Cellular respiration ppt wit turning pt qs

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Cellular respiration ppt wit turning pt qs

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration
  2. 2. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O). </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO2 + 6H 2 O + energy </li></ul>glucose ATP
  3. 3. Question: <ul><li>In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Plants and Animals <ul><li>Plants - Autotrophs : self-producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals - Heterotrophs : consumers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mitochondria <ul><li>Organelle where cellular respiration takes place. </li></ul>Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
  6. 6. Redox Reaction <ul><li>Transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another . </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reduction </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oxidation Reaction <ul><li>The loss of electrons from a substance . </li></ul><ul><li>Or the gain of oxygen . </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy </li></ul>glucose ATP Oxidation
  8. 8. Reduction Reaction <ul><li>The gain of electrons to a substance . </li></ul><ul><li>Or the loss of oxygen . </li></ul>glucose ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Reduction
  9. 9. Breakdown of Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Four main parts (reactions). </li></ul><ul><li>1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>a. cytosol, just outside of mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Grooming Phase </li></ul><ul><li>a. migration from cytosol to matrix. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Breakdown of Cellular Respiration <ul><li>3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>a. mitochondrial matrix </li></ul><ul><li>4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative Phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>a. Also called Chemiosmosis </li></ul><ul><li>b. inner mitochondrial membrane. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The reactants in cellular respiration are: <ul><li>CO 2 & O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 & C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 & C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>ATP & H 2 O </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  12. 12. Water and what are made in cellular respiration? <ul><li>CO 2 & ATP </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 & C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 & C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 & ATP </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  13. 13. Where does respiration occur? <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  14. 14. What types of organisms use cellular respiration? <ul><li>All plants </li></ul><ul><li>All Animals </li></ul><ul><li>All Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>All Prokaryotes </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  15. 15. A molecule that loses electrons is: <ul><li>Oxidized </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralized </li></ul><ul><li>Molecularized </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  16. 16. What is the definition of glycolysis? <ul><li>Making sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Making ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Splitting sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Splitting ATP </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  17. 17. Where does glycolysis occur? <ul><li>Mitochondrial matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosol </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  18. 18. Where does the Kreb’s Cycle occur? <ul><li>Mitochondrial matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosol </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
  19. 19. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>Occurs in the cytosol just outside of mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>Two phases (10 steps): </li></ul><ul><li>A. Energy investment phase </li></ul><ul><li>a. Preparatory phase (first 5 steps) . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Energy yielding phase </li></ul><ul><li>a. Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps) . </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>A. Energy Investment Phase: </li></ul>Glucose (6C) Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH - produced 2ATP 2ADP + P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C
  21. 21. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>B. Energy Yielding Phase </li></ul>Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH - produced 4ATP 4ADP + P C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C GAP GAP (PYR) (PYR)
  22. 22. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>Total Net Yield </li></ul><ul><li>2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - ATP (Substrate-level Phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - NADH </li></ul>
  23. 23. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation <ul><li>ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP . </li></ul>Example: PEP to PYR Enzyme Substrate O - C=O C-O- CH 2 P P P Adenosine ADP (PEP) P P P ATP O - C=O C=O CH 2 Product (Pyruvate) Adenosine
  24. 24. In glycolysis you need ___ATP and make ____ ATP <ul><li>2 , 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 , 4 </li></ul><ul><li>4 , 2 </li></ul><ul><li>4 , 4 </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  25. 25. The phase of glycolysis where you use 2 ATP. <ul><li>Energy Yielding </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Production </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Completion </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  26. 26. Glycolysis results in 2 ATP and ________. <ul><li>2 NADH & 2 pyruvate </li></ul><ul><li>2 NADH & 4 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>2 NADH + & 2 pyruvate </li></ul><ul><li>2 NAHH + & 4 ATP </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  27. 27. The process of making ATP by adding Phosphate from a molecule to ADP <ul><li>ATP synthase </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative Phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>ETC </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate level phosphorylation </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  28. 28. Fermentation <ul><li>Occurs in cytosol when “NO Oxygen” is present (called anaerobic). </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation . </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alcohol Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lactic Acid Fermentation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Alcohol Fermentation <ul><li>Plants and Fungi  beer and wine </li></ul>glucose Glycolysis C C C C C C C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD +
