Successfully reported this slideshow.

The World of Wine & Spirits



Loading in …3
1 of 377
1 of 377

More Related Content

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

The World of Wine & Spirits

  2. 2. FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICES - II FOOD: Anything edible having an ability to suppress or appease our appetite / hunger. BEVERAGE: Any liquid having thirst quenching, refreshing, nourishing or stimulating properties. Water is not a beverage rather all beverages are water based.
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF BEVERAGES Non Alcoholic Beverages Alcoholic Beverages Refreshing Stimulating Nourishing Juices Squashes Aerated Drinks Mineral Water Tea Coffee Milk Juices Chocolate Bournvita etc.
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF BEVERAGES Non Alcoholic Beverages Alcoholic Beverages Fermented Fermented & Distilled Fermented , Distilled & Compounded WINES CIDER PERRY BEER SAKE MEAD SPIRITS WHISKY GIN LIQUEURS COCKTAILS BRANDY RUM VODKA TEQUILLA
  5. 5. CONSUMPTION TIME OF VARIOUS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES PRE-MEAL DRINKS: Known as “ Aperitifs” Cocktails Spirits Bitters Beer Wines POST MEAL DRINKS: Known as “ Digestifs” Brandy Liqueurs LBV or Vintage Port Special Single Malt Whiskies Liqueur / Spirit Coffee
  6. 6. WINES Wine can be defined as the juice of freshly gathered grapes grown in open vineyards, suitably fermented according to the local customs and traditions without the addition of any foreign substance.
  7. 7. WINE PRODUCING COUNTRIES  ITALY is the largest producer of Wines.  FRANCE is the second largest producer of Wines.  RUSSIA  ARGENTINA  SPAIN  U.S.A.  GERMANY
  12. 12. A number of factors affect wine quality, the most important being the type of grape used. The best grapevine is the vitis vinifera, which has many different varieties. The grape yield per acre is also a factor. The higher the yield is the lower the wine quality will generally be, conversely, the lower the yield is the more concentrated the grape flavours and the better the wine quality will be normally, a ton of gushed grapes yield an average of 170 gallon of Table wine.
  13. 13. Soil is also a factor, the best being one that offers good drainage, which is why gravel and sand are better than clay. Good drainage forces the wines root to seek deep moisture which cause their root to become longer. These longer root are able to reach deep mineral deposits and these mineral, in turn, add flavour to gapes and thus to wine. CROSS-SECTION OF SOIL TOP VIEW OF THE SOIL
  14. 14. Another factor is climate. Grape vines like Cool nights and Sunny, warm days, as these help them maintain the right balance between acid and sugar in the grapes. However, too hot weather when the grapes are maturing, near harvest times, will decrease the acid and increase the sugar and will produce a wine that may not age well. On the other hand too little sunshine will reduces the amount of grape sugar and produce a wine low in alcohol and as a result, sugar may have to be added before fermentation to rise the alcohol level. Also rain at harvest time can dilute the grapes sugar and encourage rotting thereby lowering the quality of the wine. Mechanical grapes- picking equipment can give grapes growers more control over the grapes quality than hand picking can as all the grape can be picked quickly when they all at their peak of ripeness. But if rain has spoiled some of the grape bunches, hand picking will allow those to be by passed.
  15. 15. Finally, the skills of the winemaker is extremely important as it can effect the personality and quality of the wine produced. The vintner's skill can also vary, because of local tradition and will dictate the type of wine made. The market for whom the wine is to be manufactured also calls upon different wine making skills. For examples, if the wine is to be made in a smaller quantity with a high quality or in a larger quantity with a lesser quality .
  16. 16. VITIS VINIFERA The best wines are made from a type of vine known as Vitis Vinifera. Some of which are known to be three hundred years old. This wine grows best in this broad belts one north and the other south of the equator. Grapes can be grown outside these belts and be turned into wine, but its quality is not considered as high as that from vines grown within these belts. The northern belt includes knowledgeable wine making countries such as France, Italy, Germany and the United States. The Southern belt embraces Chile, Argentina, Australia and South Africa. Vines will yield more grapes when planted in fertile soil on flat land but the wine made from such grapes will seldom be comparable in quality to wine made from grapes grown on sunny slopes in soil that may not be fertile but is rich in the mineral that create a special characteristic, known as bouquet, that is present in all quality wines. As the grapes mature, their sugar content increases and their acid content decreases. Grape growers thus must know when the balance between sugar and acid is just right to produce the best wine.
  17. 17. THE VINE
  18. 18. Grafting
  19. 19. Received wisdom is that pruning hard keeps yields low and quality high. However, many growers in Australia have found that they can produce good quality wine with minimal pruning or no pruning at all: yields, they say, find their own level. The debate continues, with European growers still firmly in the hard-pruning camp. This worker at Château Léoville-Barton in Bordeaux is leaving just two crop-bearing branches for the year to come. The answer (if there ever is one) may turn out to be that it is local conditions that matter most. Pruning
  20. 20. VINEYARDS
  22. 22. Cabernet Sauvignon
  23. 23. Pinot Noir
  24. 24. MERLOT
  25. 25. NEBBIOLO
  26. 26. SYRAH / SHIRAZ
  27. 27. SANGIOVESE
  28. 28. Chardonnay
  30. 30. SÉMILLON
  31. 31. RIESLING
  32. 32. CHENIN BLANC
  35. 35. MANUFACTURING OF WINE Various processes involved in the making of Wines are:  Harvesting  Grading  Weighing  Removal of stalks / destalking  Crushing  Sulphuring  Fermentation  Cellaring & second processing  Racking  Fining & Filtering  Refrigeration  Blending  Maturing of wine  Bottling of wines  Pasteurization  Ageing of wine
  36. 36. WINE PRESSINGS Vin de Gouté: Known as running Wines. These are from the first pressing. Generally are of superior quality. Vin de pressé: Known as pressed Wines. These are from the second pressing.
  38. 38. TABLE WINES These wines are popular at mealtime because of the low alcohol content and also because they have a stimulating effect on the taste buds. These are produced by the natural fermentation of the juice of freshly squeezed grapes. Table wines are generally either red or white containing 9-14% alcohol and may range from very dry to quite sweet . Table wines are considered to be the best with the food as they are great additions to the flavour of a meal. More table wines are produced than all other wines combined.
  39. 39. SPARKLING WINES These are effervescent wines. These wines appear to be bubbling and sparkling. These are used for almost every occasion and could easily be termed as All purpose wines. They could be red or white like the table wines and generally have an alcohol content of 9-14% ranges from very dry to very sweet. All wines other than sparkling wines are called “Still Wines”. The most prominent of all sparkling wines is “CHAMPAGNE”.
  40. 40. FORTIFIED WINES Dessert wines are generally fortified with brandy which halts their fermentation and makes them stronger and sweeter than table wines and sparkling wines. These are wines which are generally used after the meals with desserts or between meals with snacks. They have a filling effect because of their sweetness and also helps in relaxation and digestion after the meal. Fortified wines are very sweet and have an alcoholic content of about 22%. Basically, the fortification enables the wines to travel more as the increased alcohol content gives the strength to the wines. The time at which the brandy is added decides the degree of sweetness or dryness of the wine.
  41. 41. AROMATISED WINES This category cannot really be accepted as wines due to the reason that they essentially may not be made from grapes. These are known as Appetizer wines and are used before the meals to stimulate the appetite. These are usually dry wines which are fortified after the fermentation is complete. They can be flavored too and the alcohol content generally ranges from 20-24%.
  42. 42. WINE TERMS  OENOLOGY / ENOLOGY: Science of making Wines.  AMPELLOGRAPHY: Science of studying Grapes.  VATS: Fermenting Vessels.  LEES: Impurities.  BRUT: Very Dry  SEC: Medium dry  DEMI-SEC: Medium sweet  DOUX: Sweet
  43. 43. WINE TERMS  MUST: Unfermented grape juice.  APERITIFS: Alcoholic drinks served or consumed before the meal, helps in increasing the appetite.  DIGESTIFS: Alcoholic drinks served or consumed after the meal, helps in digestion.  CASK : Barrels made up of Oak wood used to store & age wines.  CELLAR: A warehouse used to store wines.  CHAI: French term for cellar.
  44. 44. WINE TERMS  MAITRE DE CHAI: Cellar master.  VINE: Creeper of Grape.  VINEYARDS: The place where vines are grown.  VIGNERON: The Vine grower.  VINTNERS: The Wine maker.
  45. 45. Vintage Year Wine Type Wine Producer Area of Champagne Style of Champagne Capacity Alcohol level
  46. 46. Shipper’s Name Vintage Year Year of Bottling Shipper’s Trademark e-European standard & cl-centiliter Alcohol level Type / Style
  47. 47. TASTING OF WINE The quality of wine is analyzed by our senses. SIGHT: The colour & clarity of the wine can be judged. SMELL: Bouquet of the wine is analyzed. TASTE: The aroma can be determined. The tasting room should be well ventilated, with sufficient natural light and the temperature of the room should be around 20°C (68°F). Also there should be no noise to distract the wine taster.
