Plasma membrane w turning pt qs

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  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010 DEMO FOOD DYE HOT AND COLD WATER
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • The Plasma Membrane 07/06/11 G. Podgorski, Biol. 1010
  • Plasma membrane w turning pt qs

    1. 1. The Plasma Membrane - Gateway to the Cell
    2. 2. Photograph of a Cell Membrane
    3. 3. Cell Membrane <ul><li>The cell membrane is flexible and allows a unicellular organism to move </li></ul>
    4. 4. Homeostasis <ul><li>Balanced internal condition of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Also called equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained by plasma membrane controlling what enters & leaves the cell </li></ul>
    5. 5. Functions of Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Protective barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate transport in & out of cell (selectively permeable) </li></ul><ul><li>Allow cell recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Provide anchoring sites for filaments of cytoskeleton </li></ul>
    6. 6. Functions of Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Provide a binding site for enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Interlocking surfaces bind cells together (junctions) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the cytoplasm (fluid in cell) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Structure of the Cell Membrane
    8. 8. Phospholipids Cholesterol Proteins ( peripheral and integral) Carbohydrates (glucose) Membrane Components
    9. 9.
    10. 10. Phospholipids <ul><li>Make up the cell membrane </li></ul>Contains 2 fatty acid chains that are nonpolar Head is polar & contains a –PO 4 group & glycerol
    11. 11. <ul><li>FLUID - because individual phospholipids and proteins can move side-to-side within the layer, like it’s a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>MOSAIC - because of the pattern produced by the scattered protein molecules when the membrane is viewed from above . </li></ul>FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
    12. 12. Cell Membrane Polar heads are hydrophilic “water loving ” Nonpolar tails are hydrophobic “water fearing” Makes membrane “Selective” in what crosses
    13. 13.
    14. 14. Cell Membrane Hydrophobic molecules pass easily ; hydrophilic DO NOT The cell membrane is made of 2 layers of phospholipid s called the lipid bilayer
    15. 15. Solubility <ul><li>Materials that are soluble in lipids can pass through the cell membrane easily </li></ul>
    16. 16. Semipermeable Membrane Small molecules and larger hydrophobic molecules move through easily. e.g. O 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O
    17. 17. Ions , hydrophilic molecules larger than water, and large molecules such as proteins do not move through the membrane on their own. Semipermeable Membrane
    18. 18. Please select a Team. <ul><li>Team 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 5 </li></ul>
    19. 19. What are the tails of phospholipids made of? <ul><li>Glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    20. 20. Which part of a phospholipid is hydrophilic? <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Tail </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    21. 21. How many layers is the plasma membrane made of? <ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul><ul><li>3 </li></ul><ul><li>4 </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    22. 22. In which direction does the plasma membrane move? <ul><li>Side to side </li></ul><ul><li>Up and down </li></ul><ul><li>Both 1 & 2 </li></ul><ul><li>It does not move </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    23. 23. How would you classify oil? <ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul><ul><li>Polar </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    24. 24. The fatty acid tails of phospholipids are _______ <ul><li>Polar </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    25. 25. What types of materials easily pass through the bilayer <ul><li>Polar </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul><ul><li>Large molecules </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    26. 26. Team MVP copyright cmassengale Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant
    27. 27. Team Scores 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
    28. 28. Types of Transport Across Cell Membranes
    29. 29. Simple Diffusion <ul><li>Requires NO energy </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules move from area of HIGH to LOW concentration </li></ul>
    30. 30. DIFFUSION <ul><ul><li>Diffusion is a PASSIVE process which means no energy is used to make the molecules move, they have a natural KINETIC ENERGY </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Diffusion of Liquids
    32. 32. Diffusion through a Membrane Cell membrane Solute moves DOWN concentration gradient (HIGH to LOW)
    33. 33. Osmosis <ul><li>Diffusion of water across a membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Moves from HIGH water potential (low solute) to LOW water potential (high solute) </li></ul>Diffusion across a membrane Semipermeable membrane
    34. 34. Diffusion of H 2 O Across A Membrane High H 2 O potential Low solute concentration Low H 2 O potential High solute concentration
    35. 35. Aquaporins <ul><li>Water Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Protein pores used during OSMOSIS </li></ul>WATER MOLECULES
    36. 36. Cell in Isotonic Solution CELL 10% NaCL 90% H 2 O 10% NaCL 90% H 2 O What is the direction of water movement? The cell is at _______________. equilibrium ENVIRONMENT NO NET MOVEMENT
    37. 37. Cell in Hypotonic Solution CELL 10% NaCL 90% H 2 O 20% NaCL 80% H 2 O What is the direction of water movement?
    38. 38. Cell in Hypertonic Solution CELL 15% NaCL 85% H 2 O 5% NaCL 95% H 2 O What is the direction of water movement? ENVIRONMENT
    39. 39. Cells in Solutions
    40. 40. Isotonic Solution NO NET MOVEMENT OF H 2 O (equal amounts entering & leaving) Hypotonic Solution CYTOLYSIS Hypertonic Solution PLASMOLYSIS
    41. 41. Cytolysis & Plasmolysis Cytolysis Plasmolysis
    42. 42. Osmosis in Red Blood Cells Isotonic Hypotonic Hypertonic
    43. 43. What Happens to Blood Cells?
    44. 44. hypotonic hypertonic isotonic hypertonic isotonic hypotonic
