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DNA Technology
DNA Extraction <ul><li>Chemical treatments  cause cells and nuclei to burst </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA is inherently  stick...
“ Spooled” DNA
Cutting DNA <ul><li>Restriction enzymes   cut DNA at specific sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to divide DNA into  manag...
Electrophoresis <ul><li>DNA can be separated based on  size and charge </li></ul><ul><li>The  phosphate groups  are  negat...
Electrophoresis <ul><li>Negative DNA  moves toward the positive end </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller  fragments move  farther and...
Electrophoresis
Steps in DNA Sequencing <ul><li>Many  copies  of a single strand of DNA are placed in a test tube </li></ul><ul><li>DNA po...
Steps in DNA Sequencing <ul><li>By chance,  some dyed nucleotides  &  some regular ones  are added  </li></ul><ul><li>Dye ...
DNA Sequencing <ul><li>The  result  is DNA fragments of  multiple sizes with colors that can be identified </li></ul>
DNA Sequencing <ul><li>After the gel separates the resulting fragments by size, we  'read' the sequence from bottom to top...
Copying DNA <ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Also called PCR  </li></ul><ul><li>A method of making many...
Steps in Copying DNA <ul><ul><li>A DNA molecule is placed in a small test tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA polymerase  ...
Steps in Copying DNA <ul><li>The  DNA is heated  to separate the two strands </li></ul><ul><li>Primers , short pieces of D...
Copying DNA <ul><ul><li>The tube is cooled, and  DNA polymerase adds new bases to the separated strands </li></ul></ul>
PCR Large amounts of DNA can be made from a small starting sample
Cloning <ul><li>Clone -  a member of a group of genetically identical cells </li></ul><ul><li>May be produced by  asexual ...
Cloning organisms <ul><li>A  body cell  from one organism and an  egg cell  from another are fused </li></ul><ul><li>The r...
Cloning “Dolly”
Human Genome Project
Human Genome Project <ul><li>Started in  1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Research effort to  sequence all of our DNA  (46 chromosom...
HGP Insights <ul><li>Only  2%  of human genome codes for proteins  (exons) </li></ul><ul><li>Other  98% (introns ) are non...
Benefits of Human Genome Project <ul><li>Improvements in  medical prevention  of disease, gene therapies, diagnosis techni...
Benefits of Genetic Engineering
Biotechnology - <ul><li>The use of gene science to create new products from plants and animals </li></ul>
Biotechnology Provides: <ul><li>Improved  food  products </li></ul><ul><li>Medica l  advances </li></ul><ul><li>An enhance...
Herbicide Resistant Crops <ul><li>Soybeans:  Roundup Ready </li></ul><ul><li>Corn:  Roundup Ready, Liberty Link  </li></ul...
Biotechnology Breakthroughs <ul><li>Insulin (1982) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First commercial biotech product </li></ul></ul><...
Biotechnology Breakthroughs <ul><li>Potatoes  with higher solid content </li></ul><ul><li>Garli c that lowers cholesterol ...
Environmental Benefits <ul><li>Reduced pesticide  use </li></ul><ul><li>Lower energy  requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Clean...
 