  48. 48. Winemakers and wine writers use a variety of descriptions to communicate the aromas, flavors and characteristics of wines. Many of the terms seem familiar and natural, yet others are less clear. Use this glossary of common wine terminology to help you better understand and describe the wines you enjoy. Acidity The presence of natural fruit acids that lend a tart, crisp taste to wine Aroma Smells in wine that originates from the grape Astringent Bitter; gives a drying sensation in the mouth Balanced All components of the wine are in harmony Barrel Fermented White wine that is fermented in an oak barrel instead of a stainless steel tank Body The weight and tactile impression of the wine on the palate that ranges from light to heavy/full Bouquet Smells from winemaking, aging and bottle age Buttery Rich, creamy flavor associated with barrel fermentation Character Describes distinct attributes of a wine Chewy Wine that has a very deep, textured and mouth-filling sensation Clean Wine without disagreeable aromas or tastes Closed Wine that needs to open up; aging and/or decanting can help Complex Layered aromas, flavors and textures Cooked Wine that has been exposed to excessively high temperatures; spoiled Corked Wine that has been tainted with moldy smells or other obvious flaws from a bad cork
  49. 49. Delicate Light, soft and fresh wine Dry No sugar or sweetness remaining; a fruity wine can be dry Earthy Flavors and aromas of mushroom, soil and mineral Elegance A well balanced, full wine with pleasant, distinct character Finish The final impression of a wine on the palate; ranges from short to long Firm Texture and structure of a young, tannic red Flabby/ Flat Lacking in acidity, mouth-feel, structure and/or texture Fleshy A soft textured wine Flinty A mineral tone, aroma or flavor Floral Flower aromas such as rose petals, violets, gardenia or honeysuckle Fruity Obvious fruit aromas and flavors; not to be confused with sweet flavors such as berries, cherries and citrus Full- Bodied Rich, mouth filling, weighty-textured wine Grassy Aromas and flavors of fresh cut grass or fresh herbs Green Unripe, tart flavors
  50. 50. Hard Texture and structure that hinders flavor Herbaceous Grassy, vegetable tones and aromas Lean Wine is thin and tastes more acidic than fruity Legs Teardrop impressions of alcohol weightiness that are visible on the inside edges of a wine glass Light- Bodied A wine with delicate flavors, texture and aromas Lively Young, fruity and vivacious flavor Malolactic Conversion of hard, malic acid (green apple flavors) in wine to soft, lactic acid (rich, butter flavors) Medium- Bodied A wine with solid, but not rich weight and texture Nose The smell of a wine; aroma Oak Aromas and flavors contributed during barrel fermentation and/or aging such as vanilla, caramel, chocolate, smoke, spice or toast Off-Dry (Semi-dry) Very low levels of residual sugar remaining in the wine Rich Weighty flavors and texture Round Smooth flavors and texture; well-balanced Smoky/ Toasty Aromas of smoke and toast imparted by fired barrels Sweet Wines that have a higher concentration of sugar after fermentation
  51. 51. Tannin A drying, astringent sensation on the palate that is generally associated with heavier red wines Terroir French word reflecting the expression of soil, topography and climate in a wine Thin Wine is unpleasantly watery and lacks flavor and texture Vegetal Herbal, weedy aromas and flavors Velvety Smooth-textured with deep, rich aromas and flavors Vintage Year that grapes were harvested and fermented to make a wine
  52. 52. MATCHING FOOD & WINE There are some general rules concerning which wines are best with which food. There are also some foods with which one should not serve wine. Chinese and Indian food are the best examples because these are strongly flavoured foods and the curries would make a wine useless as a compliment. For these foods, beer, cider, tea or even a fruit juice goes best. In other words, strong food with herbs & spices will overpower a good wine and cause it to taste bland or even sharp. For the same reason, a salad dressing containing vinegar or lemon juice, a dish with heavy garlic, tabasco, mustard, Worcestershire sauce etc. can ruin the taste of a good wine.
  53. 53. Sauvignon Blanc Chardonnay Riesling Pinot Noir Syrah Merlot Cabernet Sauvigno n Zinfandel cheese/nut feta goat cheese pine nuts Asiago havarti almonds havarti Gouda candied walnuts goat cheese Brie walnuts sharp cheddar Roquefor t hazelnuts Parmesan Romano chestnuts cheddar Gorgonzo la walnuts Brie aged cheese meat/fowl chicken turkey veal chicken pork smoked sausage duck lamb sausage filet mignon chicken roast game pepperon i spicy sausage grilled meats steak venison rib eye beef stew pork spicy sausage beef duck seafood sole oysters scallops halibut shrimp crab sea bass trout orange roughy tuna salmon grilled swordfish tuna grilled tuna cioppino blackene d fish veggie/fruit citrus green apple asparagu s potato apple squash mango apricots chili peppers pears mushrooms dried fruit figs strawberr ies currants stewed tomatoes beets carmelized onions tomatoes plums black cherries broccoli tomatoes cranberries grilled peppers eggplant herb/spice chives tarragon cilantro tarragon sesame basil rosemary ginger nutmeg cinnamon clove oregano sage mint rosemary Juniper rosemary Juniper lavender pepper nutmeg sauces citrus light sauces cream sauce pesto sweet BBQ spicy chutney mushroom sauce light- medium red sauce heavy sauce red sauce Barbeque bolognese bearnaise brown sauce tomato sauce spicy Cajun salsa desserts sorbet key lime pie banana bread vanilla pudding apple pie carmel sauce creme brulee white chcolate Black Forest cake rhubarb pie dark chocolate berries fondue bittersweet chocolate espresso gelato spice cake gingerbre ad carrot cake
  54. 54. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR MATCHING FOOD & WINE  APPETIZERS: Champagne, dry & light white or rose wine or a dry sherry.  SOUPS: Dry sherry, full bodied dry white or light red wine.  SEAFOOD: Light, dry white wine.  FISH: Dry or medium dry white wine.  FISH IN RICH SAUCE: White wine with flavour & body.  ROAST BEEF OR LAMB: Full bodied red wine.  ROAST VEAL: Light red or full bodied white wine.  GRILLED MEATS: Light, delicate red wine.
  55. 55. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR MATCHING FOOD & WINE  ROAST HAM, PORK: Medium dry white, rose wine.  GAME: Full bodied red wine.  STEW: Full bodied red wine.  PASTA: Robust red or full bodied white wine.  POULTRY: Full bodied white or light red wine.  DESSERTS: Sweet white or sparkling wine.  STRONG CHEESE: Full bodied red.  BLUE CHEESE: Sweet white wine.  MILD CHEESE: Medium bodied red or fortified wine.  FRUITS: Sweet white, sparkling wine or port.
  56. 56. STORAGE OF WINE Proper Wine storage is of prime importance. A good wine can be ruined before it reaches the table, if it is not properly stored. The very first essential of wine storage is an appropriate location. Wine must be kept in a place where it is not subject to temperature fluctuation and sunlight or fluorescent light. This location must also be such that the wine will be moved as little as possible. The bottles should rest quietly until they are ready to be opened as frequent movement can damage the wine.
  57. 57. STORAGE OF WINE The wines must always be stored on their sides and the wine should be in constant contact with the cork so that it will not dry out and allow harmful air into the bottles. Wines with metal cap can be stored upright.
  58. 58. SERVICE OF WINES Things required for service of Red wine:  The ordered wine bottle  Serviette  Wine opener  Ash tray  Quarter plate  Red wine glasses  Wine Salver
  59. 59. SERVICE OF WINE Things required for service of White wine: The ordered wine bottle. Two serviettes Wine Opener Ash tray Quarter plate White wine glasses Wine salver Wine Cooler
  60. 60. Things required for service of Sparkling wine: The ordered wine bottle Champagne chiller with stand Two serviettes Champagne glasses Quarter Plate Champagne stopper
  61. 61. There are mainly six wine regions in France: 1. BORDEAUX 2. BURGUNDY 3. RHONE 4. CHAMPAGNE 5. ALSACE 6. LOIRE
  62. 62. Largest wine producing region of France. This region is famous for the good quality red wines produced here which are known as “CLARET” in England and other English speaking countries. 1. MEDOC 2. GRAVES 3. ST. EMILLON 4. POMEROL 5. SAUTERNES
  63. 63. This region is also known as “The heart of France” and is famous for the fine quality red, white & sparkling burgundies produced here. 1. CHABLIS 2. COTE D’OR 3. MACONNAISE 4. BEAUJOLAIS 5. CHALLONAISE
  64. 64. This region is named after the river which flows through it. Rhone produces good white & red wines. 1. COTE ROTIE 2. HERMITAGE 3. CHATEAU NEUF-DU-PAPE
  65. 65. This region produces the world’s best sparkling wine which is named after the region i.e. “CHAMPAGNE”. The word Champagne can only be associated to a sparkling wine, if a) It is produced within the region of Champagne and b) It is manufactured by using the “ Methode Champagnoise”. 1. MONTAGNE DE REIMS 2. VALLEE DE LA MARNE 3. CÔTE DE BLANCS 4. CÔTE DE SEZANNE 5. AUBE
  66. 66. This region is located along the Rhine river which flows across Germany. This region produces some good quality white wines which are France’s answer to the German Rhine & Mosell wines. Riesling is the main grape variety used for making the wines.
  67. 67. This region is located along the banks of Loire river which is the longest and one of the most beautiful rivers of France. Loire wines sometimes are collectively known as “ Vins de la loire” which includes red, white & rose wines , ranging in quality from poor to great.
  68. 68. It is an island in the Mediterranean, the wines of which are primarily consumed on the island itself. It has nine AOC regions and and island wide vin de pays designation and is still developing its production methods as well as its regional style.
  69. 69. It’s a small in the mountains close to Switzerland where some unique wine styles, notably Vin Jaune and Vin de Paille are produced. The region covers six appellations and is related to Burgundy through its extensive use of the Burgundian grapes Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. Though other varieties are also used. It also shares climatic conditions with Burgundy.
  70. 70. It is by far the largest region in terms of vineyard area and the region in which much of France’s cheap bulk wines have been produced. While still the source of much of France’s and Europe’s overproduction, the so- called “wine lake”. This region is also the home of some of France’s most innovative producers. They try to combine traditional French wine and international styles and do not hesitate to take lessons from the New World. Most of the wine from this region is sold as Vin de pays.
  71. 71. It is located in southeast and close to the Mediterranean. It is perhaps the warmest wine region of France and produces mainly rosé and red wine. It covers eight major appellations led by the Provence flagship, Bandol. Some Provence wine can be compared with the Southern Rhone wines as they share grapes, style and climate. Provence also has a classification of its most prestigious estates, much like Bordeaux.
  72. 72. Savoy or savoie, primarily a white wine region in the Alps close to Switzerland, where many unique grape varities are cultivated.
