Cellular respiration ppt

3,853 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • how to download this file?
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,853
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
233
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cellular respiration ppt

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration copyright cmassengale
  2. 2. Cellular Respiration <ul><li>A catabolic, exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from macromolecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O). </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO2 + 6H 2 O + energy </li></ul>copyright cmassengale glucose ATP
  3. 3. Question: <ul><li>In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place? </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  4. 4. Plants and Animals <ul><li>Plants - Autotrophs : self-producers. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals - Heterotrophs : consumers. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  5. 5. Mitochondria <ul><li>Organelle where cellular respiration takes place. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
  6. 6. Redox Reaction <ul><li>Transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another . </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reduction </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  7. 7. Oxidation Reaction <ul><li>The loss of electrons from a substance . </li></ul><ul><li>Or the gain of oxygen . </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy </li></ul>copyright cmassengale glucose ATP Oxidation
  8. 8. Reduction Reaction <ul><li>The gain of electrons to a substance . </li></ul><ul><li>Or the loss of oxygen . </li></ul>copyright cmassengale glucose ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Reduction
  9. 9. Breakdown of Cellular Respiration <ul><li>Four main parts (reactions). </li></ul><ul><li>1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar) </li></ul><ul><li>a. cytosol, just outside of mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Grooming Phase </li></ul><ul><li>a. migration from cytosol to matrix. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  10. 10. Breakdown of Cellular Respiration <ul><li>3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>a. mitochondrial matrix </li></ul><ul><li>4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative Phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>a. Also called Chemiosmosis </li></ul><ul><li>b. inner mitochondrial membrane. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  11. 11. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>Occurs in the cytosol just outside of mitochondria. </li></ul><ul><li>Two phases (10 steps): </li></ul><ul><li>A. Energy investment phase </li></ul><ul><li>a. Preparatory phase (first 5 steps) . </li></ul><ul><li>B. Energy yielding phase </li></ul><ul><li>a. Energy payoff phase (second 5 steps) . </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  12. 12. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>A. Energy Investment Phase: </li></ul>copyright cmassengale Glucose (6C) Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) 2 ATP - used 0 ATP - produced 0 NADH - produced 2ATP 2ADP + P C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C
  13. 13. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>B. Energy Yielding Phase </li></ul>copyright cmassengale Glyceraldehyde phosphate (2 - 3C) (G3P or GAP) Pyruvate (2 - 3C) (PYR) 0 ATP - used 4 ATP - produced 2 NADH - produced 4ATP 4ADP + P C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C C-C-C GAP GAP (PYR) (PYR)
  14. 14. 1. Glycolysis <ul><li>Total Net Yield </li></ul><ul><li>2 - 3C-Pyruvate (PYR) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - ATP (Substrate-level Phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - NADH </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  15. 15. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation <ul><li>ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP . </li></ul>Example: PEP to PYR copyright cmassengale Enzyme Substrate O - C=O C-O- CH 2 P P P Adenosine ADP (PEP) P P P ATP O - C=O C=O CH 2 Product (Pyruvate) Adenosine
  16. 16. Fermentation <ul><li>Occurs in cytosol when “NO Oxygen” is present (called anaerobic). </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: glycolysis is part of fermentation . </li></ul><ul><li>Two Types: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alcohol Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Lactic Acid Fermentation </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  17. 17. Alcohol Fermentation <ul><li>Plants and Fungi  beer and wine </li></ul>copyright cmassengale glucose Glycolysis C C C C C C C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C 2 Ethanol 2CO 2 released 2NADH 2 NAD +
  18. 18. Alcohol Fermentation <ul><li>End Products: Alcohol fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 - Ethanol’s </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  19. 19. Lactic Acid Fermentation <ul><li>Animals (pain in muscle after a workout). </li></ul>copyright cmassengale 2 Lactic acid 2NADH 2 NAD + C C C Glucose Glycolysis C C C 2 Pyruvic acid 2ATP 2ADP + 2 2NADH P 2 NAD + C C C C C C
