Food energy through ecosystems


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Food energy through ecosystems

  1. 1. Energy Flow in an Ecosystem copyright cmassengale
  2. 2. Energy Flow <ul><li>Energy in an ecosystem originally comes from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Energy flows through Ecosystems from producers to consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers (make food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers (use food by eating producers or other consumers) </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  3. 3. Producers <ul><ul><li>Sunlight is the main source of energy for most life on earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers contain chlorophyll & can use energy directly from the sun </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  4. 4. Autotrophs <ul><li>An Autotroph is any organism that can produce its own food supply! </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs are also called Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Plants, algae, some protists, & some bacteria are examples </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  5. 5. Niche of a Producer <ul><li>Captures energy and transforms it into organic, stored energy for the use of living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>May be photoautotrophs using light energy (e.g. plants ) </li></ul><ul><li>May be chemoautotrophs using chemical energy (e.g. cyanobacteri a) </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  6. 6. Photoautotroph <ul><li>Producer That Captures Energy from the sun by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adds Oxygen to the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Removes Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul>Algae copyright cmassengale
  7. 7. <ul><li>On Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In The Sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tidal Flats & Salt Marshes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanobacteria </li></ul></ul>Habitat of Photoautotrophs copyright cmassengale
  8. 8. Chemoautotrophs <ul><li>Capture energy from the bonds of inorganic molecules such as Hydrogen Sulfide </li></ul><ul><li>Process is called Chemosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Often occurs in deep sea vents or gut of animals </li></ul>Called a Black smoker (thermal vent) copyright cmassengale
  9. 9. Tube Worms living in Black Smoker copyright cmassengale
  10. 10. Consumers <ul><li>Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. (e.g. animals ) </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat Only Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carnivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat Only Other Animals </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  11. 11. Consumers <ul><li>Heterotrophs eat other organisms to obtain energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores (Humans) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat Plants & Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detritivores (Scavengers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed On Dead Plant & Animal Remains (buzzards) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi & Bacteria </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  12. 12. Feeding Relationships <ul><ul><li>Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from producers to various levels of consumers </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  13. 13. Feeding Relationships <ul><li>Food Chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Energy path through an ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More realistic path through an ecosystem made of many food chains </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  14. 14. Food Chain Producer ( trapped sunlight & stored food) 1 st order Consumer 2 nd Order Consumer 3 rd Order consumer 4 th Order Consumer copyright cmassengale
  15. 15. Name the Producer, Consumers & Decomposers in this food chain: copyright cmassengale
  16. 16. copyright cmassengale
  17. 17. Food Web copyright cmassengale
  18. 18. copyright cmassengale
  19. 19. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Each Level In A Food Chain or Food Web is a Trophic Level . </li></ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always The First Trophic Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How Energy Enters The System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herbivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Trophic Level </li></ul></ul>copyright cmassengale
  20. 20. Trophic Levels <ul><li>Carnivores/Omnivores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make Up The Remaining Trophic Levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each level depends on the one below it for energy. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  21. 21. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Graphic Representations Of The Relative Amounts of Energy or Matter At Each Trophic Level </li></ul><ul><li>May be: </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass Pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid of Numbers </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  22. 22. Energy Pyramid copyright cmassengale
  23. 23. Biomass Pyramid copyright cmassengale
  24. 24. Pyramid of Numbers copyright cmassengale
  25. 25. copyright cmassengale