  73. 73. South West France or Sud-Quest, a somewhat heterogeneous collection Bordeaux. Some areas produce primarily red wines like Bordeaux, while others produce dry or sweet white wines. Area included in Sud-Quest are:  Bergerac & others of upstream Dordogne  Areas of upstream Garonne including Cahors  Areas in Gascony  Bearn, Jaracon  Basquecountry areas, such as Irouléguy
  74. 74. FRENCH WINE CONTROL TERMS  TABLE VIN / VIN DE TABLE: These are the wines of medium quality which may be a blend of wines from more than one country of the EEC and are not less than 8.5% in alcoholic content.  VIN DE PAYS: These are the wines from the larger districts of France. AOC (Appellation d’origine contrôllée): Under AOC, strict regulations are there to govern & control the whole wine manufacturing process ( viticulture, fermentation & vinification ). Quality wines from different French regions whether small or large, if bears a label of AOC, ensures the guarantee of authenticity.  VDQS ( Vins délimités de qualité supérieure): VDQS wines are excellent second quality wines produced from specified vineyards or districts of France. These wines are also governed by strict laws.  MISE EN BOUTEILLE CHÂTEAU: Wines bottled at the Chateau.  ‘e’: This ‘e’ mark indicates that the bottler has complied with the EEC bottling capacity regulations.
  75. 75.  QWPSR: Quality wines produces in a specific region  INAO: Institut des Appellations d’origine  TERROIR: It refers to the unique combination of factors like soil, underlying rocks. Altitude, slope of hill, orientation towards sun and other climatic conditions.
  78. 78. The discovery of Champagne is frequently credited to “Dom Perignon”who was the Cellar Master at Abbey in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century. It is often said that he was the first to put the bubbles into the wine but the fact is that the nature puts them there. What Dom Perignon did do was apply to wine the process that puts fizz into beer. The bubbles are the same, CO2 which is a byproduct of fermentation. It is quite easy to make a fizzy or an effervescent wine. If the wine is bottled before the fermentation is complete and the bottle is tightly stoppered, the co2 will not escape until the bottle is opened. Dom Perignon actually discovered a process of tightly stoppering the bottle with a cork and he also learned how to improve a mediocre quality wine to a champagne by blending.
  79. 79. Manufacturing of Champagne There are 4 methods of making Champagne:  Methodé Champénoise  Charmat or Tank or Cuve close method  Transfer or Transversage Method  Carbonation or Impregnation Method
  80. 80. CHARMAT / TANK / CUVE CLOSE METHOD This was started by M. Charmat in France. In this method, the still wine is taken into a Vat and a measured quantity of sugar & yeast is added to start the secondary fermentation. This fermentation is carried out for 10 days and then is transferred through filters under pressure and bottled. This method is quicker and cheaper than Methode Champenoise.
  81. 81. TRANSFER / TRANSVERSAGE METHOD This is very similar to Methode Champenoise but in this process, the expensive Remuage & Degorgement steps are not carried out. Instead , the wine is passed through a fine filter and Dosage is added to the filtered wine and then it is bottled. This is not a preferable method as the bouquet and body of the wine is lost.
  82. 82. CARBONATION / IMPREGNATION METHOD This is also a cheaper method of producing sparkling wine. In this method, the CO2 is injected into the still, chilled wine and the wine is then bottled under pressure.
  83. 83. METHODÉ CHAMPÉNOISE 1. Grape Varieties used: a) Chardonnay (White) b) Pinot Noir (Red) c) Pinot Meuniere (Red) 2. First Fermentation 3. Assemblage / Blending 4. Liqueur de tirage 5. Secondary Fermentation
  84. 84. METHODÉ CHAMPÉNOISE 6. Sedimentation Process (REMUAGE) 7. Removal of Sediments (DEGORGEMENT) 8. DOSAGE OR LIQUEUR DE EXPEDITION
  87. 87. VINTAGE CHAMPAGNE Non-Vintage champagne makes up about 80% of all champagne made. By law, these champagnes must age for one year in the bottle. Almost all champagnes are blended and often from the wines of more than one harvest. Vintage champagnes are produced occasionally in a particularly good grape growing year. When this happens, only the grapes from that year are used and the champagne becomes the vintage one. The year appears on the bottle label and the cork. The Vintage Champagne may be a blend but from the same year. However, in order to be declared a vintage Champagne by law, it must be matured for a minimum of one year and then be aged in the bottle for a minimum of five years.
  88. 88. WINES OF GERMANY Germany does not produce much of wine. Its total wine production is only about 10% of either France’s or Italy’s and only about 1% of the world’s total production. Germany produces wines from the major vines of the world like Riesling, Sylvaner, Traminer etc. Although in earlier times most of the German wines used to be red but today it is almost entirely white. The wines of Germany are produced primarily in the valley of the Rhine & Moselle rivers. Some of the best German wines are produced from over ripened grapes, a condition that concentrates the grape sugar & natural flavour. It is the degree of ripeness that forms the basis of German wine laws. Because of their sweetness, German wines are best consumed on their own or with desserts but not with any strongly flavoured food.
  89. 89. WINE REGIONS OF GERMANY Germany is divided into 13 wine producing regions (Anbaugebiete). Each region is having 2 or more districts. Each district has several villages or parishes and each village has several vineyards. In total, there are about 2600 vineyards in Germany. 1. Ahr 2. Baden 3. Hessiche Bergstrasse 4. Franken 5. Mittelrhein 6. Mosel-Saar-Ruwer 7. Nahe 8. Rheingau 9. Rheinhessen 10. Rheinpfalz 11.Württemberg 12. Saale Unstrut 13.Sachsen
  90. 90. GERMAN WINE LAWS German wine laws came into existence in the year 1971. 1. Deutscher Tafelwein: This category is equivalent to the French Table Wines. The alcohol content must be at least 8.5% by volume. Sugar can be added to reach at this level. Acidity must be 4.5 g/lt. Tafelwein (without Deutscher) is a table wine blended with other European wines, also known as Euroblend.
  91. 91. 2. Deutscher Landwien: This category is equivalent to French Vin de pays. There are 19 different areas from where the German Country wine can be produced. The wine must be dry or semi dry with 0.5% more alcohol that tablewines. These are also known as German Fruit wine.
  92. 92. 3. Qualitatswein bestinnter Anbaugebiete (QbA): These wines must be produced exclusively from allowed varieties in one of the 13 wine-growing regions (Anbaugebiete), and the region must be shown on the label. The grapes must reach a must weight of 51°Oe to 72°Oe depending on region and grape variety. The alcohol content of the wine must be at least 7% by volume, and chaptalization is allowed. QbA range from dry to semi-sweet, and the style is often indicated on the label. There are some special wine types which are considered as special forms of QbA. Some top-level dry wines are officially QbA although they would qualify as Prädikatswein. It should be noted that only Qualitätswein plus the name of the region, rather than the full term Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete is found on the label.
  93. 93. Prädikatswein, recently (August 1, 2007) renamed from Qualitätswein mit Prädikat (QmP) : The top level of the classification system. These prominently display a Prädikat from Kabinett to Trockenbeerenauslese on the label and may not be chaptalized. Prädikatswein range from dry to intensely sweet, but unless it is specifically indicated that the wine is dry or off-dry, these wines always contain a noticeable amount of residual sugar. Prädikatswein must be produced from allowed varieties in one of the 39 subregions (Bereich) of one of the 13 wine-growing regions, although it is the region rather than the subregion which is mandatory information on the label. (Some of the smaller regions, such as Rheingau, consist of only one subregion.) The required must weight is defined by the Prädikat, and the alcohol content of the wine must be at least 7% by volume for Kabinett to Auslese, and 5.5% by volume for Beerenauslese, Eiswein and Trockenbeerenauslese.
  94. 94. Prädikat designations The Prädikatswein (formerly QmP) category of the classification contains most high-quality German wines, with the exception of some top-quality dry wines. The different Prädikat designations differ in terms of the required must weight, the sugar content of the grape juice, and the level required is dependent on grape variety and wine-growing region and is defined in terms of the Oechsle scale. In fact the must weight is seen as a rough indicator of quality (and price). The Prädikat system has its origin at Schloss Johannisberg in Rheingau, where the first Spätlese was produced in 1775 where wines received different colour seals based on their must weight. The different Prädikat designations used are as followed, in order of increasing sugar levels in the must:
  95. 95. Kabinett fully ripened light wines from the main harvest, typically semi-sweet with crisp acidity, but can be dry if designated so. Spätlese - meaning "late harvest" typically semi-sweet, often (but not always) sweeter and fruitier than Kabinett. Spätlese can be a relatively full-bodied dry wine if designated so. While Spätlese means late harvest the wine is not as sweet as a dessert wine. Auslese - meaning "select harvest" made from selected very ripe bunches or grapes, typically semi-sweet or sweet, sometimes with some noble rot character. Sometimes Auslese is also made into a powerful dry wine, but the designation Auslese trocken has been discouraged after the introduction of Grosses Gewächs. Auslese is the Prädikat which covers the widest range of wine styles, and can be a dessert wine. Beerenauslese - meaning "select berry harvest" made from individually selected overripe grapes often affected by noble rot, making rich sweet dessert wine. Eiswein (ice wine) made from grapes that have been naturally frozen on the vine, making a very concentrated wine. Must reach at least the same level of sugar content in the must as a Beerenauslese. The most classic Eiswein style is to use only grapes that are not affected by noble rot. Until the 1980s, the Eiswein designation was used in conjunction with another Prädikat (which indicated the ripeness level of the grapes before they had frozen), but is now considered a Prädikat of its own. Trockenbeerenauslese - meaning "select dry berry harvest" or "dry berry selection" made from selected overripe shrivelled grapes often affected by noble rot making extremely rich sweet wines.
  96. 96. WINE PRODUCING REGIONS 1. Ahr - a small region along the river Ahr, a tributary of Rhine, that despite its northernly location primarily produces red wine from Spätburgunder. 2. Baden - in Germany's southwestern corner, across river Rhine from Alsace, and the only German wine region situated in European Union wine growing zone B rather than A, which results in higher minimum required maturity of grapes and less chaptalisation allowed. Noted for its pinot wines - both red and white. Although the Kaiserstuhl region in the wine growing region of Baden is Germany's warmest location, the average temperature in the whole wine region is a little bit lower than in Palatinate (zone A). One of two wine regions in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg.
  97. 97. 3. Franconia or Franken - around portions of Main river, and the only wine region situated in Bavaria. Noted for growing many varieties on chalky soil and for producing powerful dry Silvaner wines. 4. Hessische Bergstraße (Hessian Mountain Road) - a small region in the federal state Hesse dominated by Riesling. 5. Mittelrhein - along the middle portions of river Rhine, primarily between the regions Rheingau and Mosel, and dominated by Riesling.
