Darwin evolution revised with turning point qs

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  • From 1830 to 1833 his multi-volume Principles of Geology was published. The work's subtitle was "An attempt to explain the former changes of the Earth's surface by reference to causes now in operation", and this explains Lyell's impact on science. He drew his explanations from field studies conducted directly before he went to work on the founding geology text. [3] He was, along with the earlier John Playfair , the major advocate of James Hutton 's idea of uniformitarianism , that the earth was shaped entirely by slow-moving forces still in operation today, acting over a very long period of time. This was in contrast to catastrophism , a geologic idea of abrupt changes, which had been adapted in England to support belief in Noah's flood Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century, and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. He is well known for establishing extinction as a fact, being the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century, and opposing the evolutionary theories of Lamarck Between 1798 and 1826 Malthus published six editions of his famous treatise, An Essay on the Principle of Population , updating each edition to incorporate new material, to address criticism, and to convey changes in his own perspectives on the subject. He wrote the original text in reaction to the optimism of his father and his father's associates (notably Rousseau) regarding the future improvement of society. Malthus also constructed his case as a specific response to writings of William Godwin (1756–1836) and of the Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794). Malthus regarded ideals of future improvement in the lot of humanity with skepticism, considering that throughout history a segment of every human population seemed relegated to poverty. He explained this phenomenon by arguing that population growth generally expanded in times and in regions of plenty until the size of the population relative to the primary resources caused distress
  • Hutton also advocated uniformitarianism for living creatures too – evolution , in a sense  – and even suggested natural selection as a possible mechanism affecting them: "...if an organised body is not in the situation and circumstances best adapted to its sustenance and propagation, then, in conceiving an indefinite variety among the individuals of that species, we must be assured, that, on the one hand, those which depart most from the best adapted constitution, will be the most liable to perish, while, on the other hand, those organised bodies, which most approach to the best constitution for the present circumstances, will be best adapted to continue, in preserving themselves and multiplying the individuals of their race." – Investigation of the Principles of Knowledge , volume 2. [38] Hutton gave the example that where dogs survived through "swiftness of foot and quickness of sight... the most defective in respect of those necessary qualities, would be the most subject to perish, and that those who employed them in greatest perfection... would be those who would remain, to preserve themselves, and to continue the race". Equally, if an acute sense of smell were "more necessary to the sustenance of the animal... the same principle [would] change the qualities of the animal, and.. produce a race of well scented hounds, instead of those who catch their prey by swiftness". The same "principle of variation" would influence "every species of plant, whether growing in a forest or a meadow". He came to his ideas as the result of experiments in plant and animal breeding , Lamarck stressed two main themes in his biological work. The first was that the environment gives rise to changes in animals. He cited examples of blindness in moles, the presence of teeth in mammals and the absence of teeth in birds as evidence of this principle. The second principle was that life was structured in an orderly manner and that many different parts of all bodies make it possible for the organic movements of animals. [14] Although he was not the first thinker to advocate organic evolution, he was the first to develop a truly coherent evolutionary theory Alfred Russel Wallace , OM , FRS (8 January 1823 – 7 November 1913) was a British naturalist , explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. He is best known for independently proposing a theory of evolution due to natural selection that prompted Charles Darwin to publish his own theory. Wallace did extensive fieldwork, first in the Amazon River basin and then in the Malay Archipelago , where he identified the Wallace Line that divides the Indonesian archipelago into two distinct parts, one in which animals closely related to those of Australia are common, and one in which the species are largely of Asian origin. He was considered the 19th century's leading expert on the geographical distribution of animal species and is sometimes called the "father of biogeography ". [1] Wallace was one of the leading evolutionary thinkers of the 19th century and made a number of other contributions to the development of evolutionary theory besides being co-discoverer of natural selection. These included the concept of warning colouration in animals, and the Wallace effect , a hypothesis on how natural selection could contribute to speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridization .
  • Darwin evolution revised with turning point qs

    1. 1. Evolution Diversity of Life
    2. 2. “ Nothing in biology makes sense EXCEPT in the light of evolution.” Theodosius Dobzhansky Evolution Charles Darwin in later years
    3. 3. History of Evolutionary Thought
    4. 4. Early Ideas On Earth’s Organisms <ul><li>Aristotle believed species were fixed creations arranged by their complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Idea lasted 2000 years </li></ul>
    5. 5. Early Ideas On Earth’s Organisms <ul><li>Linnaeus – 1 st to group similar organisms and assign them Latin names </li></ul><ul><li>Two word name (Genus species) </li></ul><ul><li>Known as Binomial nomenclature </li></ul>
    6. 6. Contributor’s to Darwin’s thinking included: <ul><li>Charles Lyell – uniformintarianism (geologic processes still changing Earth) </li></ul><ul><li>Georges Cuvier – species extinction (Catastrophism) </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Malthus – struggle for existence (resources) </li></ul>:
    7. 7. Contributor’s to Darwin’s thinking included: <ul><li>James Hutton - Gradualism </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Baptiste Lamarck – Inheritance of acquired Characteristics and Law of Use and Disuse </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred Russel Wallace – organisms evolved from common ancestors </li></ul>:
    8. 8. Evolutionary Timeline
    9. 9. Catastrophism <ul><li>Idea proposed by George Cuvier </li></ul><ul><li>Studied fossil in sedimentary rock strata of Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Found some species completely disappeared in more recent layers </li></ul>
    10. 10. Catastrophism <ul><li>Stated that species disappear due to a catastrophic event of the earth’s crust (volcano, earthquake…) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Hutton’s Theory of Geological Change <ul><li>James Hutton , 1795, Scottish geologist </li></ul><ul><li>Studied invertebrate fossils in Paris Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Described The Geological Forces That Have Changed Life on Earth Over Millions of Years (erosion, earthquakes, volcanoes…) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hutton’s Theory of Geological Change <ul><li>Changes in Earth’s crust due to slow continuous processes </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Known as Gradualism </li></ul>
    13. 13. Charles Lyell <ul><li>Proposed theory of Uniformintarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Geological processes at uniform rates building & wearing down Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed that the Earth was millions of years instead of a few thousand years old </li></ul>
    14. 14. Principles of Geology <ul><li>Published by Lyell Just Before The Beagle Set Sail & read by Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Explained Geological Processes That Shaped The Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Helped Darwin Understand Sea Shells In The Andes Mountains At 12,000+ Feet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded Earth’s Age </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution <ul><li>Jean-Baptiste Lamarck , 1809 </li></ul><ul><li>One Of First Scientists To Understand That Change Occurs Over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Stated that Changes Are Adaptations To Environment acquired in an organism’s lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Said acquired changes were passed to offspring </li></ul>
    16. 16. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution <ul><li>Idea called Law of Use and Disuse </li></ul><ul><li>If a body part were used, it got stronger </li></ul><ul><li>If body part NOT used, it deteriorated </li></ul>
    17. 17. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution <ul><li>Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed That By Selective Use Or Disuse Of Organs, Organisms Acquired Or Lost Certain Traits During Their Lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>These Traits Could Then Be Passed On To Their Offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Over Time This Led To New Species </li></ul>
    18. 18. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution <ul><li>Use & Disuse - Organisms Could Change The Size Or Shape Of Organs By Using Them Or Not Using Them </li></ul><ul><li>Blacksmiths & Their Sons (muscular arms) </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffe’s Necks Longer from stretching) </li></ul>
    19. 19.
    20. 20. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution <ul><li>Inheritance Of Acquired Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traits Acquired During Ones Lifetime Would Be Passed To Offspring </li></ul></ul>Clipped ears of dogs could be passed to offspring!