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Dna technology

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Dna technology

  1. 1. DNA Technology
  2. 2. DNA Extraction <ul><li>Chemical treatments cause cells and nuclei to burst </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA is inherently sticky , and can be pulled out of the mixture </li></ul><ul><li>This is called “spooling” DNA </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ Spooled” DNA
  4. 4. Cutting DNA <ul><li>Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to divide DNA into manageable fragments </li></ul>
  5. 5. Electrophoresis <ul><li>DNA can be separated based on size and charge </li></ul><ul><li>The phosphate groups are negatively charged </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is placed in a gel and electricity is run through </li></ul>
  6. 6. Electrophoresis <ul><li>Negative DNA moves toward the positive end </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller fragments move farther and faster </li></ul>
  7. 7. Electrophoresis
  8. 8. Steps in DNA Sequencing <ul><li>Many copies of a single strand of DNA are placed in a test tube </li></ul><ul><li>DNA polymerase is added </li></ul><ul><li>A mixture of nucleotides is added some of which have dye molecules attached </li></ul><ul><li>Each base (A,T,C,G) has a different color dye </li></ul>
  9. 9. Steps in DNA Sequencing <ul><li>By chance, some dyed nucleotides & some regular ones are added </li></ul><ul><li>Dye molecules are large and stop the chain from growing </li></ul>
  10. 10. DNA Sequencing <ul><li>The result is DNA fragments of multiple sizes with colors that can be identified </li></ul>
  11. 11. DNA Sequencing <ul><li>After the gel separates the resulting fragments by size, we 'read' the sequence from bottom to top . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Copying DNA <ul><li>Polymerase Chain Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Also called PCR </li></ul><ul><li>A method of making many copies of a piece of DNA </li></ul>
  13. 13. Steps in Copying DNA <ul><ul><li>A DNA molecule is placed in a small test tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA polymerase that can work at high temps is added </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Steps in Copying DNA <ul><li>The DNA is heated to separate the two strands </li></ul><ul><li>Primers , short pieces of DNA complementary to the ends of the molecule to be copied, are added </li></ul>
  15. 15. Copying DNA <ul><ul><li>The tube is cooled, and DNA polymerase adds new bases to the separated strands </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. PCR Large amounts of DNA can be made from a small starting sample
  17. 17. Cloning <ul><li>Clone - a member of a group of genetically identical cells </li></ul><ul><li>May be produced by asexual reproduction (mitosis) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cloning organisms <ul><li>A body cell from one organism and an egg cell from another are fused </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting cell divides like a normal embryo </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cloning “Dolly”
  20. 20. Human Genome Project
  21. 21. Human Genome Project <ul><li>Started in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Research effort to sequence all of our DNA (46 chromosomes) </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3.3 billion nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping every gene location (loci) </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted by scientists around the world </li></ul>
  22. 22. HGP Insights <ul><li>Only 2% of human genome codes for proteins (exons) </li></ul><ul><li>Other 98% (introns ) are non-coding </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 20,000 to 25,000 genes (expected 100,000) </li></ul><ul><li>Proteome – organism’s complete set of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>About 8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) – places where humans differ by a single nucleotide </li></ul><ul><li>About ½ of genome comes from transposons (pieces of DNA that move to different locations on chromosomes) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Benefits of Human Genome Project <ul><li>Improvements in medical prevention of disease, gene therapies, diagnosis techniques … </li></ul><ul><li>Production of useful protein products for use in medicine, agriculture, bioremediation and pharmaceutical industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved bioinformatics – using computers to help in DNA sequencing … </li></ul>
  24. 24. Benefits of Genetic Engineering
  25. 25. Biotechnology - <ul><li>The use of gene science to create new products from plants and animals </li></ul>
  26. 26. Biotechnology Provides: <ul><li>Improved food products </li></ul><ul><li>Medica l advances </li></ul><ul><li>An enhanced environment </li></ul>
  27. 27. Herbicide Resistant Crops <ul><li>Soybeans: Roundup Ready </li></ul><ul><li>Corn: Roundup Ready, Liberty Link </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton: BXN, Roundup Ready </li></ul><ul><li>Canola: Liberty Link, Roundup Ready </li></ul>+ CP4 EPSPS = Roundup gene Ready
  28. 28. Biotechnology Breakthroughs <ul><li>Insulin (1982) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First commercial biotech product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable, inexpensive source of insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enriched with beta-carotene and iron </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bananas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Containing edible hepatitis vaccine </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Biotechnology Breakthroughs <ul><li>Potatoes with higher solid content </li></ul><ul><li>Garli c that lowers cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits and vegetables that reduce risks of cancer and heart disease </li></ul>
  30. 30. Environmental Benefits <ul><li>Reduced pesticide use </li></ul><ul><li>Lower energy requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaner water </li></ul><ul><li>Less soil erosion </li></ul>

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