  98. 98. 6. Mosel - along the river Moselle (Mosel) and its tributaries, the rivers Saar and Ruwer, and was previously known as Mosel-Saar-Ruwer. The Mosel region is dominated by Riesling grapes and slate soils, and the best wines are grown in dramatic-looking steep vineyards directly overlooking the rivers. This region produces wine that is light in body, crisp, of high acidity and with pronounced mineral character. The only region to stick to Riesling wine with noticeable residual sweetness as the "standard" style, although dry wines are also produced. 7. Nahe - around the river Nahe where volcanic origins give very varied soils. Mixed grape varieties but the best known producers primarily grow Riesling, and some of them have achieved world reputation in recent years.
  99. 99. 8. Palatinate or Pfalz - the second largest producing region in Germany, with production of very varied styles of wine (especially in the southern half), where red wine has been on the increase. The northern half of the region is home to many well known Riesling producers with a long history, which specialize in powerful Riesling wines in a dry style. Warmer than all other German wine regions. Until 1995, it was known in German as Rheinpfalz.
  100. 100. 9. Rheingau - a small region situated at a bend in river Rhine which give excellent conditions for wine growing. The oldest documented references to Riesling come from the Rheingau region and it is the region where many German wine making practices have originated, such as the use of Prädikat designations, and where many high- profile producers are situated. Dominated by Riesling with some Spätburgunder. The Rheingau Riesling style is in- between Mosel and the Palatinate and other southern regions, and at its finest combines the best aspects of both.
  101. 101. 10. Rheinhessen or Rhenish Hesse - the largest production area in Germany. Once known as Liebfraumilch land, but a quality revolution has taken place since the 1990s. Mixed wine styles and both red and white wines. The best Riesling wines are similar to Palatinate Riesling - dry and powerful. Despite its name, it lies in the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, not in Hesse. 11. Saale-Unstrut - one of two regions in former East Germany, situated along the rivers Saale and Unstrut, and Germany's northernmost wine growing region.
  102. 102. 12. Saxony or Sachsen - one of two regions in former East Germany, in the southeastern corner of the country, along the river Elbe in the federal state of Saxony. 13. Württemberg - a traditional red wine region, where grape varieties Trollinger (the region's signature variety), Schwarzriesling and Lemberger outnumber the varieties that dominate elsewhere. One of two wine regions in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg.
  103. 103. FAMOUS WINES OF GERMANY 1. Spätburgunder: The forefather of the burgundy wines. Dark red colour with delicate aroma. Typical is a taste that reminds of blackcurrant or blackberry. These noble wines are good with game, poultry, paté de fois gras, pasta and pizza. The colour stays in the berry involucres and creates, therefore, a salmon- coloured fresh wine that is especially consumed in summer. 2. Trollinger: Southern Tyrol is the original homeland of the Trollinger from where the name is derived from. Today, it is almost exclusively cultivated in Wurttemberg. A light and fruity wine that varies in its colour between salmon-red and ruby-red. A good Trollinger tastes juicy and is served lightly cooled.
  104. 104. 3. Muskattrollinger: Fruity, bright red wine with distinctive nutmeg aroma. Rare speciality, good with Hors d’oeuvres and desserts. 4. Lemberger (Blaufrankisch): a warm and aromatic wine. The colour is a glowing ruby-red with some brown reflections. Powerful red wine, one of the most noble types. 5. Dornfelder: Deep purple, dense colour. Noble red wine with a full body and full aroma and flavour. Excellent for the production in small wooden barrels (barrique). 6. Samtrot: A natural mutation of the black Riesling. Ruby-red to dark red colour. Velvety taste, warm and full bodied.
  105. 105. A.P.Number Abbreviation for Amtliche Prüfungsnummer, the official testing number displayed on a German wine label that shows that the wine was tasted and passed government quality control standards.
  106. 106. WINES OF ITALY Italian wine is wine produced in Italy, a country which is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in the country long before the Romans started developing their own vineyards in the 2nd century BC. Roman grape-growing and winemaking was prolific and well- organized, pioneering large-scale production and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling. Two thousand years later, Italy remains one of the world's foremost producers, responsible for approximately one-fifth of world wine production in 2005. Wine is a popular drink in Italy. Grapes are grown in almost every part of Italy, with more than 1 million vineyards under cultivation. In some places the vines are trained along low supports. In others they climb as slender saplings. Most wine-making in Italy is done in modern wineries. However, villagers who make wine for their own use sometimes still tread the grapes with their bare feet, until the juice is squeezed out. They believe this ancient method still makes the best wine.
  107. 107. Although wines had been elaborated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it wasn't until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks, and was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC. It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians (acknowledged masters of wine-making) in the second century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. Large-scale, slave-run plantations sprang up in many coastal areas and spread to such an extent that, in AD92, emperor Domitian was forced to destroy a great number of vineyards in order to free up fertile land for food production. During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. Exports to the provinces were reciprocated in exchange for more slaves, especially from Gaul where trade was intense, according to Pliny, due to the inhabitants being besotted with Italian wine, drinking it unmixed and without restraint. Roman wines contained more alcohol and were generally more powerful than modern fine wines. It was customary to mix wine with a good proportion of water which may otherwise have been unpalatable, making wine drinking a fundamental part of early Italian life. As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe, especially Gaul (present day France) and Hispania. This coincided with the cultivation of new vines, like biturica (ancestor of the Cabernets). These vineyards became hugely successful, to the point that Italy ultimately became an import centre for provincial wines. Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the world's largest or second largest wine producer. In 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In the same year, Italy's share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U.S. was 32%, Australia's was 24%, and France's was 20%. Along with Australia, Italy's market share has rapidly increased in recent years.
  108. 108. Vines and vineyards together with olive trees
  109. 109. Vineyards around the town of Barolo.
  110. 110. CLASSIFICATION OF ITALIAN WINES Italy's classification system is a modern one that reflects current realities. It has four classes of wine, with two falling under the EU category Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) and two falling under the category of 'table wine'. The four classes are: Table Wine: Vino da Tavola (VDT) - Denotes wine from Italy. NOTE: this is not always synonymous with other countries' legal definitions of 'table wine'. The appellation indicates either an inferior qualifying wine, or one that does not follow current wine law. Some quality wines do carry this appellation. Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) - Denotes wine from a more specific region within Italy. This appellation was created for the "new" wines of Italy, those that had broken the strict, old wine laws but were wines of great quality. Before the IGT was created, quality "Super Tuscan" wines such as Tignanello and Sassicaia were labeled Vino da Tavola.
  111. 111. QWPSR: Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) Both DOC and DOCG wines refer to zones which are more specific than an IGT, and the permitted grapes are also more specifically defined. The main difference between a DOC and a DOCG is that the latter must pass a blind taste test for quality in addition to conforming to the strict legal requirements to be designated as a wine from the area in question. Presently, there are 120 IGT zones. In February 2006 there were 311 DOC plus 36 DOCG appellations.
  113. 113. Italy's 20 wine regions correspond to the 20 political regions. Understanding of Italian wine becomes clearer with an understanding of the differences between each region; their cuisines reflect their indigenous wines, and vice-versa. The 36 DOCG wines are located in 13 different regions but most of them are concentrated in Piedmont and Tuscany. Among these are appellations appreciated and sought by wine lovers around the world: Barolo, Barbaresco, Brunello and Chianti Classico. Despite its high quality Amarone is not classified as a DOCG. The regions are, roughly from Northwest to Southeast:
  114. 114. Aosta Valley (Valle D'Aosta) Piedmont (Piemonte) Liguria Lombardy (Lombardia) Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Emilia-Romagna Tuscany (Toscana) Marche (Le Marche) Umbria Lazio (Latium) Abruzzo Molise Campania Basilicata Apulia (Puglia) Calabria Sicily (Sicilia) Sardinia (Sardegna)
  115. 115. Rosso (Red)  Sangiovese - Italy's claim to fame, the pride of Tuscany. Its wines are full of cherry fruit, earth, and cedar. It produces Chianti Classico, Rosso di Montalcino, Brunello di Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, Montefalco Rosso, and many others.  Nebbiolo - The most noble of Italy's varietals. The name (meaning "little fog") refers to the autumn fog that blankets most of Piedmont where it is grown, a condition the grape seems to enjoy. It is a somewhat difficult varietal to master, but produces the most renowned Barolo and Barbaresco, made in province of Cuneo, along with the lesser- known Sforzato, Inferno and Sassella made in Valtellina, Ghemme and Gattinara, made in Vercelli's province. The wines are known for their elegance and bouquet of wild mushroom, truffle, roses, and tar.  Montepulciano- The grape of this name is not to be confused with the Tuscan town of Montepulciano; it is most widely planted on the opposite coast in Abruzzo. Its wines develop silky plum-like fruit, friendly acidity, and light tannin.  Barbera - The most widely grown red wine grape of Piedmont and Southern Lombardy, most famously around the towns of Asti and Alba, and Pavia. The wines of Barbera were once simply "what you drank while waiting for the Barolo to be ready." With a new generation of wine makers, this is no longer the case. The wines are now meticulously vinified, aged Barbera gets the name "Barbera Superiore" (Superior Barbera), sometimes aged in French barrique becoming "Barbera Barricato", and intended for the international market. The wine has bright cherry fruit, a very dark color, and a food-friendly acidity.
  116. 116.  Corvina - Along with the varietals rondinella and molinara, this is the principal grape which makes the famous wines of the Veneto: Valpolicella and Amarone. Valpolicella wine has dark cherry fruit and spice. After the grapes undergo passito (a drying process), the Amarone they yield is elegant, dark, and full of raisin like fruits. Some Amarones can age for 40+ years.  Nero d'Avola - Nearly unheard of in the international market until recent years, this native varietal of Sicily is gaining attention for its robust, inky wines, and has therefore been nicknamed "the Barolo of the South".  Dolcetto - A grape that grows alongside Barbera and Nebbiolo in Piedmont, its name means "little sweet one"", referring not to the taste of the wine, but the ease in which it grows and makes great wines, suitable for everyday drinking. Flavors of concord grape, wild blackberries and herbs permeate the wine.  Negroamaro - The name literally means "black and bitter". A widely planted grape with its concentration in the region of Puglia, it is the backbone of the acclaimed Salice Salentino: spicy, toasty, and full of dark red fruits.