    21. 21. Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution <ul><li>Tendency Toward Perfection </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms Are Continually Changing and Acquiring Features That Help Them Live More Successfully In Their Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bird Ancestors Desired To Fly So They Tried Until Wings Developed </li></ul>
    22. 22. Lamarck’s Mistakes <ul><li>Lamarck Did NOT Know how traits were inherited (Traits are passed through genes) </li></ul><ul><li>Genes Are NOT Changed By Activities In Life </li></ul><ul><li>Change Through Mutation Occurs Before An Organism Is Born </li></ul>
    23. 23. He believed that species disappear due to catastophic events (catastophism) <ul><li>Lyell </li></ul><ul><li>Lamark </li></ul><ul><li>Cuvier </li></ul><ul><li>Malthus </li></ul><ul><li>Wallace </li></ul><ul><li>Hutton </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    24. 24. The geologist who believed Earth was much older than thought at the time, and it slowly changed over time <ul><li>Lyell </li></ul><ul><li>Lamark </li></ul><ul><li>Cuvier </li></ul><ul><li>Malthus </li></ul><ul><li>Wallace </li></ul><ul><li>Hutton </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    25. 25. By studying fossils he came up with the idea of gradualism <ul><li>Lyell </li></ul><ul><li>Lamark </li></ul><ul><li>Cuvier </li></ul><ul><li>Malthus </li></ul><ul><li>Wallace </li></ul><ul><li>Hutton </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    26. 26. He believed in “use and disuse” which explained that giraffes had long necks due to stretching <ul><li>Lyell </li></ul><ul><li>Lamark </li></ul><ul><li>Cuvier </li></ul><ul><li>Malthus </li></ul><ul><li>Wallace </li></ul><ul><li>Hutton </li></ul>0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    27. 27. Charles Darwin the Naturalist
    28. 28. Voyage of the Beagle <ul><li>Charles Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Born Feb. 12, 1809 </li></ul><ul><li>Joined Crew of HMS Beagle, 1831 </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist </li></ul><ul><li>5 Year Voyage around world </li></ul><ul><li>Avid Collector of Flora & Fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Astounded By Variety of Life </li></ul>
    29. 29. Darwin’s Voyage of Discovery A reconstruction of the HMS Beagle sailing off Patagonia.
    30. 30. Darwin Left England in 1831 Darwin returned 5 years later in 1836
    31. 31. HMS Beagle’s Voyage
    32. 32. The Galapagos Islands <ul><li>Small Group of Islands 1000 km West of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Very Different Climates </li></ul><ul><li>Animals On Islands Unique </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tortoises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iguanas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finches </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. The Galapagos Islands <ul><li>Volcanic islands off the coast of South America </li></ul><ul><li>Island species varied from mainland species & from island-to-island species </li></ul><ul><li>Each island had long or short neck tortoises </li></ul>
    34. 34.
    35. 35. Marine Iguana
    36. 36. Lonesome George Giant Tortoise
    37. 37. Frigate Bird Blue-footed Boobie
    38. 38. The Flightless Cormorant
    39. 39. The Galapagos Islands <ul><li>Finches on the islands resembled a mainland finch </li></ul><ul><li>More types of finches appeared on the islands where the available food was different (seeds, nuts, berries, insects…) </li></ul><ul><li>Finches had different types of beaks adapted to their type of food gathering </li></ul>
    40. 40.
    41. 41. Darwin’s Observations & Conclusions The Struggle for Existence
    42. 42. Voyage of the Beagle <ul><ul><li>During His Travels, Darwin Made Numerous Observations And Collected Evidence That Led Him To Propose A Revolutionary Hypothesis About The Way Life Changes Over Time </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Darwin’s Observations <ul><li>Patterns of Diversity were shown </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Adaptations in organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Species Not Evenly Distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Australia, Kangaroos, but No Rabbits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S. America, Llamas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Darwin’s Observations <ul><li>Both Living Organisms & Fossils collected </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils included: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trilobites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giant Ground Sloth of South America </li></ul></ul></ul>This species NO longer existed. What had happened to them?
