Water Sources<br />Presented by:<br />New England Water Works Association<br />Instructor:<br />						 Sam Elliot, CET<br ...
Water Sources<br />Introduction<br />Course will cover:<br />Hydrologic cycle    <br />Description<br />Terms<br />Water o...
Water Sources<br />Water Quality Concerns for Water Sources<br />Physical<br />Biological<br />Chemical<br />Radiological<...
Water Sources<br />Groundwater<br />Terms and well construction<br />Types of wells<br />Springs and infiltration gallerie...
Water Sources<br />Surface Water<br />Water rights<br />Watershed  sources and characteristics<br />Runoff and types of po...
Water Sources<br />
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />The Hydrologic Cycle<br />Evaporation and transpiration<br />Condensation<br />Preci...
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Evaporation<br />Water becomes a gas – evaporation<br />Heat from the sun causes mos...
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Condensation<br />Results from water vapor cooling<br />Forms clouds<br />Precipitat...
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Groundwater<br />Infiltration<br />The movement of water through the soil<br />Some ...
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Surface runoff<br />When soil can hold no more water it is saturated<br />Excess pre...
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br /> Aquifers <br />Unconfined aquifers<br />Surface of saturated zone free to rise and ...
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Aquifer materials<br />A variety of materials<br />Sand – small or large grains<br /...
Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Impurities<br />In precipitation mostly effects surface water<br />Dissolves gases f...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Surface water sources<br />Primarily lakes and rivers<br />Relied on by large urban are...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Groundwater sources<br />Springs<br />Rarely used by utilities<br />Infiltration gallerie...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Parts of a well<br />Sanitary seal<br />Air vent<br />Well casing<br />Grout<br />Screen<...
 Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well terms<br />Static water level<br />Pumping level<br />Drawdown<br />Cone of depress...
 Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Static water level<br />Water level when no water level is being withdrawn<br />Measured...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Cone of depression<br />In unconfined aquifer, water flows from all directions<br />Free ...
 Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Residual drawdown<br />After pumping, water rises in the well<br />If rise does not reac...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Specific yield   (Specific capacity)<br />Specific yieldgpm/ft  =  Well yieldgpm÷ Drawdow...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well location<br />Where maximum yield possible is obtained<br />Where can be protected f...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Existing data<br />State and Federal geological agencies<br />Likely water quality<br />H...
Water Snmources - Groundwater<br />Likely locations<br />More likely under valleys than on hills<br />Material washed down...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Exploration<br />Do underground exploration before drilling a full sized well<br />Tests<...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Exploration<br />Computer modeling<br />Measures complex stresses and effect on aquifer<b...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Sources of contamination<br />Landfills<br />Hazardous-waste sites<br />Liquid waste stor...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Types of wells<br />Dug wells<br />Bored wells<br />Driven wells<br />Jetted wells<br />D...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Dug wells<br />Can supply large amounts of water from shallow source<br />Dug with<br />P...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Bored wells<br />Can be constructed quickly<br />Soil must be suitable<br />Limited to 3 ...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Driven wells<br />Simple to install<br />Water must be neat the surface<br />No rock laye...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Jetted Well<br />Soil must be appropriate – not hardpan, boulders<br />Water is pumped do...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Drilled well<br />Cable tool method<br />Rotary hydraulic method<br />Reverse-circulation...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Cable tool method<br />Percussion drilling – wells of all sizes and depth<br />Clublike c...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Rotary hydraulic method<br />Well is drilled with rapid rotation of a bit<br />Drill pipe...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />California method (stovepipe method)<br />Used in unconsolidated material<br />Similar to...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Down-the-hole hammer method<br />Uses a pneumatic hammer<br />Air also cleans away cuttin...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Special types of wells<br />	Radial wells<br />	Gravel-wall wells<br />	Bedrock wells<br />
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Radial wells<br />Commonly used near lakes or rivers<br />Consists of central well with h...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well construction procedures<br />Well components<br />Well casing<br />Steel, iron, fibe...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Gravel-wall well or gravel packed well<br />Best in fine grain material with uniform size...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well components<br />Well screens<br />Used in unconsolidated formations<br />Proper size...
 Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well components<br />Grouting<br />Seals out water to prevent surface pollution<br />Sea...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well development<br />High rate pumping<br />Surging<br />Increased-rate pumping and surg...