  117. 117. Aglianico - Considered the "noble varietal of the south," it is primarily grown in Campania and Basilicata. The name is derived from Hellenic, so it is considered a Greek transplant. Thick skinned and spicy, the wines are often both rustic and powerful.  Sagrantino - A native to Umbria, it is only planted on 250 hectares, but the wines produced from it (either blended with Sangiovese as Rosso di Montefalco or as a pure Sagrantino) are world-renowned. Inky purple, with rustic brooding fruit and heavy tannins, these wines can age for many years.  Malvasia Nera - Red Malvasia varietal from Piedmont. A sweet and perfumed wine, sometimes elaborated in the passito style
  118. 118. Bianco (White) Trebbiano - Behind cataratto (which is made for industrial jug wine), this is the most widely planted white varietal in Italy. It is grown throughout the country, with a special focus on the wines from Abruzzo and from Lazio, including Frascati. Mostly, they are pale, easy drinking wines, but trebbiano from producers such as Valentini have been known to age for 15+ years. It is known as Ugni Blanc in France. Moscato - Grown mainly in Piedmont, it is mainly used in the slightly-sparkling (frizzante), semi-sweet Moscato d'Asti. Not to be confused with moscato giallo and moscato rosa, two Germanic varietals that are grown in Trentino Alto- Adige. Nuragus - An ancient Phoenician varietal found in southern Sardegna. Light and tart wines that are drunk as an apertif in their homeland. Pinot Grigio - A hugely successful commercial grape (known as Pinot Gris in France), its wines are characterized by crispness and cleanness. As a hugely mass- produced wine, it is usually delicate and mild, but in a good producers' hands, the wine can grow more full-bodied and complex. The main problem with the grape is that to satisfy the commercial demand, the grapes are harvested too early every year, leading to wines without character
  119. 119.  Tocai Friulano - A varietal distantly related to Sauvignon Blanc, it yields the top wine of Friuli, full of peachiness and minerality. Currently, there is a bit of controversy regarding the name, as the EC has demanded it changed to avoid confusion with the Tokay dessert wine from Hungary.  Ribolla Gialla - A Slovenian grape that now makes its home in Friuli, these wines are decidedly old-world, with aromas of pineapple and mustiness.  Arneis - A crisp and floral varietal from Piedmont, which has been grown there since the 15th century.  Malvasia Bianca - Another white varietal that peeks up in all corners of Italy with a wide variety of clones and mutations. Can range from easy quaffers to funky, musty whites.  Pigato - A heavily acidic varietal from Liguria, the wines are vinified to pair with a cuisine rich in seafood. Fiano (wine) - Grown on the southwest coast of Italy, the wines from this grape can be described as dewy and herbal, often with notes of pinenut and pesto. Garganega - The main grape varietal for wines labeled Soave, this is a crisp, dry white wine from the Veneto wine region of Italy. It's a very popular wine that hails from northeast Italy around the city of Verona. Currently, there are over 3,500 distinct producers of Soave
  120. 120. Super Tuscans The term "Super Tuscan" describes any Tuscan red wine that does not adhere to traditional blending laws for the region. For example, Chianti Classico wines are made from a blend of grapes with Sangiovese as the dominant varietal in the blend. Super Tuscans often use other grapes, especially cabernet sauvignon, making them ineligible for DOC(G) classification under the traditional rules.
  121. 121. SOUTH AFRICA IS ONE FO THE WORLD’S MOST EXCITING WINE PRODUCING COUNTRIES. As of 2003, South Africa was 17th in terms of acreage planted with the country owning 1.5% of the world's grape vineyards with 270,600 acres (110,000 hectares). Yearly production among South Africa's wine regions is usually around 264 million gallons (10 million hl) which regularly puts the country among the top ten wine producing countries in the world. The majority of wine production in South Africa takes place in the Cape Province, particularly the southwest corner near the coastal region. South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, and at one time Constantia was considered one of the greatest wines in the world. Access to international markets has unleashed a burst of new energy and new investment. Production is concentrated around Cape Town, with major vineyard and production centres at Paarl, Stellenbosch and Worcester.
  122. 122. There are about 60 appellations within the Wine of Origin (WO) system, which was implemented in 1973 with a hierarchy of designated production regions, districts and wards. WO wines must be made 100% from grapes from the designated area. "Single vineyard" wines must come from a defined area of less than 5 hectares. An "Estate Wine" can come from adjacent farms, as long as they are farmed together and wine is produced on site. A ward is an area with a distinctive soil type and/or climate, and is roughly equivalent to a European appellation.
  123. 123. Grape varieties in South Africa are known as cultivar, with many common international varieties developing local synonyms that still have a strong tradition of use. These include Chenin blanc (Steen), Riesling (known locally as Weisser Riesling), Crouchen (known as Cape Riesling), Palomino (the grape of the Spanish wine Sherry known locally as "White French"), Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc), Sémillon (Groendruif) and Muscat of Alexandria (Hanepoot). However, wines that are often exported overseas will usually have the more internationally recognized name appear on the wine label. GRAPE VARIETIES
  124. 124. In 2006, SAWIS (South African Wine Information and Systems) reported that the country had 100,146 hectares of vineyards, with about 55 percent planted to white varieties. Chenin blanc has long been the most widely planted variety, still accounting for at least one-fifth of all grape varieties planted in South Africa as of 2004 though that number is decreasing. In the 1980s and 1990s, interest in international varieties saw increase in plantings of Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc. Other white grape varieties with significant plantings include Colombard (spelled locally as Colombar), Cape Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Hannepoot, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains, Riesling and Sémillon. Both red and white mutants of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains as well as Chenel and Weldra, two Chenin blanc-Ugni blanc crossings, are used for brandy distillation and fortified wine production.
  125. 125. Since the 1990s, interest and plantings of red grape varieties have been steadily on the rise. In the late 1990s, less than 18% of all the grapes grown in South Africa were red. By 2003 that number has risen to 40% and was still trending upwards. For most of the 21st century, the high yielding Cinsaut was the most widely planted red grape variety but the shift in focus to quality wine production has saw plantings of the grape steadily decline to where it represented just 3% of all South Africa vineyards in 2004. In its place Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Pinotage have risen to prominence with Cabernet Sauvignon being the most widely red grape variety covering 13% of all plantings in 2006. Other red grape varieties found in South Africa include Carignan, Gamay (often made in the style of Beaujolais wine with carbonic maceration, Grenache, Pontac, Ruby Cabernet, Tinta Barroca and Zinfandel. There is a wide range of lesser known groups that are used to feed the country's still robust distilled spirits and fortified wine industry. These grapes usually produce bland, neutral wine that lends itself well to blending and distillation but is rarely seen as varietal bottlings. These include Belies, False Pedro, Kanaän, Raisin blanc, Sultana and Servan.
  126. 126. Grape Vineyards Chenin Blanc 18.7% Cabernet Sauvignon 13.1% Colombard 11.4% Shiraz 9.6% Sauvignon Blanc 8.2% Chardonnay 8.0% Merlot 6.7% Pinotage 6.2%
  127. 127. Vineyard in the Paarl ward of Franschhoek
  128. 128. A vineyard in Stellenbosch
  129. 129. Some South African wines and cheeses
  130. 130. SOUTH AFRICAN WINE REGIONS CONSTANTIA: It is the historic hub of Cape wine. Closest to Cape Town, it boasts some of the most famous estate names such as Groot and Klein Constantia, and Buitenverwachting. On premium terroir and in ideal climatic conditions, superb sauvignon blanc and semillon wines are produced DURBANVILLE: and its hills northeast of Cape Town have a winemaking history dating back 280 years. Some star performers are emerging, including brilliant sauvignon blancs with strong contemporary focus on shiraz and merlot. Durbanville Hills is a large, modern facility and Nitida a small boutique set-up.
  131. 131. FRANSCHHOEK: lies in a contained valley, a pretty town founded by the French Huguenots in 1688. Today it is very much a boutique region with old buildings, restaurants and small producers. Stylish cellars include La Motte, Cabrière, Plaisir de Merle and Boekenhoutskloof. KLEIN KAROO: is a semi-desert region inland that has inspired some winemakers to take up the challenge. Fortified wines such as muscadels and Portuguese “port” styles do well in places such as Calitzdorp.
  132. 132. OLIFANTS RIVER is a fast-growing region stretching a few hundred kilometres up the west coast from the Cape. Plenty of exported easy-drinking wines come from here. The Vredendal Winery is one of the largest in the world, employing some of the most modern techniques. ORANGE RIVER is one of Africa’s great rivers and along its Northern Cape bank lie large white-wine producing vineyards. Winemaking is sophisticated and reds are getting more attention with an eye to exports.
  133. 133. PAARL is another of the Cape’s historic towns where wine has been made for centuries. Home to the original KWV head office and its impressive Cathedral Cellar, as well as the country’s best-known brand Nederburg, many cellars, small and large, from boutique to co- operative, produce wine from the ordinary to the sensational. Winemakers have been concentrating on shiraz, but some fine chenin blanc, pinotage, cabernet sauvignon, blends, and even unusual varieties such as viognier and mourvèdre are turned into prize-winning wines. Glen Carlou, Villiera and the value-for-money co- operative Boland Kelders are among the top performers here.
  134. 134. ROBERTSON and a few other villages lie along a fertile, if warm, valley where white wines such as chardonnay (from De Wetshof Estate) and sparkling wine (from Graham Beck Winery) used to be the main stars. Today the move is to red varieties, especially shiraz (Zandvliet).
  135. 135. STELLENBOSCH is, in the minds of many, the finest wine area in South Africa, claiming the crown for reds. With a list of more than 80 wineries and producers, it is also the most expensive wine farmland. Nearly all the most famous international names in South African wines are found here in an area reaching from sea-facing slopes to valley- hugging hills. This is the home of Kanonkop, Meerlust, Rustenberg, Thelema and Warwick. The list is endless. This is also where Distell, the country’s largest player in the drinks market, is seated. Designated wards within the district are Jonkershoek Valley, Simonsberg-Stellenbosch, Bottelary, Devon Valley and Papegaaiberg. Cabernet sauvignon, merlot, pinotage and chenin blanc are the stars here.