    45. 45. Evidence for Evolution – The Fossil Record
    46. 46. Definition <ul><li>Evolution is the slow , gradual change in a population of organisms over time </li></ul>
    47. 47. Darwin’s Observations <ul><li>Left unchecked, the number of organisms of each species will increase exponentially , generation to generation </li></ul><ul><li>In nature, populations tend to remain stable in size </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental resources are limited </li></ul>
    48. 48. Darwin’s Conclusion <ul><li>Production of more individuals than can be supported by the environment leads to a struggle for existence among individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Only a fraction of offspring survive each generation </li></ul><ul><li>Survival of the Fittest </li></ul>
    49. 49. Darwin’s Observations <ul><li>Individuals of a population vary extensively in their characteristics with no two individuals being exactly alike . </li></ul><ul><li>Much of this variation between individuals is inheritable . </li></ul>
    50. 50. Darwin’s Conclusion <ul><li>Individuals who inherit characteristics most fit for their environment are likely to leave more offspring than less fit individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Called Natural Selection </li></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>The unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce leads to a gradual change in a population, with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations (natural selection) </li></ul><ul><li>New species evolve </li></ul>Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
    52. 52. Darwin observed, in nature populations tend to ____ in size. <ul><li>Grow </li></ul><ul><li>Shrink </li></ul><ul><li>Remain stable </li></ul><ul><li>Vary </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    53. 53. What limits population growth? <ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    54. 54. ______ states that individuals who inherit characteristics most fit for their environment are likely to have more offspring. <ul><li>Evolutionary theory </li></ul><ul><li>Directional selection </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizing selection </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    55. 55. What is the driving force behind evolution? <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    56. 56. Ideas That Shaped Darwin’s Thinking Thomas Malthus
    57. 57. Population Growth <ul><li>Thomas Malthus , 1798 </li></ul><ul><li>Economist </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Babies Being Born Faster Than People Were Dying </li></ul><ul><li>Population size limited by resources such as the Food Supply </li></ul>
    58. 58. The Struggle for Existence <ul><li>Malthus’ Influence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Birth Rates & Limited Resources Would Force Life & Death Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Species Struggles For : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mates </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Population Growth <ul><li>Malthus Reasoned That If The Human Population Continued To Grow Unchecked , Sooner or Later There Would Be Insufficient Living Space & Food For Everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Death Rate Will Increase To Balance Population size & Food Supply </li></ul>
    60. 60. Population Growth <ul><li>Darwin Realized Malthus’s Principles Were Visible In Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Plants & Animals Produce Far More Offspring Than Can Be Supported </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If They Didn’t – Earth Would Be Overrun </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Organisms Change Over Time
    62. 62. Common Descent with Modification <ul><li>Darwin proposed that organisms descended from common ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Idea that organisms change with time , diverging from a common form </li></ul><ul><li>Caused evolution of new species </li></ul>
    63. 63. Natural Selection <ul><li>Driving force for evolution </li></ul><ul><li>During the struggle for resources, strongest survive & reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Idea that at least some of the differences between individuals, which impact their survival and fertility, are inheritable </li></ul>.
    64. 64. Origin of Species Darwin Presents His Case
    65. 65. Publication of “On The Origin of Species” <ul><li>Upon His Return To England, Darwin Developed His Observations Into The Theory of Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>But He Did Not Publish For 25 Years – </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    66. 66. Publication of “On The Origin of Species” <ul><li>Darwin Knew That His Theory Would Be Extremely Controversial And Would Be Attacked </li></ul><ul><li>His Theory Challenged Established Religious & Scientific Beliefs , Particularly About The Creation Of Man </li></ul>
    67. 67. Publication of “On The Origin of Species” <ul><li>He Refused To Publish Until He Received An Essay From Alfred Wallace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fellow Naturalist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independently Developed The Same Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 25 Years, Someone Else Had Come To The Same Conclusions From Their Observations Of Nature </li></ul></ul>
    68. 68. Wallace’s Contribution <ul><li>Alfred Russel Wallace Independently came to same Conclusion as Darwin that species changed over time because of their struggle for existence </li></ul><ul><li>When Darwin read Wallace’s essay, he knew he had to publish his findings </li></ul>
    69. 69. Publication of “On The Origin of Species” <ul><li>Darwin Presented Wallace’s Essay & Some Of His Work At A Scientific Conference of the Linnaean Society in July of 1858 </li></ul><ul><li>Then He Started On his book “Origin of Species” </li></ul><ul><li>It Took Darwin 18 Months To Complete The Book </li></ul>
    70. 70. Natural Variation and Artificial Selection <ul><li>Abandoned The Idea That Species Were Perfect & Unchanging </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Significant Variation in All Species Observed </li></ul><ul><li>Observed Farmers Use Variation To Improve Crops & Livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Called Selective Breeding </li></ul>
    71. 71. Natural Variation and Artificial Selection <ul><li>Natural Variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences Among Individuals Of A Species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artificial Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Breeding To Enhance Desired Traits Among Stock or Crops </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Natural Variation and Artificial Selection <ul><li>Key Concept: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Artificial Selection , Nature Provided The Variation Among Different Organisms, And Humans Selected Those Variations That They Found Useful </li></ul></ul>
    73. 73.
