age for many years.Destemming & Crushing Red GrapesImmediately after arriving at the winery, the process of destemming and crushing red grapes begins. The resulting liquid is called the must and consists of skins, seeds and juice. It is important that as many stems as possible are removed, as they contain abrasive, unpleasant tannins. This is the first step in the Red Wine Production process.
  69. 69. Adding Sulfur Dioxide and YeastThe next step in the Red Wine Production process is Sulfur dioxide addition. This will prevent the must from becoming discolored or oxidized. It also destroys bacteria and other microorganisms. Although some winemakers use the naturally present yeast on grape skins for fermentation, it is far more common to add a yeast type that has been cultured in the lab. This will give the winemaker more predictable results. If cultured yeast are added, the natural yeast must first be neutralized.Alcoholic FermentationOnce the yeast is added, alcoholic fermentation
  70. 70. MacerationIn addition to the alcohol created by fermentation, pigments and tannins are also imparted into the must from skin contact. This part of the Red Wine Production process is called maceration, and often lasts longer than fermentation. A cap will form as released carbon dioxide pushes solids to the top of the fermentation container. Many winemakers extract additional pigments and tannins from the skins by either punching down or pumping over the cap. Some wineries have tanks called
  71. 71. PressingWhen the winemaker feels that enough maceration has occurred, the must is moved from its fermentation containers for pressing. A variety of methods can be used, but basket pressing is the most common for high quality Red Wine Production. Wines that will undergo oak treatment are moved to barrels at this point.Malolactic FermentationRed wine malolactic fermentation is a critical part of the Red Wine Production process. While it is
  72. 72. RackingAfter malolactic fermentation and any barrel aging are complete, the wine is removed from its container through a process called racking. Clear wine is racked from the top of the container to separate it from the remaining solids. The debris that remains at the bottom of the fermentation container is often used as fertilizer in the vineyard.ClarificationAfter racking, most red wines undergo additional clarification. Different methods are used, with some being much more invasive than others. Regardless of which clarification method is used, sulfur dioxide is added to the wine again at this point to kill any harmful microorganisms. This is typically the last step of Red Wine Production before bottling.Bottling and Labeling
  73. 73. Sweet Wine ProductionBotrytis CinereaBotrytis cinerea is a fungus that saps moisture from the grapes, leaving them with a higher concentration of sugar and acidity. Welcomed and sometimes even encouraged in the vineyard, it is a scourge to other fruits. It is most famously used to make Sauternes, and Chateau d’Yquem is the best producer. Several producers in California also use this Sweet Wine Production process to make impressive Botrytis cinerea wines.Late HarvestIf grapes are left on the vine past the normal harvest time, they will develop more concentrated sugars
  74. 74. PassitoPassito is made with grapes that have been semi-dried and turned into raisins. Passito has a significant amount of residual sugar and very concentrated flavours. It has traditionally been made in Tuscany and Umbria, where it is highly valued. Tuscany is also the home of this Sweet Wine Production process.SussreserveSome quality sweet wines are made by adding some unfermented grapes juice to a fermented wine. In Germany, the addition of this juice is called sussreserve or “sweet reserve.” The sugar in the
  75. 75. Fortified Wine ProductionAs made them particularly important before refrigeration, as they could be shipped large distances and retain their quality. The British played a major role in this trade.Port ProductionPort is a sweet fortified wine that is made when Brandy is added before fermentation is complete. During this type of Fortified Wine Production, the alcohol kills the yeast cells and stops fermentation before all of the sugar has been converted. Port is made in the Douro
  76. 76. Sherry ProductionSherry is a dry fortified wine that is produced in the town of Jerez, Spain. Unlike Port, it is made when Brandy is added to a wine after fermentation is complete. Sherry can have residual sugar, but it is added after fermentation and fortification. It is made with a very unique type of Fortified Wine Production.Marsala ProductionMarsala is a fortified wine made on the island of Sicily. Like many fortified wines, the British were indispensable in importing and distributing Marsala. John Woodhouse is credited with introducing the wine and Fortified Wine Production technique to the international market.Madiera ProductionMadeira is from the Madeira Islands off the coast of