  136. 136. SWARTLAND means “black country”, a traditional sunny wheat area north of Cape Town. These days, wineries are making modern, well-appreciated white wines here with top reds on the way. The Darling region especially is on the roll. WALKER BAY near the coastal town of Hermanus has become another of the Cape’s most fashionable regions. With Elgin to the west and Bot River inland, it falls under the Overberg appellation. It is the home of Cape pinot noir and good chardonnay and home to places like Hamilton-Russell. WORCESTER and surrounds comprise 20% of all South Africa’s vineyards. Brandy is produced, and wine for wholesalers. Small volumes are bottled under own labels. Value-for-money is a hallmark.
  137. 137. California wine is wine made in the U.S. state of California. Nearly three-quarters the size of France, California accounts for nearly 90 percent of entire American wine production. The production in California alone is one third larger than that of Australia. If California were a separate country, it would be the world's fourth-largest wine producer. The state's viticultural history dates back to the 18th century when Spanish missionaries planted the first vineyards to produce wine for Mass. Following a wine renaissance in the mid-20th century, Californian wine entered the international stage at the 1976 Judgment of Paris wine competition when Californian wines beat out French wines in both red and white wine categories. Today there are more than 1,200 wineries in the state, ranging from small boutique wineries to large corporations like E & J Gallo Winery with distribution across the globe.
  138. 138. GRAPES & WINES OF CALIFORNIA Over a hundred grape varieties are grown in California including French, Italian and Spanish wine varietals as well as hybrid grapes and new vitis vinifera varieties developed at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology. The seven leading grape varieties are:  Cabernet Sauvignon  Chardonnay  Merlot  Pinot noir  Sauvignon blanc  Syrah  Zinfandel Other important red wine grapes include Barbera, Cabernet franc, Carignane, Grenache, Malbec, Mouvedre, Petite Sirah, Petit Verdot and Sangiovese. Important white wine varietals include Chenin blanc, French Colombard, Gewürztraminer, Marsanne, Muscat Canelli, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Riesling, Roussane, Sémillon,Trousseau gris, and Viognier.
  139. 139. New World wine styles While Californian winemakers increasingly craft wines in more "Old World" or European wine styles, most Californian wines (along with Australia, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina) favor simpler, more fruit dominant New World wines. The reliably warm weather allows many wineries to use very ripe fruit which brings up a more fruit forward rather than earthy or mineralic style of wine. It also creates the opportunity for higher alcohol levels with many Californian wines having over 13.5%. The style of Californian Chardonnay differs greatly from wines like Chablis with Californian winemakers frequently using malolactic fermentation and oak aging to make buttery, full bodied wines. Californian Sauvignon blancs are not as herbaceous as wines from the Loire Valley or New Zealand but do have racy acidity and fresh, floral notes. Some Sauvignon blanc are given time in oak which can dramatically change the profile of the wine. Robert Mondavi first pioneered this style as a Fume blanc which other Californian winemakers have adopted. However, that style is not strictly defined to mean an oak wine.
  140. 140. SPARKLING & DESSERT WINES California sparkling wine traces its roots to Sonoma in the 1880s with the founding of Korbel Champagne Cellars. The Korbel brothers made sparkling wine according to the méthode champenoise from Riesling, Chasselas, Muscatel and Traminer. Today most California sparkling wine is largely made from the same grapes used in Champagne-Chardonnay, Pinot noir and some Pinot meunier. Some wineries will also use Pinot blanc, Chenin blanc and French Colombard. The premium quality producers still use the méthode champenoise (or traditional method) while some low cost producers, like Gallo's Andre brand or Constellation Brands' Cook's, will use the Charmat method
  141. 141. WINE REGIONS OF CALIFORNIA California has over 427,000 acres (1,730 km2) planted under vines mostly located in a stretch of land covering over 700 miles (1,100 km) from Mendocino County to the southwestern tip of Riverside County. There are over 107 American Viticultural Areas (AVAs), including the well known Napa, Russian River Valley, Rutherford and Sonoma Valley AVAs. The Central Valley is California's largest wine region stretching for 300 miles (480 km) from the Sacramento Valley south to the San Joaquin Valley. This one region produces nearly 75% of all California wine grapes and includes many of California's bulk, box and jug wine producers like Gallo, Franzia and Bronco Wine Company. The wine regions of California are often divided into 4 main regions-
  142. 142. North Coast - Includes most of North Coast, California, north of San Francisco Bay. The large North Coast AVA covers most of the region. Notable wine regions include Napa Valley and Sonoma County and the smaller sub AVAs within them. Mendocino and Lake County are also part of this region. Central Coast - Includes most of the Central Coast of California and the area south and west of San Francisco Bay down to Santa Barbara County. The large Central Coast AVA covers the region. Notable wine regions in this area include Santa Clara Valley AVA,Santa Cruz Mountains AVA, San Lucas AVA, Paso Robles AVA, Santa Maria Valley AVA, Santa Ynez Valley and Livermore Valley AVA. South Coast - Includes portion of Southern California, namely the coastal regions south of Los Angeles down to the border with Mexico. Notable wine regions in this area include Temecula Valley AVA, Antelope Valley/Leona Valley AVA, San Pasqual Valley AVA and Ramona Valley AVA. Central Valley - Includes California's Central Valley and the Sierra Foothills AVA. Notable wine regions in this area include the Lodi AVA.
  144. 144. The Australian wine industry is the fourth-largest exporter in the world, exporting over 400 million litres a year to a large international export market that includes "old world" wine- producing countries such as France, Italy and Spain. There is also a significant domestic market for Australian wines, with Australians consuming over 400 million litres of wine per year. The wine industry is a significant contributor to the Australian economy through production, employment, export and tourism. McWilliams winery near Griffith in the Riverina wine region
  145. 145. Major grape varieties are Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon, and Riesling. The country has no native grapes, and Vitis vinifera varieties were introduced from Europe and South Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Some varieties have been bred by Australian viticulturalists, for example Cienna and Tarrango. Although Syrah was originally called Shiraz in Australia and Syrah elsewhere, its dramatic commercial success has led many Syrah producers around the world to label their wine "Shiraz". About 130 different grape varieties are used by commercial winemakers in Australia. Over recent years many winemakers have begun exploring so called "alternative varieties" other than those listed above. Many varieties from France, Italy and Spain for example Petit Verdot, Pinot Grigio, Sangiovese, Tempranillo and Viognier are becoming more common. Wines from many other varieties are being produced.
  147. 147. Barossa Valley: The Barossa Valley is north east of Adelaide, South Australia, and has a hot climate. Penfolds is one of the more famous wineries in this region. Barossa is renowned for its Rieslings which is indicative of the Valley's German heritage, and for the reds such as Shiraz and Cabernets. Hunter Valley: The Hunter Valley is another hot area and is located north of Sydney, New South Wales. This area is within easy reach of Sydney for a day trip or you can stay overnight at one of the many bed and breakfasts. Some of the more notable vineyards include Rosemount, and Rothbury. A variety of wines are grown in the Hunter Valley, including Shiraz and Semillon. As well as visiting the larger vineyards, you will want to check out some of the smaller boutique wines.
  148. 148. Clare Valley: The Clare Valley is a cooler growing area located in South Australia, north of Adelaide. This is an area of four interconnecting valleys, the Clare, Polish River, Watervale and Skillogallee. The main wines from the Clare Valley are the whites such as Riesling, Chardonnay and Semillon. Coonawarra: Coonawarra lies to the south east of Adelaide and is more noted for it's reds such as Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. The area has a cooler climate and is also noted for is reddish coloured terra rossa soil. Penfolds grows some its grapes here for some of its Cabernets. One of the more popular wines from this region includes the Wynns Coonawarra Estate. Yarra Valley: The Yarra Valley is located in Victoria, north east of Melbourne. It has a temperate climate and is noted for making the cooler climate varietals. The Pinot Noir is popular here and one of the better wines that we have tried from this area is Coldsteam Hills.
  149. 149. Eden Valley: is a small South Australian town in the Barossa Ranges. It was named by the surveyors of the area after they found the word "Eden" carved into a tree. Eden Valley has an elevation of 460 metres and an average annual rainfall of 716.2mm.Eden Valley gives its name to a wine growing region that shares its western boundary with the Barossa Valley. The region is of similar size to the Barossa Valley, and is well known for producing high quality riesling and shiraz wines. Englishman Joseph Gilbert planted the first Eden Valley vineyard, Pewsey Vale, in 1847. Within the Eden Valley region there is a sub-region called High Eden which is located higher in the Barossa Ranges, giving cooler temperatures. Pyrenees: The Pyrenees ranges are located in Victoria, Australia near the town of Avoca. It is a wine growing region. The altitude of the ranges is 220-375 m (722-1230 ft). Wines were first planted in the region in 1848. In recent years it is recognized as a significant producer of full-bodied red wines based on Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grape varieties.
  150. 150. Grampians: The Grampians is an Australian wine region located in the state of Victoria, west of Melbourne. It is located near the Grampians National Park and the Pyrenees hills. The area is dominated by red wine production, particularly Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. Henty is a town in south western Victoria, Australia. The town is located in the Shire of Glenelg Local Government Area, 373 kilometres (232 mi) west of the state capital, Melbourne. It is also an Australian wine region. It has one of the cooler climates of any Australian wine region and is known for its white wine production of Chardonnay, Riesling, Semillon and Sauvignon blanc as well as a small red wine production of Pinot noir. Henty Post Office opened on 16 April 1885 and closed in 1977.
  151. 151. Portuguese wine is the result of traditions introduced to the region by ancient civilizations, such as the Phoenicians,Carthaginians, Greeks, and mostly the Romans. Portugal started to export its wines to Rome during the Roman Empire. Modern exports developed with trade to England after the Methuen Treaty in 1703. From this commerce a wide variety of wines started to be grown in Portugal. And, in 1758, the first wine-producing region of the world, the Região Demarcada do Douro was created under the orientation of Marquis of Pombal, in the Douro Valley. Portugal has two wine producing regions protected by UNESCO asWorld Heritage: the Douro Valley Wine Region (Douro Vinhateiro) and Pico Island Wine Region (Ilha do Pico Vinhateira). Portugal has a large variety of native breeds, producing a very wide variety of different wines with distinctive personality.
