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Mendelelian Genetics copyright cmassengale
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Responsible for the Laws governing Inheritance of Traits copyright cmassengale
Gregor Johann Mendel ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Gregor Johann Mendel ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Site of Gregor Mendel’s experimental garden in the Czech Republic copyright cmassengale
[object Object],[object Object],Particulate Inheritance copyright cmassengale
Genetic Terminology ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Types of Genetic Crosses ,[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Punnett Square ,[object Object],copyright cmassengale
copyright cmassengale
Designer  “Genes” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
More Terminology ,[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Genotype & Phenotype in Flowers Genotype of alleles: R   = red flower r   = yellow flower All genes occur in pairs, so  2   alleles  affect a characteristic Possible combinations are: Genotypes RR   R r rr Phenotypes RED  RED  YELLOW copyright cmassengale
Genotypes ,[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Genes and Environment Determine Characteristics copyright cmassengale
Mendel’s Pea Plant Experiments copyright cmassengale
Why peas,   Pisum sativum ? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Reproduction in Flowering Plants ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Mendel’s Experimental Methods ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
How Mendel Began Mendel produced  pure  strains by allowing the plants to  self-pollinate  for several generations copyright cmassengale
Eight Pea Plant Traits ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
copyright cmassengale
copyright cmassengale
Mendel’s Experimental Results copyright cmassengale
[object Object],The theoretical or expected ratio of plants producing round or wrinkled seeds is  3 round :1 wrinkled Mendel’s observed ratio was 2.96:1 The discrepancy is due to  statistical error The  larger the sample  the more nearly the results approximate to the theoretical ratio copyright cmassengale
Generation “Gap” ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Following the Generations Cross 2 Pure Plants TT x tt Results in all Hybrids Tt Cross 2 Hybrids get 3 Tall & 1 Short TT, Tt, tt copyright cmassengale
Monohybrid Crosses copyright cmassengale
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],P 1  Monohybrid Cross R R r r Rr Rr Rr Rr Genotype:   Rr Phenotype :   Round Genotypic Ratio:   All alike Phenotypic Ratio:  All alike copyright cmassengale
P 1  Monohybrid Cross Review ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],F 1  Monohybrid Cross R r r R RR rr Rr Rr Genotype:   RR, Rr, rr Phenotype :   Round &   wrinkled G.Ratio:   1:2:1 P.Ratio:   3:1 copyright cmassengale
F 1  Monohybrid Cross Review ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
What Do the Peas Look Like? copyright cmassengale
… And Now the Test Cross ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],F 2  Monohybrid Cross (1 st ) R R r R RR Rr RR Rr Genotype:   RR, Rr Phenotype :   Round Genotypic Ratio:   1:1 Phenotypic Ratio:  All alike copyright cmassengale
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],F 2  Monohybrid Cross (2nd) r r r R Rr rr Rr rr Genotype:   Rr, rr Phenotype :   Round & Wrinkled G. Ratio:   1:1 P.Ratio:  1:1 copyright cmassengale
F 2  Monohybrid Cross Review ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Practice Your Crosses ,[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Mendel’s Laws copyright cmassengale
Results of Monohybrid Crosses ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Law of Dominance   In a cross of parents that are  pure for contrasting traits , only one form of the trait will appear in the next generation. All the offspring will be heterozygous and express only the  dominant trait. RR x rr  yields  all Rr (round seeds) copyright cmassengale
Law of Dominance copyright cmassengale
Law of Segregation ,[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Applying the Law of Segregation copyright cmassengale
Law of Independent Assortment   ,[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Dihybrid Cross ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Question: How many gametes will be produced for the following allele arrangements? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Answer: 1.  RrYy:  2 n  = 2 2  = 4 gametes RY  Ry  rY  ry 2.  AaBbCCDd:  2 n  = 2 3  = 8 gametes ABCD  ABCd  AbCD  AbCd aBCD  aBCd  abCD  abCD   3.  MmNnOoPPQQRrssTtQq:  2 n  = 2 6  = 64 gametes copyright cmassengale
Dihybrid Cross ,[object Object],[object Object],RrYy  x  RrYy RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry All possible gamete combinations copyright cmassengale
Dihybrid Cross copyright cmassengale RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry
Dihybrid Cross copyright cmassengale RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy Round/Yellow:  9 Round/green:  3 wrinkled/Yellow:  3 wrinkled/green:  1 9:3:3:1 phenotypic   ratio RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry
Dihybrid Cross Round/Yellow:  9 Round/green:  3 wrinkled/Yellow: 3 wrinkled/green:  1 9:3:3:1 copyright cmassengale
Test Cross ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale bC b___ bc
Test Cross ,[object Object],copyright cmassengale bC b___ bc bbCc bb C c C bC b___ bc bbCc bb c c or c
Summary of Mendel’s laws copyright cmassengale LAW PARENT CROSS OFFSPRING DOMINANCE TT x tt   tall x short 100% Tt  tall SEGREGATION Tt x Tt   tall x tall 75% tall  25% short INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT RrGg x RrGg   round & green x  round & green 9/16 round seeds & green pods  3/16 round seeds & yellow pods  3/16 wrinkled seeds & green pods  1/16 wrinkled seeds & yellow pods
Incomplete Dominance and Codominance copyright cmassengale
Incomplete Dominance ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale R R r r
Incomplete Dominance r copyright cmassengale Rr Rr Rr Rr R R r All Rr =  pink (heterozygous pink) produces the F 1  generation
Incomplete Dominance copyright cmassengale
Codominance ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Codominance Problem ,[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale I A I B I B i I A I B I B i 1/2 =  I A I B 1/2 =  I B i   I B I A i I B
Another Codominance Problem ,[object Object],copyright cmassengale I A i I B i I A i I B i 1/2 =  I A i 1/2 =  I B i   i I A I B i
Codominance ,[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Codominance ,[object Object],Parents: genotypes   =  I A i  and  I B i phenotypes   =  A  and  B copyright cmassengale I A I B ii I B I A i i
Sex-linked Traits ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale
Sex-linked Traits Sex Chromosomes Example:  Eye color in fruit flies copyright cmassengale XX chromosome - female Xy chromosome - male fruit fly eye color
Sex-linked Trait Problem ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],copyright cmassengale X R X r   X r Y
Sex-linked Trait Solution: 50%  red eyed   female 50%  white eyed   male copyright cmassengale X R  X r X r  Y X R  X r X r  Y X R X r   X r Y
Female Carriers copyright cmassengale
Genetic Practice Problems copyright cmassengale
Breed the P 1  generation ,[object Object],copyright cmassengale T T t t
Solution: tall (TT) vs. dwarf (tt) pea plants copyright cmassengale T T t t Tt Tt Tt Tt All Tt = tall (heterozygous tall) produces the F 1  generation
Breed the F 1  generation ,[object Object],copyright cmassengale T t T t
Solution: tall (Tt)  x  tall (Tt) pea plants copyright cmassengale TT Tt Tt tt T t T t produces the F 2  generation 1/4 (25%) = TT 1/2 (50%) = Tt 1/4 (25%) = tt 1:2:1 genotype 3:1  phenotype
copyright cmassengale

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Mendelian genetics

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  1. Mendelian Genetics 07/07/11
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  12. Mendelian Genetics 07/07/11
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