    74. 74. Origin of Species Concepts and Controversy
    75. 75. Evolution By Natural Selection Concepts <ul><li>The Struggle for Existence (compete for food, mates, space, water, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Survival of the Fittest (strongest able to survive and reproduce) </li></ul><ul><li>Descent with Modification (new species arise from common ancestor replacing less fit species) </li></ul>
    76. 76. Survival of the Fittest <ul><li>Fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability of an Individual To Survive & Reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherited Characteristic That Increases an Organisms Chance for Survival </li></ul></ul>
    77. 77. Survival of the Fittest <ul><li>Adaptations Can Be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed, Camouflage, Claws, Quills, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solitary, Herds, Packs, Activity, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    78. 78. Survival of the Fittest <ul><li>Fitness Is Central To The Process Of Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals With Low Fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce Few Offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Survival of the Fittest </li></ul><ul><li>AKA Natural Selection </li></ul>
    79. 79. Survival of the Fittest <ul><li>Key Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over Time, Natural Selection Results In Changes In The Inherited Characteristics Of A Population. These Changes Increase A Species Fitness In Its Environment </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. Natural Selection <ul><li>Cannot Be Seen Directly </li></ul><ul><li>It Can Only Be Observed As Changes In A Population Over Many Successive Generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil Record </li></ul></ul>
    81. 81. Descent With Modification <ul><li>Takes Place Over Long Periods of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection Can Be Observed As Changes In </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Niches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitats </li></ul></ul>
    82. 82. Descent With Modification <ul><li>Species Today Look Different From Their Ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Each Living Species Has </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With Changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Other Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over Time </li></ul></ul>
    83. 83. Descent With Modification
    84. 84. Descent With Modification <ul><li>Implies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Living Organisms Are Related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Tree of Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, Body Structures, Energy Sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Descent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Species, Living & Extinct, Were Derived From Common Ancestors </li></ul></ul>
    85. 85. Major Problem in Darwin’s Theory <ul><li>No mechanism to explain natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>How could favorable variations be transmitted to later generations? </li></ul><ul><li>With the rediscovery of Mendel’s work in the first half of the 20th century, the missing link in evolutionary theory was found </li></ul>.
    86. 86. Opposition to Evolution <ul><li>The upheaval surrounding evolution began with Darwin’s publication of On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection </li></ul><ul><li>The debate continues nearly 150 years later </li></ul>
    87. 87. Theory of Evolution Today Supporting Evidence
    88. 88. Homologous Structures
    89. 89. Evidence for Evolution - Comparative Embryology Similarities In Embryonic Development
    90. 90. Similarities in DNA Sequence
    91. 91. Evolution of pesticide resistance in response to selection
    92. 92. Evidence for Evolution – Evolution Observed Evolution of drug-resistance in HIV
    93. 93. Evidence for Evolution – Evolution Observed Selection against small guppies results in an increase in average size
    94. 94. Evolutionary Time Scales Macroevolution: Long time scale events that create and destroy species.