  152. 152. Portugal possesses a large array of native varietals, producing an abundant variety of different wines. The wide array of Portuguese grape varietals contributes as significantly as the soil and climate to wine differentiation, producing distinctive wines from the Northern regions to Madeira Islands, and from Algarve to the Azores. In Portugal only some grape varietals or castas are authorized or endorsed in the Demarcated regions, such as:
  153. 153. Vinhos Verdes - White castas Alvarinho, Arinto (Pedern),Avesso, Azal, Batoca, Loureiro, Trajadura; red castas Amaral,Borraçal, Alvarelhão, Espadeiro, Padeiro, Pedral, Rabo de Anho, Vinhão. Porto/Douro - Red castas Touriga Nacional, Tinta Amarela, Aragonez, Bastardo, Castelão, Cornifesto, Donzelinho Tinto,Malvasia Preta, Marufo, Rufete, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Francisca Tinto Cão, Touriga Franca; white castas Arinto, Cercial,Donzelinho Branco, Folgazão, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Moscatel Galego Branco, Rabigato, Samarrinho, Semillon, Sercial,Roupeiro, Verdelho, Viosinho, Vital. Dão - Red castas Touriga Nacional, Alfrocheiro, Aragonez, Jaen e Rufete; White castas Encruzado, Bical, Cercial, Malvasia Fina, Verdelho. Bairrada - Red casts Baga, Alfrocheiro, Camarate, Castelão, Jaen, Touriga Nacional, Aragonez; white castas Maria Gomes, Arinto, Bical, Cercial, Rabo de Ovelha, Verdelho. Bucelas - White castas Arinto, Sercial e Rabo de Ovelha. Colares - Red casta Ramisco; White casta Malvasia Carcavelos - Red castas Castelão and Preto Martinho; White castas Galego Dourado, Ratinho, Arinto. Setúbal - Red casta Moscatel Roxo; white casta Moscatel de Setúbal. Alentejo - Red castas Alfrocheiro, Aragonez, Periquita1, Tinta Caiada, Trincadeira, Alicante Bouschet, Moreto; White castas Antão Vaz, Arinto , Fernão Pires, Rabo de Ovelha,Roupeiro Algarve - Red castas Negra Mole, Trincadeira, Alicante Bouschet, Aragonez , Periquita; White castas Arinto, Roupeiro, Manteúdo, Moscatel Graúdo, Perrum, Rabo de Ovelha. Madeira - Red castas Bastardo, Tinta, Malvasia Cândida Roxa, Verdelho Tinto e Tinta Negra; white castas Sercial, Malvasia Fina (Boal), Malvasia Cândida, Folgasão (Terrantez), Verdelho
  154. 154. The traditional rebelo boat, used to transport Port Wine from the Douro Valley to the cellars near the city of Porto.
  155. 155. The appellation system of the Douro region was created nearly two hundred years before that of France, in order to protect its superior wines from inferior ones. The quality and great variety of wines in Portugal are due to noble castas, microclimates, soils and proper technology. Official designations: APPELLATION SYSTEM  Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) or VQPRD - Vinho de Qualidade Produzido em Região Demarcada  These are the most protected wine and indicates a specific vineyard, such as Port Wine, Vinhos Verdes, and Alentejo Wines. These wines are labeled D.O.C. (Denominação de Origem Controlada) which secures a superior quality.  Wines that have more regulations placed upon them but are not in a DOC region fall under the category of Indicação de Proveniência Regulamentada (IPR, Indication of Regulated Provenance)  Regional Wine - Vinho Regional Carries with it a specific region within Portugal.  Table Wines - Vinho de Mesa carries with it only the producer and the designation that it's from Portugal.
  156. 156. Vineyards in Vinho Verde Demarcated Region in Minho, Portugal
  157. 157. WINE REGIONS Vinho Verde is produced from grapes which do not reach great doses of sugar. Therefore, Vinho Verde does not require an aging process. Vinho Verde wines are now largely exported, and are the most exported Portuguese wines after the Port Wine. The most popular variety in Portugal and abroad are the white wines, but there are also red and more rarely rosé wines. A notable variety of Vinho Verde is Vinho Alvarinho which is a special variety of white Vinho Verde, the production of Alvarinho is restricted by EU law to a small sub-region of Monção, in the northern part of the Minho region in Portugal. It has more alcohol (11.5 to 13%) than the other varieties (8 to 11.5%). Douro wine (Vinho do Douro) originates from the same region as port wines. In the past they were considered to be a bitter tasting wine. In order to prevent spoilage during the voyage from Portugal to England, the English decided to add a Portuguese wine brandy known as aguardente. The first documented commercial transactions appearing in registries of export date as far back as 1679. Today's Douro table wines are enjoying growing favor in the world, maintaining many traits that are reminiscent of a port wine. Dão wine is from the Região Demarcada do Dão, a region demarcated in 1908, but already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. The Dão Wine is produced in a mountainous region with temperate climate, in the area of the Mondego and Dão Rivers in the north region of central Portugal. These mountains protect the castas from maritime and continental influences
  158. 158. Dão wine is from the Região Demarcada do Dão, a region demarcated in 1908, but already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. The Dão Wine is produced in a mountainous region with temperate climate, in the area of the Mondego and Dão Rivers in the north region of central Portugal. These mountains protect the castas from maritime and continental influences . Bairrada wine, is produced in the Região Demarcada da Bairrada. The name "Bairrada" is from "barros" (clay) and due to the clayey soils of the region. Although the region was classified in 1979, it is an ancient vineyard region. The vines grow exposed to the sun, favouring the further maturity of the grapes. The Baga casta is intensely used in the wines of the region. The Bairrada region produces table, white and red wines. Yet, it is notable for its sparkling natural wine: the "Conde de Cantanhede" and "Marquês de Marialva" are the official brands for this wine. Alentejo wine is produced from grapes planted in vast vineyards extending over rolling plains under the sun which shines on the grapes and ripens them for the production. Colares wine is type of wine produced in sandy soils outside Lisbon between the foothills of Sintra and Roca Cape. Because of Lisbon's urban sprawl, the lands available for vineyards became so small, that the demands has always been higher than the production, making it one of the most expensive Portuguese wines
  159. 159. PORTUGUESE WINE TERMS Adega: Winery Branco: White Casta: Grape variety Colheita: Vintage year Espumante: Sparkling wine Garrafeira: A reserva red wine aged at least two years in a barrel and one year in a bottle; a white wine aged at least six months in a barrel and six months in a bottle. Maduro: mature (in opposition to verde). Mature wines are Portuguese wines produced in all regions except the ones produced in Vinho Verde region, due to that, the term "maduro" rarely appears on bottles. Quinta: Vineyard Reserva: Superior quality wine of a single vintage Seco: Dry Tinto: Red Verde: green (in opposition to maduro). Wines produced in Vinho Verde region with a distinctive method. Vinho: Wine
  160. 160. Spanish wines are wines produced in the southwestern European country of Spain. Located on the Iberian Peninsula, Spain has over 2.9 million acres (over 1.17 million hectares) planted—making it the most widely planted wine producing nation but it is only the third largest producer of wine in the world, the largest being Italy and France. This is due, in part, to the very low yields and wide spacing of the old vines planted on the dry, infertile soil found in many Spanish wine regions. The country is ninth in worldwide consumptions with Spaniards drinking, on average, 10.06 gallons (38 liters) a year. The country has an abundance of native grape varieties, with over 600 varieties planted throughout Spain though 80 percent of the country's wine production is from only 20 grapes— including Tempranillo, Albariño, Garnacha, Palomino, Airen, Macabeo, Pare llada, Xarel·lo, Cariñena and Monastrell. Major Spanish wine regions include the Rioja and Ribera del Duero which is known for their Tempranillo production; Jerez, the home of the fortified wine Sherry; Rías Baixas in the northwest region of Galicia that is known for its white wines made from Albariño and Catalonia which includes the Cava and still wine producing regions of the Penedès as well the Priorat region.
  161. 161. CLASSIFICATION OF SPANISH WINES Vino de Mesa (VdM) - These are wines that are the equivalent of most country's table wines and are made from unclassified vineyards or grapes that have been declassified through "illegal" blending. Similar to the Italian Super Tuscans from the late 20th century, some Spanish winemakers will intentionally declassify their wines so that they have greater flexibility in blending and winemaking methods. Vinos de la Tierra (VdlT) - This level is similar to France's vin de pays system, normally corresponding to the larger comunidad autonóma geographical regions and will appear on the label with these broader geographical designations like Andalucia, Castilla La Mancha and Levante. Vino de Calidad Producido en Región Determinada (VCPRD) - This level is similar to France's Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) system and is considered a stepping stone towards DO status. Denominación de Origen (Denominació d'Origen in Catalan - DO)- This level is for the mainstream quality-wine regions which are regulated by the Consejo Regulador who is also responsible for marketing the wines of that DO. In 2005, nearly two thirds of the total vineyard area in Spain was within the boundaries a DO region. Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa/DOQ - Denominació d'Origen Qualificada in Catalan)- This designation, which is similar to Italy's Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) designation, is for regions with a track record of consistent quality and is meant to be a step above DO level. Rioja was the first region afforded this designation in 1991 and was followed by Priorat in 2003, and Ribera del Duero in 2008. Additionally there is the Denominación de Pago (DO de Pago) designation for individual single-estates with an international reputation. As of 2009, there were 9 estates with this status.
  162. 162. SPANISH WINE LABELLING LAWS Crianza red wines are aged for 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Crianza whites and rosés must be aged for at least 1 year with at least 6 months in oak. Reserva red wines are aged for at least 3 years with at least 1 year in oak. Reserva whites and rosés must be aged for at least 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Gran Reserva wines typically appear in above average vintages with the red wines requiring at least 5 years ageing, 18 months of which in oak.Gran Reserva whites and rosés must be aged for at least 4 years with at least 6 months in oak.
  163. 163. Tempranillo is the second most widely planted grape in Spain and is an important grape in the Rioja, Ribera del Duero and Penedès regions.