 Water Sources - Groundwater<br />High rate pumping<br />	Where no screen is used – flushes out bore and aquifer<br />Surg...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Use of explosives<br />May be used to fracture massive rock formations<br />Might be used...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Chemical agents<br />Chemicals frequently enhance some development methods<br />Used with...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Pumping tests<br />To confirm that well produces water at design capacity<br />Typically:...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Sanitary considerations<br />For shallow wells, surround with:<br /> 50 feet radius of cl...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Aquifer evaluation<br />Observations wells located on  map<br />Routine measure of drawdo...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well operation and maintenance<br />Important base line data<br />Static water level<br /...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well abandonment and sealing<br />Goal  is restoration of geologic and hydrologic conditi...
Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Summary<br />Wells often supply water to smaller communities<br />Water quality generally...
Water Sources – Surface Water <br />Surface water<br />Primary source for larger communities and cities<br />Cities have g...
Water Sources – Surface Water <br />Surface runoff<br />Rain<br />Runs off quickly toward streams etc.<br />Snow<br />Form...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Influences on runoff<br />Rainfall<br /> Intensity and duration<br />Soil<br />Composit...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Watercourses<br />Natural <br />Brooks, streams, creeks, rivers<br />Perennial streams<...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Constructed watercourses<br />Ditches, channels, canals, aqueducts etc.<br />Used to di...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Considerations for public use<br />Quantity of water available (allow for growth)<br />...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Considerations<br />Water quality<br />Almost any water can be made potable<br />Expens...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Considerations <br />Water quality continued<br />Temperature<br />Taste, odor, color<b...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Water storage<br />Natural storage<br />Impoundments<br />Dams<br />Utility is responsi...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Groundwater recharge<br />Create basins to provide recharge aquifers<br />Injecting wat...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Surface intakes<br />Spillway<br />Disadvantages<br />Warm water<br />Ice in winter<br ...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Submerged intakes<br />Best water usually at some depth<br />Do not obstruct surface a...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Operating Problems<br />1.  Stream contamination<br />Spills from barges and ships<br /...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />  Operating Problems<br />2.  Lake Contamination	<br />Vulnerable to human and natural ...
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />  Operating Problems <br />3.  Icing<br />Rapid cooling to freezing – frazil ice<br />S...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Operating problems – icing continued <br />Overcoming frazil ice problems<br />Backflus...
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Operational problems<br />5.  Evaporation<br />Large surface can lose 6 to 8 feet to e...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br /> Operational Problems    <br />      7.  Siltation<br />Streams carry sediment<br />Ser...
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Emergencies and alternative sources<br />Supply to public – continuous and uninterrupt...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Use and conservation of water<br />Water, our most important natural resource<br />Use ...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Causes of source disruption<br />Natural disasters<br />Earthquakes<br />Storms<br />La...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Source contamination<br />Chemical spills<br />Some short term, some longer term effect...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Loss of water source<br />Short term<br />Conservation, rationing<br />Use tank trucks<...
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Long term options<br />Drill new wells<br />Construct new surface water sources<br />C...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Evaluate the options<br />Required procedures to implement option <br />Is technology a...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Reliability<br />How reliable is option<br />Does it require special operation and main...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Cost considerations<br />What is initial investment<br />What will be operating costs<b...
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Alternative water sources<br />Surface water<br />Two or more intakes at different loc...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Use and conservation of water<br />Variations in water use<br />Time of day and day of ...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Time and day of week<br />	Rapid rise early in the morning<br />Significant rise early ...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Climate and season<br />	Most places higher in summer<br />Some air conditioners use wa...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Type of community<br />	Industrial communities use can be higher than average<br />Type...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Water pressure<br />Normal pressure – 25 to 50 psig<br />Increase of 25 psi to 45 psi =...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Sewers<br />Customers with sewer connections tend to use 50 to 100% more water than tho...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Conservation<br />Gradual acceptance by public of need to conserve<br />Efforts most ef...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Drawbacks to conservation<br />Loss of revenue<br />Possible delay in developing new so...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Loss of revenue<br />Some offsetting expenses -  power, chemicals<br />May require incr...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Stimulation of system growth<br />More water available can attract more users<br />Can ...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Supply management techniques<br />Careful management of all resources<br />Analysis of ...
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Demand management techniques<br />Public education<br />Distribution of water-saving d...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Drought conditions management<br />Response<br />Conservation<br />Additional supply<br...
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Allocation of Water rights:<br />Riparian Doctrine<br />Appropriation Doctrine<br />Mo...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Riparian Doctrine<br />Common law doctrine based on civil cases<br />Rule of “reasonabl...
 Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Greater water use has resulted in:<br />More frequent conflicts especially during drou...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Appropriation Doctrine<br />“First in time, first in right”<br />Water for irrigation g...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Priority use<br />When less water than demand, who has used the longest<br />No shared ...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Legal complications<br />	Land boundries are clear, water use is not<br />Water rights ...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Rights for the use of Groundwater<br />Absolute right<br />Reasonable use<br />Correlat...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Absolute ownership<br />Owner of the land owns what is under it<br /> For all practical...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Reasonable use<br />Interference with neighbor only ok if use is reasonable<br />Owner ...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Correlative rights<br />
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Appropriation-Permit systems<br />Basically a permit system<br />Most important issue i...
Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Summary<br />	The evolution of water rights is more advanced in the western states than...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Surface and groundwater in watershed area to be protected<br />Some utilities hire a ...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Ten steps to preparing plan: <br />    Organize community team<br />    Delineate wat...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Community planning team<br />Good when financial resources are limited<br />Involves ...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Delineate your watershed<br />Some states have done this with GIS<br />Topo maps may ...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Review zoning<br />Get information from code enforcement officer<br />Evaluate restri...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Determine critical areas<br />Identify sensitive areas – personal tour important<br /...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Inventory potential threats<br />Important to identify pollutants and their sources<b...
Principles of Source Protection<br />For potential pollution sources:<br />Permitted discharges<br />Solid waste facilitie...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Prioritize potential threats<br />Use list of potential sources of pollution<br />Con...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Source protection plan should consist of:<br />Control measures<br />Education and ou...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Reach out and educate<br />Non-regulatory measures rely on education and outreach<br ...
Principles of Source Protection<br />Implement the plan<br />Need PUBLIC SUPPORT<br />Establish individual who will enforc...
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Water Sources Final 1

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Water Sources Final 1

  1. 1. Water Sources<br />Presented by:<br />New England Water Works Association<br />Instructor:<br /> Sam Elliot, CET<br /> 703-403-6313 <br /> swelliot@hotmail.com<br />
  2. 2. Water Sources<br />Introduction<br />Course will cover:<br />Hydrologic cycle <br />Description<br />Terms<br />Water ownership rights <br />Groundwater<br />Surface water<br />Water quality concerns for water sources<br />Conservation methods and water use <br />Watershed protection<br />
  3. 3. Water Sources<br />Water Quality Concerns for Water Sources<br />Physical<br />Biological<br />Chemical<br />Radiological<br />Source Protection Concepts<br />Wellhead protection<br />Surface water protection<br />Watershed protection<br />
  4. 4. Water Sources<br />Groundwater<br />Terms and well construction<br />Types of wells<br />Springs and infiltration galleries<br />Well construction<br />Aquifer types and performance <br />Well operation and pumping<br />
  5. 5. Water Sources<br />Surface Water<br />Water rights<br />Watershed sources and characteristics<br />Runoff and types of pollution<br />Storage<br />Challenges using surface water sources<br />Alternative sources<br />Use and conservation of water<br />
  6. 6. Water Sources<br />
  7. 7. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />The Hydrologic Cycle<br />Evaporation and transpiration<br />Condensation<br />Precipitation<br />Infiltration, percolation surface runoff<br />
  8. 8. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Evaporation<br />Water becomes a gas – evaporation<br />Heat from the sun causes most evaporation<br />Sublimation – ice directly to vapor<br />Transpiration<br />Water is absorbed by plants<br />Returns to air from leaves and blades of grass<br />
  9. 9. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Condensation<br />Results from water vapor cooling<br />Forms clouds<br />Precipitation<br />Drops in clouds become to heavy to remain airborne<br />Falls as rain, snow, sleet, hail<br />Results in redistribution of water supply<br />
  10. 10. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Groundwater<br />Infiltration<br />The movement of water through the soil<br />Some moves upward due to capillary action<br />Percolation<br />The downward movement of water in the soil<br />Downward below root zone<br />Reaches water table (saturated area)<br />
  11. 11. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Surface runoff<br />When soil can hold no more water it is saturated<br />Excess precipitation flows downhill<br />Eventually reaches rivers, lakes and the ocean<br />Cycle continues<br />
  12. 12. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br /> Aquifers <br />Unconfined aquifers<br />Surface of saturated zone free to rise and fall<br />Confined aquifers<br />Also called an artesian aquifer<br />A permeable layer confined by an upper and lower layer<br />Results is the water is under pressure<br />Well water rises, not necessarily to the surface<br />
