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Cellular respiration ppt wit turning pt qs

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  • 1. Cellular Respiration
  • 2. Cellular Respiration
    • A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O).
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO2 + 6H 2 O + energy
    glucose ATP
  • 3. Question:
    • In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place?
  • 4. Plants and Animals
    • Plants - Autotrophs : self-producers.
    • Animals - Heterotrophs : consumers.
  • 5. Mitochondria
    • Organelle where cellular respiration takes place.
    Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
  • 6. Redox Reaction
    • Transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another .
    • Two types:
    • 1. Oxidation
    • 2. Reduction
  • 7. Oxidation Reaction
    • The loss of electrons from a substance .
    • Or the gain of oxygen .
    • C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy
    glucose ATP Oxidation
  • 8. Reduction Reaction
    • The gain of electrons to a substance .
    • Or the loss of oxygen .
    glucose ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Reduction
  • 9. Breakdown of Cellular Respiration
    • Four main parts (reactions).
    • 1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar)
    • a. cytosol, just outside of mitochondria.
    • 2. Grooming Phase
    • a. migration from cytosol to matrix.
  • 10. Breakdown of Cellular Respiration
    • 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • a. mitochondrial matrix
    • 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • a. Also called Chemiosmosis
    • b. inner mitochondrial membrane.
  • 11. The reactants in cellular respiration are:
    • CO 2 & O 2
    • CO 2 & C 6 H 12 O 6
    • O 2 & C 6 H 12 O 6
    • ATP & H 2 O
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  • 12. Water and what are made in cellular respiration?
    • CO 2 & ATP
    • CO 2 & C 6 H 12 O 6
    • O 2 & C 6 H 12 O 6
    • O 2 & ATP
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  • 13. Where does respiration occur?
    • Nucleus
    • Chloroplasts
    • Mitochondria
    • Cytoplasm
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  • 14. What types of organisms use cellular respiration?
    • All plants
    • All Animals
    • All Eukaryotes
    • All Prokaryotes
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  • 15. A molecule that loses electrons is:
    • Oxidized
    • Reduced
    • Neutralized
    • Molecularized
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  • 16. What is the definition of glycolysis?
    • Making sugar
    • Making ATP
    • Splitting sugar
    • Splitting ATP
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  • 17. Where does glycolysis occur?
    • Mitochondrial matrix
    • Chloroplast
    • Nucleus
    • Cytosol
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  • 18. Where does the Kreb’s Cycle occur?
    • Mitochondrial matrix
    • Chloroplast
    • Nucleus
    • Cytosol
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  • 19. 1. Glycolysis
    • Occurs in the cytosol just outside of mitochondria.
    • Two phases (10 steps):
    • A. Energy investment phase
    • a. Preparatory phase (first 5 steps) .
    • B. Energy yielding phase
    • a. Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps) .
  • 20. 1. Glycolysis
    • A. Energy Investment Phase:
    Glucose (6C) Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH - produced 2ATP 2ADP + P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C
  • 21. 1. Glycolysis
    • B. Energy Yielding Phase
    Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH - produced 4ATP 4ADP + P C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C GAP GAP (PYR) (PYR)
  • 22. 1. Glycolysis
    • Total Net Yield
    • 2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR)
    • 2 - ATP (Substrate-level Phosphorylation)
    • 2 - NADH
  • 23. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
    • ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP .
    Example: PEP to PYR Enzyme Substrate O - C=O C-O- CH 2 P P P Adenosine ADP (PEP) P P P ATP O - C=O C=O CH 2 Product (Pyruvate) Adenosine
  • 24. In glycolysis you need ___ATP and make ____ ATP
    • 2 , 2
    • 2 , 4
    • 4 , 2
    • 4 , 4
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 25. The phase of glycolysis where you use 2 ATP.
    • Energy Yielding
    • Energy Investment
    • Energy Production
    • Energy Completion
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 26. Glycolysis results in 2 ATP and ________.
    • 2 NADH & 2 pyruvate
    • 2 NADH & 4 ATP
    • 2 NADH + & 2 pyruvate
    • 2 NAHH + & 4 ATP
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 27. The process of making ATP by adding Phosphate from a molecule to ADP
    • ATP synthase
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • ETC
    • Substrate level phosphorylation
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 28. Fermentation
    • Occurs in cytosol when “NO Oxygen” is present (called anaerobic).
    • Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation .
    • Two Types:
    • 1. Alcohol Fermentation
    • 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • 29. Alcohol Fermentation
    • Plants and Fungi  beer and wine
    glucose Glycolysis C C C C C C C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD +
  • 30. Alcohol Fermentation
    • End Products: Alcohol fermentation
    • 2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 2 - CO 2
    • 2 - Ethanol’s
  • 31. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Animals (pain in muscle after a workout).
    2 Lactic acid 2NADH 2 NAD + C C C Glucose Glycolysis C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C C C C C
  • 32. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • End Products: Lactic acid fermentation
    • 2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 2 - Lactic Acids
  • 33. What occurs after glycolysis if there is no O 2 present?
    • Kreb’s Cycle
    • ETC
    • Fermentation
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
  • 34. What organisms undergo alcoholic fermentation?
    • Plants
    • Fungi
    • Both 1 & 2
    • Neither 1 nor 2
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 35. What product of alcoholic fermentation gave it its name?
    • ATP
    • CO 2
    • Ethanol
    • Lactic Acid
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 36. What organisms undergo lactic acid fermentation?
    • Plants
    • Fungi
    • Animals
    • None of the above
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 37. 2. Grooming Phase
    • Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic).
    • 2 Pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules.
    Cytosol C C C 2 Pyruvate 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH 2 NAD + Matrix
  • 38. 2. Grooming Phase
    • End Products: grooming phase
    • 2 - NADH
    • 2 - CO 2
    • 2- Acetyl CoA (2C)
  • 39. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • Location: mitochondrial matrix .
    • Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citrate (6C) .
    • It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule.
    Mitochondrial Matrix
  • 40. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) 3 NAD + 3 NADH FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP + P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 2 CO 2
  • 41. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP + P (two turns) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 4 CO 2
  • 42. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
    • Total net yield ( 2 turns of krebs cycle)
    • 1. 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 2. 6 - NADH
    • 3. 2 - FADH 2
    • 4. 4 - CO 2
  • 43. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis )
    • Location: inner mitochondrial membrane.
    • Uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP .
    • ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane ( lowers pH in innermembrane space ).
    Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  • 44. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis )
    • The H+ then move via diffusion (Proton Motive Force) through ATP Synthase to make ATP .
    • All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration .
    • Each NADH converts to 3 ATP .
    • Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH ).
  • 45. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
  • 46. 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis for NADH ) NADH + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + 3H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C NAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  • 47. 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for FADH 2 ) FADH 2 + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C FAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  • 48. TOTAL ATP YIELD
    • 1. 04 ATP - substrate-level phosphorylation
    • 2. 34 ATP - ETC & oxidative phosphorylation
    • 38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD
    ATP
  • 49. Eukaryotes (Have Membranes)
    • Total ATP Yield
    • 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis
    • 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase
    • 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle
    • 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle
    • 36 ATP - TOTAL
  • 50. Maximum ATP Yield for Cellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) Glucose Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2NADH 2NADH 6NADH Krebs Cycle 2FADH 2 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytosol Mitochondria
  • 51. Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes)
    • Total ATP Yield
    • 02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis
    • 06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase
    • 02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • 18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle
    • 04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle
    • 38 ATP - TOTAL
  • 52. Question:
    • In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in Cellular Respiration?
  • 53. Catabolism of Various Food Molecules
    • Other organic molecules used for fuel.
    • 1. Carbohydrates: polysaccharides
    • 2. Fats: glycerol’s and fatty acids
    • 3. Proteins: amino acids
  • 54. If O 2 is present after glycolysis this is made.
    • ATP
    • Lactic Acid
    • Acetyl CoA
    • Pyruvate
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 55. The Krebs cycle makes CO 2 , FADH 2 and:
    • ATP and O 2
    • ATP and NADH
    • NADH and O 2
    • Pyruvate and O 2
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 56. What enzyme makes ATP in the ETC
    • ETC synthase
    • ATP synthase
    • Enolase
    • Hexokinase
    20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 57. Why do protons (H + ) move across the inner membrane
    • Osmosis
    • Electron Flow
    • Diffusion
    • Active transport
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 58. Each NADH yields _______ ATP
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 59. Each FADH 2 yields ____ATP
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 60. How many ATP are made in cellular respiration?
    • 4
    • 30
    • 38
    • 44
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  • 61. Which process produces more ATP?
    • Substrate level phosphorylation
    • Oxidative phosphorylation
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34