  166. 166.  NAVARRE  CIGALES
  167. 167.  PENEDES  ASTURIAS
  168. 168. • Andalusia • Aragon • Balearic Islands • Canary Islands • Castile and León • Castile-La Mancha • Catalonia • Estremadura • Galicia • Madrid • Valencia
  169. 169. WINE PRODUCING REGIONS OF SPAIN Carinena Condado de Heulva Jerez-Xeres La Mancha Malaga Montilla Miriles Navarra Penedes Ribiero Valdepenas
  170. 170. India has forever remained a land of dichotomies. It has always perceived a notion in almost two totally paradoxical perspectives. And wine or liquor is no exception to this rule. When on one hand it was a drink of festivities; it was also considered a forbidden affair for the society at large. Drink was considered as a ‘Taamasi’ food that is always subject to repudiation as it only results in bad thoughts and behaviour. But it was never shunned completely and pervaded every spatial and temporal dimension. Since the very inception Indians had the native familiarity with Wine. This becomes apparent with the artifacts found at the sites of Harappan Civilization. During the Vedic period wine was often referred to as Somarasa; it was believed to be associated with Indra, and was a part of religious festivals. Soma is mentioned in Vedic scriptures as well. Also the reference of Drakshasava is found in ayurvedic texts which was basically a delicious digestive preparation made from ripened red grapes, cinnamon, cardamom, nagkesara, vidanga, tejpatra, pippali, and black pepper and contained natural alcohol.
  171. 171. Indian wine is wine made in the Asian country of India. Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia. Winemaking has existed throughout most of India's history but was particularly encouraged during the time of the Portuguese and British colonization of the subcontinent. The end of the 19th century saw the phylloxera louse take its toll on the Indian wine industry followed by religious and public opinion moving towards the prohibition of alcohol. Following the country's independence from the British Empire, the Constitution of India declared that one of the government's aims was the total prohibition of alcohol. Several states went dry and the government encouraged vineyards to convert to table grape and raisin production. In the 1980s and 1990s, a revival in the Indian wine industry took place as international influences and the growing middle class increased started increasing demand for the beverage. By the turn of the 21st century, demand was increasing at a rate of 20-30% a year.
  172. 172. WINE REGIONS Vineyards in India range from the more temperate climate of the northwestern state of Punjab down to the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Some of India's larger wine producing areas are located in Maharashtra, Karnataka near Bangalore and Andhra Pradesh near Hyderabad. Within the Maharashtra region, vineyards are found on the Deccan Plateau and around Baramati, Nashik, Pune, Sangli and Solapur. The high heat and humidity of the far eastern half of the country limits viticultural activity.
  173. 173. Variety Area (ha) Production (t) Anab-e-Shahi (white, seeded) 3,000 135,000 Bangalore Blue Syn. Isabella (black, seeded) 4,500 180,000 Bhokri (white, seeded) 500 15,000 Flame Seedless (red, seedless) 500 10,000 Gulabi Syn. Muscat Hamburg (purple, seeded) 1,000 30,000 Perlette (white, seedless) 1,500 60,000 Sharad Seedless - A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black, seedless) 1,000 20,000
  175. 175. Fortified wine is wine to which a distilled beverage (usually brandy) has been added. When added to wine before the fermentation process is complete, the alcohol in the distilled beverage kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar behind. The end result is a wine that is both sweeter and stronger, normally containing about 20% alcohol by volume (ABV). The original reason for fortifying wine was to preserve it, since ethanol is a natural antiseptic. Even though other preservation methods exist, fortification continues to be used because the fortification process can add distinct flavors to the finished project. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is simply wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, sherry, madeira, marsala, and vermouth.
  176. 176. Although grape brandy is most commonly added to produce fortified wines, the additional alcohol may also be neutral spirit that has been distilled from grapes, grain, sugar beets, or sugarcane. Regional appellation laws may dictate the types of spirit that are permitted for fortification. The source of the additional alcohol and the method of its distillation can affect the flavor of the fortified wine. If neutral spirit is used, it will usually have been produced with a continuous still, rather than a pot still. During the fermentation process, yeast cells in the must continue to convert sugar into alcohol until the must reaches an alcohol level of 16%–18%. At this level, the alcohol becomes toxic to the yeast and kills it. If fermentation is allowed to run to completion, the resulting wine will (in most cases) be low in sugar and will be considered a dry wine. The earlier in the fermentation process that alcohol is added, the sweeter the resulting wine will be. For drier fortified wine styles, such as sherry, the alcohol is added shortly before or after the end of the fermentation. In the case of some fortified wine styles (such as late harvest and botrytized wine), a naturally high level of sugar will inhibit the yeast. This causes fermentation to stop before the wine can become dry.
  177. 177. MISTELLE Mistelle (sifone in Italian, mistela in Spanish) is sometimes used as an ingredient in fortified wines, particularly Vermouth, Marsala and Sherry, though it is used mainly as a base for apéritifs such as the French Pineau des Charentes, It is produced by adding alcohol to non-fermented or partially fermented grape juice. The addition of alcohol stops the fermentation and, as a consequence Mistelle is sweeter than fully fermented grape juice in which the sugars turn to alcohol.
  178. 178. Port wine (also known as Vinho do Porto, Porto, and often simply Port) is a Portuguese style of fortified wine originating from the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal. It is typically a sweet red wine, often served as a dessert wine, and also comes in dry, semi-dry and white varieties. Fortified wines in the style of port are also produced outside of Portugal, most notably in Australia, South Africa, Canada, India, Argentina and the United States. Under European Union guidelines, only the product from Portugal may be labeled as Port. Elsewhere, the situation is more complicated: wines labelled "Port" may come from anywhere in the world, while the names "Dao", "Oporto", "Porto", and "Vinho do Porto" have been recognized as foreign, non-generic names for wines originating in Portugal.
  179. 179. Port is produced from grapes grown and processed in the demarcated Douro region. The wine produced is then fortified by the addition of a neutral grape spirit known as Aguardente in order to stop the fermentation, leaving residual sugar in the wine, and to boost the alcohol content. The fortification spirit is sometimes referred to as Brandy but it bears little resemblance to commercial Brandies. The wine is then stored and aged, often in barrels stored in "caves" (pronounced "ka-vess" and meaning "cellars" in Portuguese) as is the case in Vila Nova de Gaia, before being bottled. The wine received its name, "Port", in the latter half of the 17th century from the seaport city of Porto at the mouth of the Douro River, where much of the product was brought to market or for export to other countries in Europe. The Douro valley where Port wine is produced was defined and established as a protected region, or appellation in 1756 — making it the third oldest defined and protected wine region in the world after Chianti (1716) and Tokaji (1730).
  180. 180. GRAPE VARIETIES Over a hundred varieties of grapes (castas) are sanctioned for Port production, although only five (Tinta Barroca, Tinta Cão, Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo), Touriga Francesa, and Touriga Nacional) are widely cultivated and used. Although Touriga Nacional is the most celebrated Port grape, the difficulty of growing it and its small yields result in Touriga Francesa being the most widely-planted variety within the Douro. White ports are produced the same way as red ports, except that they use white grapes—Esgana- Cão, Folgasão, Malvasia, Rabigato,Verdelho, and Viosinho.
  181. 181. STYLES OF PORT Port from Portugal comes in several styles, which can be divided into two broad categories: Wines that have matured in sealed glass bottles, with no exposure to air, and experience what is known as "reductive" aging. This process leads to the wine losing its colour very slowly and produces a wine which is smoother on the palate and less tannic. Wines that have matured in wooden barrels, whose permeability allows a small amount of exposure to oxygen, and experience what is known as "oxidative" aging. They too lose colour, but at a faster pace. If red grapes are used, in time the red colour lightens to a tawny colour - these are known as Tawny (or sometimes Wood) ports. They also lose volume to evaporation (angel's share), leaving behind a wine that is slightly more viscous and intense. The IVDP (Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e Porto) further divides Port into two categories: normal Ports (standard Rubies, Tawnies and White Ports) and Categorias Especiais, Special Categories, which includes everything else.
  183. 183. Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Jerez, Spain. In Spanish, it is called vino de Jerez. The word "sherry" is an anglicization of Jerez. In earlier times, Sherry was known as sack (from the Spanish saca, meaning "a removal from the solera"). "Sherry" is a protected designation of origin; therefore, all wine labeled as "Sherry" must legally come from the Sherry Triangle. After fermentation is complete, Sherry is fortified with brandy. Because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are initially dry, with any sweetness being added later. In contrast, port wine (for example) is fortified halfway through its fermentation, which stops the process so that not all of the sugar is turned into alcohol.
  184. 184. The aging of sherry takes place in one of two ways:  BIOLOGICAL AGING: The sherry ages in contact with a film of yeast (Flor) that changes the characterstics of the wine be metabolising elements within the wine and controlling the rate of oxidation.  PHYSIO-CHEMICAL AGING: The sherry is in direct contact with air and its immediate oxidising effects.
  185. 185. PRODUCTION OF SHERRY: 1. Pressing 2. Acidification 3. Settling (debourbage) 4. Fermentation 5. Classification (Fino/olorosso) 6. Fortification (fino-15% / olorosso-18%) 7. Aging Finos: Biological Aging Olorosso: Physio-chemical Aging 8. Solera 9. Working on the scales 10. Blending 11. Finishing: addition of sweetener
  186. 186. # Fino ('fine' in Spanish) is the driest and palest of the traditional varieties of Sherry. The wine is aged in barrels under a cap of flor yeast to prevent contact with the air. # Manzanilla is an especially light variety of fino Sherry made around the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda. # Amontillado is a variety of Sherry that is first aged under flor but which is then exposed to oxygen, producing a sherry that is darker than a fino but lighter than an oloroso. Naturally dry, they are sometimes sold lightly sweetened. # Oloroso ('scented' in Spanish) is a variety of Sherry aged oxidatively for a longer time than a fino or amontillado, producing a darker and richer wine. With alcohol levels between 18-20%, olorosos are the most alcoholic sherries in the bottle. Again naturally dry, they are often also sold in sweetened versions. # Palo Cortado is a rare variety of Sherry that is initially aged like an amontillado, but which subsequently develops a character closer to an oloroso. # Sweet Sherries (Jerez Dulce in Spanish) are made either by fermenting dried Pedro Ximénez or Moscatel grapes, which produces an intensely sweet dark brown or black wine, or by blending sweeter wines or grape must with a drier variety. Cream Sherry is a common type of sweet Sherry made by blending different wines