    45. 45. Please select a Team. <ul><li>Team 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 5 </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    46. 46. In what direction do molecules move in diffusion? <ul><li>Hi to low </li></ul><ul><li>Low to hi </li></ul><ul><li>Both directions equally </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    47. 47. All moving molecules have ______ energy <ul><li>Potential </li></ul><ul><li>Stored </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusive </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    48. 48. What direction do water molecules move in osmosis? <ul><li>Hi to low </li></ul><ul><li>Low to hi </li></ul><ul><li>Equally in both directions </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t move </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    49. 49. A solution that is isotonic is said to be in: <ul><li>Plamolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cytolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Water potential </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    50. 50. Molecules in isotonic solutions (at equilibrium) do not move. <ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    51. 51. When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, what direction does water move? <ul><li>Into the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Both directions equally </li></ul><ul><li>It does not move </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    52. 52. When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, what direction does water move? <ul><li>Into the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Both directions equally </li></ul><ul><li>It does not move </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    53. 53. What is the result of cells placed in very hypotonic solutions? <ul><li>Cytolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Lysis </li></ul><ul><li>Pinocytosis </li></ul>10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    54. 54. What is the result of cells placed in very hypertonic solutions? <ul><li>Cytolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Lysis </li></ul><ul><li>Pinocytosis </li></ul>10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    55. 55. Team Scores copyright cmassengale 0 Team 1 0 Team 2 0 Team 3 0 Team 4 0 Team 5
    56. 56. Team MVP copyright cmassengale Points Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant 0 Team Participant
    57. 57. Three Forms of Transport Across the Membrane
    58. 58. Passive Transport <ul><li>Simple Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require energy </li></ul><ul><li>Moves high to low concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Oxygen or water diffusing into a cell and carbon dioxide diffusing out . </li></ul>
    59. 59. Passive Transport <ul><li>Facilitated diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t require energy </li></ul><ul><li>Uses transport proteins to move high to low concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Glucose or amino acids moving from blood into a cell. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Proteins Are Critical to Membrane Function
    61. 61. Types of Transport Proteins <ul><li>Channel proteins are embedded in the cell membrane & have a pore for materials to cross </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier proteins can change shape to move material from one side of the membrane to the other </li></ul>
    62. 62. Facilitated Diffusion Molecules will randomly move through the pores in Channel Proteins .
    63. 63. Facilitated Diffusion <ul><li>Some Carrier proteins do not extend through the membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>They bond and drag molecules through the lipid bilayer and release them on the opposite side. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Carrier Proteins <ul><li>Other carrier proteins change shape to move materials across the cell membrane </li></ul>
    65. 65. Active Transport <ul><li>Requires energy or ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Moves materials from LOW to HIGH concentration </li></ul><ul><li>AGAINST concentration gradient </li></ul>
    66. 66. Active transport <ul><li>Examples: Pumping Na + (sodium ions) out and K + (potassium ions) in against strong concentration gradients . </li></ul><ul><li>Called Na+-K+ Pump </li></ul>
    67. 67. Sodium-Potassium Pump 3 Na+ pumped in for every 2 K+ pumped out; creates a membrane potential
    68. 68. Moving the “Big Stuff” Molecules are moved out of the cell by vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane. Exocytosis - moving things out. This is how many hormones are secreted and how nerve cells communicate with one another .
    69. 69. Exocytosis Exocytic vesicle immediately after fusion with plasma membrane.
    70. 70. Moving the “Big Stuff” Large molecules move materials into the cell by one of three forms of endocytosis .
    71. 71. Pinocytosis Most common form of endocytosis . Takes in dissolved molecules as a vesicle .
    72. 72. Pinocytosis <ul><li>Cell forms an invagination </li></ul><ul><li>Materials dissolve in water to be brought into cell </li></ul><ul><li>Called “Cell Drinking” </li></ul>
    73. 73. Example of Pinocytosis pinocytic vesicles forming mature transport vesicle Transport across a capillary cell (blue).
    74. 74. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Some integral proteins have receptors on their surface to recognize & take in hormones, cholesterol , etc.
    75. 75. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
    76. 76.
    77. 77. Endocytosis – Phagocytosis Used to engulf large particles such as food, bacteria , etc. into vesicles Called “Cell Eating”
    78. 78.
    79. 79. Phagocytosis About to Occur
    80. 80. Phagocytosis - Capture of a Yeast Cell (yellow) by Membrane Extensions of an Immune System Cell (blue)
    81. 81. Exocytosis The opposite of endocytosis is exocytosis. Large molecules that are manufactured in the cell are released through the cell membrane . Inside Cell Cell environment
    82. 82. Please select a Team. <ul><li>Team 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Team 5 </li></ul>copyright cmassengale
    83. 83. Water moving across a cell membrane is an example of: <ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Active transport </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    84. 84. Moving with the concentration gradient means molecules move from areas of _____concentration to ______concentration <ul><li>High to low </li></ul><ul><li>Low to high </li></ul><ul><li>High to high </li></ul><ul><li>Low to low </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    85. 85. Passive transport requires ______ energy to take place <ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of </li></ul><ul><li>Small amounts of </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
    86. 86. Amino acids and ______ enter the cell via facilitated diffusion <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul>20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

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