  20. 20. Lactic Acid Fermentation <ul><li>End Products: Lactic acid fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>2 - ATP ( substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>2 - Lactic Acids </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  21. 21. 2. Grooming Phase <ul><li>Occurs when Oxygen is present (aerobic). </li></ul><ul><li>2 Pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and is converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale Cytosol C C C 2 Pyruvate 2 CO 2 2 Acetyl CoA C-C 2NADH 2 NAD + Matrix
  22. 22. 2. Grooming Phase <ul><li>End Products: grooming phase </li></ul><ul><li>2 - NADH </li></ul><ul><li>2 - CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2- Acetyl CoA (2C) </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  23. 23. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) <ul><li>Location: mitochondrial matrix . </li></ul><ul><li>Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds to Oxalacetic acid (4C - OAA) to make Citrate (6C) . </li></ul><ul><li>It takes 2 turns of the krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule. </li></ul>copyright cmassengale Mitochondrial Matrix
  24. 24. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) copyright cmassengale Krebs Cycle 1 Acetyl CoA (2C) 3 NAD + 3 NADH FAD FADH 2 ATP ADP + P (one turn) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 2 CO 2
  25. 25. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) copyright cmassengale Krebs Cycle 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) 6 NAD + 6 NADH 2 FAD 2 FADH 2 2 ATP 2 ADP + P (two turns) OAA (4C) Citrate (6C) 4 CO 2
  26. 26. 3. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) <ul><li>Total net yield ( 2 turns of krebs cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>1. 2 - ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>2. 6 - NADH </li></ul><ul><li>3. 2 - FADH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>4. 4 - CO 2 </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  27. 27. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) <ul><li>Location: inner mitochondrial membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP Synthase (enzyme) to make ATP . </li></ul><ul><li>ETC pumps H + (protons) across innermembrane ( lowers pH in innermembrane space ). </li></ul>copyright cmassengale Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  28. 28. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) <ul><li>The H+ then move via diffusion (Proton Motive Force) through ATP Synthase to make ATP . </li></ul><ul><li>All NADH and FADH 2 converted to ATP during this stage of cellular respiration . </li></ul><ul><li>Each NADH converts to 3 ATP . </li></ul><ul><li>Each FADH 2 converts to 2 ATP (enters the ETC at a lower level than NADH ). </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  29. 29. 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis ) copyright cmassengale Inner membrane Outer membrane Inner membrane space Matrix Cristae
  30. 30. 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation ( Chemiosmosis for NADH ) copyright cmassengale NADH + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + 3H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C NAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  31. 31. 4. ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (Chemiosmosis for FADH 2 ) copyright cmassengale FADH 2 + H + ATP Synthase 1H + 2H + higher H + concentration H + ADP + ATP lower H + concentration H + (Proton Pumping) P E T C FAD+ 2H + + 1/2 O 2 H 2 O Intermembrane Space Matrix Inner Mitochondrial Membrane
  32. 32. TOTAL ATP YIELD <ul><li>1. 04 ATP - substrate-level phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>2. 34 ATP - ETC & oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>38 ATP - TOTAL YIELD </li></ul>copyright cmassengale ATP
  33. 33. Eukaryotes (Have Membranes) <ul><li>Total ATP Yield </li></ul><ul><li>02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>04 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase </li></ul><ul><li>02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>36 ATP - TOTAL </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  34. 34. Maximum ATP Yield for Cellular Respiration (Eukaryotes) 36 ATP (maximum per glucose) copyright cmassengale Glucose Glycolysis 2ATP 4ATP 6ATP 18ATP 4ATP 2ATP 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2NADH 2NADH 6NADH Krebs Cycle 2FADH 2 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation Cytosol Mitochondria
  35. 35. Prokaryotes (Lack Membranes) <ul><li>Total ATP Yield </li></ul><ul><li>02 ATP - glycolysis (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>06 ATP - converted from 2 NADH - grooming phase </li></ul><ul><li>02 ATP - Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation) </li></ul><ul><li>18 ATP - converted from 6 NADH - Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>04 ATP - converted from 2 FADH 2 - Krebs cycle </li></ul><ul><li>38 ATP - TOTAL </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  36. 36. Question: <ul><li>In addition to glucose, what other various food molecules are use in Cellular Respiration? </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  37. 37. Catabolism of Various Food Molecules <ul><li>Other organic molecules used for fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Carbohydrates: polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fats: glycerol’s and fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>3. Proteins: amino acids </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
  38. 38. copyright cmassengale

×