  77. 77. Sparkling Wine Production
  78. 78. Steps InvolvedThe Champagne region of France produces much of the famous sparkling wines of the world. The tradition varietals used in Sparkling Wine Production are Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and Pinot Meunier.HarvestThe harvest of grapes used in Sparkling Wine Production is usually earlier than it is for grapes that will be made into still wine. This ensures that acidity is higher and the sugars are lower. The result is the light, low alcohol wine that is made during the first
  79. 79. PressingGrapes used for Sparkling Wine Production often skip the destemming and crushing process. Instead, pressing occurs immediately when the grapes arrive at the winery. A pneumatic press is usually used to extract the juice because it is delicate and agitates the skins as little as possible.First FermentationAfter the grapes are pressed, they undergo their first fermentation. This produces a still white wine with low alcohol and high acidity. Most
  80. 80. BlendingBlending of sparkling wine is an extremely important, labor intensive process. Depending on whether they are making a vintage or non vintage wine, vintners are able to blend separate lots from different parts of the vineyard or wine from previous years. This is a very difficult part of the Sparkling Wine Production process that requires considerable experience as well as an exceptionally refined palate.Most sparkling wines are not made entirely from one particular vintage. A quantity of wine from past
  81. 81. Blendi ngProces s Of
  82. 82. Bottling & Liqueur de Triage AdditionAfter blending is complete, it is time for bottling. After the necessary ingredients are added, the bottles are capped. The critical ingredient is the liqueur de triage. This is a combination of yeast and sugar that has been dissolved in wine. After they are capped, the bottles are laid on their side in a cool, temperature- controlled space.
  83. 83. Second FermentationAs they rest, a second fermentation takes place in the bottle. Because the carbon dioxide is trapped in the bottle, the wine becomes carbonated. The part of the Sparkling Wine Production process rarely takes longer than two weeks and increases the alcohol to around 12%.AgingMany producers age sparkling wine in the bottle sur lie after the second fermentation is complete. Contact with the dead yeast cells imparts a smooth, creamy character into the wine. High quality sparkling wines that have been aged for a long time have very small
  84. 84. RiddlingAfter the sparkling wine has been aged on its lees for a sufficient amount of time, it is riddled. Riddling involves working the dead yeast cells to the neck of the bottle. Veuve Clicquot is credited with greatly improving this part of the Sparkling Wine Production process.DisgorgementDuring disgorgement, the wine is cooled to the point that a bit of liquid freezes around the dead yeast cells in the neck of the bottle. The goal is to lose as little wine and carbonation as possible, but also remove all of the sediment.
  85. 85. Inserting Corks and LabelingAt this point, it is time for inserting corks and adding the capsules and wire cages that secure them. Sparkling wine corks start as cylinders but are changed to their familiar shape by a very tight fit and high pressure. The wine labels are then added, completing the sparkling wine production process.
  86. 86. Wine ChemistryWine chemistry explains the flavour, balance, colour, stability that was once only possible through subjective description. Understanding the principles of wine chemistry will open your eyes to a new level of wine appreciation.The Chemical Components of WineWine chemistry can be as simple or complex as you want. There is always another level of depth, from the chemical components of wine in taste perception, to the balance of various phenols, acids and sugars. This balance is:> Sweet Taste (sugars + alcohols) <= => Acid Taste (acids) + Bitter Taste (phenols)Phenols
  87. 87. AcidityFlavanoids and non-flavanoids are wine chemicals that have a profound impact on quality, colour and flavour. These molecules are largely influenced by acidity, and interact with acids to form complicated, yet important molecules. Acidity may be the most important aspect of wine chemistry.Alcohol & SugarThe majority of these acids are produced naturally by the vines, but their relative levels are adjusted based on a multitude of factors. One of them is the alcohol content, which is an indication of the sugar in wine. Sugar is converted to alcohol by fermentation; thus the sugars present and their relative concentrations in the grapes are