  30. 30. Alcohol Fermentation <ul><li>End Products: Alcohol fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 - Ethanol’s </li></ul>
  31. 31. Lactic Acid Fermentation <ul><li>Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). </li></ul>2 Lactic acid 2NADH 2 NAD + C C C Glucose Glycolysis C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C C C C C
  32. 32. Lactic Acid Fermentation <ul><li>End Products: Lactic acid fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - Lactic Acids </li></ul>
  33. 33. What occurs after glycolysis if there is no O 2 present? <ul><li>Kreb’s Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>ETC </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
  34. 34. What organisms undergo alcoholic fermentation? <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Both 1 & 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Neither 1 nor 2 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  35. 35. What product of alcoholic fermentation gave it its name? <ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  36. 36. What organisms undergo lactic acid fermentation? <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  37. 37. 2. Grooming Phase <ul><li>Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic). </li></ul><ul><li>2 Pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules. </li></ul>Cytosol C C C 2 Pyruvate 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH 2 NAD + Matrix
  38. 38. 2. Grooming Phase <ul><li>End Products: grooming phase </li></ul><ul><li>2 - NADH </li></ul><ul><li>2 - CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2- Acetyl CoA (2C) </li></ul>
  39. 39. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) <ul><li>Location: mitochondrial matrix . </li></ul><ul><li>Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citrate (6C) . </li></ul><ul><li>It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule. </li></ul>Mitochondrial Matrix
  40. 40. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) 3 NAD + 3 NADH FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP + P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 2 CO 2
  41. 41. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP + P (two turns) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 4 CO 2
  42. 42. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) <ul><li>Total net yield ( 2 turns of krebs cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>1. 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>2. 6 - NADH </li></ul><ul><li>3. 2 - FADH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>4. 4 - CO 2 </li></ul>
  43. 43. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) <ul><li>Location: inner mitochondrial membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP . </li></ul><ul><li>ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane ( lowers pH in innermembrane space ). </li></ul>Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  44. 44. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) <ul><li>The H+ then move via diffusion (Proton Motive Force) through ATP Synthase to make ATP . </li></ul><ul><li>All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration . </li></ul><ul><li>Each NADH converts to 3 ATP . </li></ul><ul><li>Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH ). </li></ul>
  45. 45. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
  46. 46. 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis for NADH ) NADH + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + 3H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C NAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  47. 47. 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for FADH 2 ) FADH 2 + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C FAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  48. 48. TOTAL ATP YIELD <ul><li>1. 04 ATP - substrate-level phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>2. 34 ATP - ETC & oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD </li></ul>ATP
  49. 49. Eukaryotes (Have Membranes) <ul><li>Total ATP Yield </li></ul><ul><li>02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase </li></ul><ul><li>02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>36 ATP - TOTAL </li></ul>
  50. 50. Maximum ATP Yield for Cellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) Glucose Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2NADH 2NADH 6NADH Krebs Cycle 2FADH 2 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytosol Mitochondria
  51. 51. Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes) <ul><li>Total ATP Yield </li></ul><ul><li>02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase </li></ul><ul><li>02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>38 ATP - TOTAL </li></ul>
  52. 52. Question: <ul><li>In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in Cellular Respiration? </li></ul>
  53. 53. Catabolism of Various Food Molecules <ul><li>Other organic molecules used for fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Carbohydrates: polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fats: glycerol’s and fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>3. Proteins: amino acids </li></ul>
  54. 54. If O 2 is present after glycolysis this is made. <ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Acetyl CoA </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  55. 55. The Krebs cycle makes CO 2 , FADH 2 and: <ul><li>ATP and O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>ATP and NADH </li></ul><ul><li>NADH and O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate and O 2 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  56. 56. What enzyme makes ATP in the ETC <ul><li>ETC synthase </li></ul><ul><li>ATP synthase </li></ul><ul><li>Enolase </li></ul><ul><li>Hexokinase </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  57. 57. Why do protons (H + ) move across the inner membrane <ul><li>Osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Active transport </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  58. 58. Each NADH yields _______ ATP <ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  59. 59. Each FADH 2 yields ____ATP <ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  60. 60. How many ATP are made in cellular respiration? <ul><li>4 </li></ul><ul><li>30 </li></ul><ul><li>38 </li></ul><ul><li>44 </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
  61. 61. Which process produces more ATP? <ul><li>Substrate level phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

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