    95. 95. Microevolution: Short time scale events (generation-to-generation) that change the genotypes and phenotypes of populations Evolutionary Time Scales
    96. 96. Evidence of Evolution <ul><li>Key Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin Argued That Living Things Have Been Evolving On Earth For Millions of Years . Evidence For This Process Could Be Found In: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Fossil Record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Geographical Distribution of Living Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homologous Structures of Living Organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarities In Early Development </li></ul></ul>
    97. 97. Fossil Record <ul><li>Earth is Billions of Years Old </li></ul><ul><li>Fossils In Different Layers of Rock (sedimentary Rock Strata) Showed Evidence Of Gradual Change Over Time </li></ul>
    98. 98. Geographic Distribution of Living Species <ul><li>Different Animals On Different Continents But Similar Adaptations To Shared Environments </li></ul>
    99. 99. Homologous Body Structures <ul><li>Scientists Noticed Animals With Backbones (Vertebrates) Had Similar Bone Structure </li></ul><ul><li>May Differ In Form or Function </li></ul><ul><li>Limb Bones Develop In Similar Patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arms, Wings, Legs, Flippers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    100. 100. Homologous Body Structures <ul><li>Structures That Have Different Mature Forms But Develop From The Same Embryonic Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Evidence That All Four-Limbed Animals With Backbones Descended, With Modification, From A Common Ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Help Scientist Group Animals </li></ul>
    101. 101. Homologous Body Structures
    102. 102. Homologous Body Structures <ul><li>Not All Serve Important Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestigial Organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix In Man </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legs On Skinks </li></ul></ul></ul>
    103. 103. Similarities In Early Development <ul><li>Embryonic Structures Of Different Species Show Significant Similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo – early stages of vertebrate development </li></ul>
    104. 104. Human Fetus – 5 weeks
    105. 105. Chicken Turtle Rat
    106. 106. Review
    107. 107. Darwin's Theory <ul><li>Individual Organisms In Nature Differ From One Another. Some Of This Variation Is Inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms In Nature Produce More Offspring Than Can Survive, And Many Of These Offspring Do No Reproduce </li></ul>
    108. 108. Darwin's Theory <ul><li>Because More Organisms Are Produced Than Can Survive, Members Of Each Species Must Compete For Limited Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Because Each Organism Is Unique, Each Has Different Advantages & Disadvantages In The Struggle For Existence </li></ul>
    109. 109. Darwin's Theory <ul><li>Individuals Best Suited To Their Environment Survive & Reproduce Successfully – Passing Their Traits To Their Offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>Species Change Over Time. Over Long Periods, Natural Selection Causes Changes That May Eventually Lead To New Species </li></ul>
    110. 110. Darwin's Theory <ul><li>Species Alive Today Have Descended With Modifications From Species That Lived In The Past </li></ul><ul><li>All Organisms On Earth Are United Into A Single Tree Of Life By Common Descent </li></ul>
    111. 111. Evolution Simulation <ul><li>http://www2.edc.org/weblabs/NaturalSelection/NaturalSelectionMenu.html </li></ul>
    112. 112. Lamark’s explanation for the modification of species depended on <ul><li>Inheritance of acquired characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>The law of superposition </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    113. 113. The idea that processes occurring now on Earth are much the same as those that occurred long ago is called <ul><li>Uniformitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent evolution </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    114. 114. The observation that organisms arise in locations where similar, extinct organisms lived is called <ul><li>Superposition </li></ul><ul><li>Biogeography </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>evolution </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    115. 115. The similarities in the Galapagos finches implied <ul><li>Coevolution </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Descent from different remote ancestors </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    116. 116. Difference in reproductive success is <ul><li>An acquired trait </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>Coevolution </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    117. 117. Great similarity between species implies <ul><li>Recent common ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Remote common ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Successful reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    118. 118. Features that were useful in ancestors but are no longer useful are called <ul><li>Analogous features </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous features </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpressed genes </li></ul><ul><li>Vestigial features </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    119. 119. Similar features in different species that originated in a shared ancestor are called <ul><li>Vestigial features </li></ul><ul><li>Analogous features </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous features </li></ul><ul><li>Unexpressed genes </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    120. 120. A humming bird and a humming moth have a number of superficial features in common with each other. This is an example of <ul><li>Divergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Coevolution </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Superposition </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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