  13. 13. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />
  14. 14. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Aquifer materials<br />A variety of materials<br />Sand – small or large grains<br />Limestone or fractured rock<br />Important<br />Porosity - How much the aquifer can hold<br />Permeability – How well the water can flow<br />
  15. 15. Water Sources – Hydrologic Cycle<br />Impurities<br />In precipitation mostly effects surface water<br />Dissolves gases from the atmosphere<br />Picks up dust and other solids<br />Generally soft, low in total solids, low to neutral pH<br />Can be corrosive<br />Groundwater<br />Effected by materials picked up in run off<br />Effected by materials in the water table<br />
  16. 16. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Surface water sources<br />Primarily lakes and rivers<br />Relied on by large urban areas in most cases<br />Canals, aqueducts and pipelines <br />Bring water in from distant sources <br />
  17. 17. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Groundwater sources<br />Springs<br />Rarely used by utilities<br />Infiltration galleries<br />Collect water from surface sources<br />Wells<br />Drilled into water table<br />Serves 48% of general population<br /> Servers 95% of rural population<br />
  18. 18. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Parts of a well<br />Sanitary seal<br />Air vent<br />Well casing<br />Grout<br />Screen<br />Discharge pipe<br />Pump<br />Gravel packing<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well terms<br />Static water level<br />Pumping level<br />Drawdown<br />Cone of depression<br />Zone of influence<br />Residual drawdown<br />Well yield<br />Specific capacity<br />
  21. 21. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Static water level<br />Water level when no water level is being withdrawn<br />Measured from ground surface to water level<br />Monitors changes in water table<br />Pumping water level<br />Water level when pump is on<br />Pump must be below this level<br />Drawdown<br />Level between static level and pumping level<br />
  22. 22. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Cone of depression<br />In unconfined aquifer, water flows from all directions<br />Free water surface takes the shape of a cone<br />Zone of influence<br />Zone affected by drawdown<br />Distance depends on ground porosity<br />Low porosity equals large zone of influence<br />
  23. 23. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Residual drawdown<br />After pumping, water rises in the well<br />If rise does not reach original level<br />Well yield<br />What the well can produce over a long period of time<br />Measured in gpm or gphr<br />If pumping exceeds recharge, safe yield will be reduced<br />Pump will be damaged if sucks air<br />To correct problem, well can be left to “rest”<br />
  24. 24. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Specific yield (Specific capacity)<br />Specific yieldgpm/ft = Well yieldgpm÷ Drawdownfeet<br />Calculation used to monitor well operation<br />Should be done frequently<br />Indicates<br />Pump wear<br />Screen plugging<br />Other problems<br />
  25. 25. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well location<br />Where maximum yield possible is obtained<br />Where can be protected from contamination<br />How toselect location<br />Existing data<br />Likely locations<br />Exploration<br />
  26. 26. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Existing data<br />State and Federal geological agencies<br />Likely water quality<br />Hardness, iron and manganese, sulfur, nitrates, etc<br />Contamination possibilities<br />Owners of surrounding wells<br />Local well drillers<br />
  27. 27. Water Snmources - Groundwater<br />Likely locations<br />More likely under valleys than on hills<br />Material washed down from mountains – likely aquifers<br />Presence of surface water <br />Streams<br />Springs<br />Seeps <br />Swamps<br />Lakes<br />
  28. 28. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Exploration<br />Do underground exploration before drilling a full sized well<br />Tests<br />Seismic and resistivity tests<br />Shock waves from dynamite<br />The lower the ground’s electrical resistivity, the great the probability of water presence<br />Test wells<br />Earth samples taken<br />Checked electrically or with gamma rays<br />
  29. 29. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Exploration<br />Computer modeling<br />Measures complex stresses and effect on aquifer<br />Calculates withdrawal and recharge rates<br />Location of additional wells<br />Possible contamination<br />
  30. 30. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Sources of contamination<br />Landfills<br />Hazardous-waste sites<br />Liquid waste storage<br />Septic tanks, leachfields<br />Deep well injection<br />Agriculture<br />Sludge application<br />Infiltration from runoff<br />Deicing activities<br />Radioactive waste<br />Abandoned wells<br />
  31. 31. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Types of wells<br />Dug wells<br />Bored wells<br />Driven wells<br />Jetted wells<br />Drilled<br />
  32. 32. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Dug wells<br />Can supply large amounts of water from shallow source<br />Dug with<br />Pick and shovel, Clamshell, Backhoes<br />May be lined with concrete liners called curbs<br />Public utility dug wells may be<br />8 to 30 feet in diameter<br />20 to 40 feet deep<br />Vulnerable to contamination<br />
  33. 33. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Bored wells<br />Can be constructed quickly<br />Soil must be suitable<br />Limited to 3 feet in diamter and 25 to 60 feet deep<br />Casing is forced down as hole is bored<br />Cement grout surrounds the casing to block surface water<br />
  34. 34. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Driven wells<br />Simple to install<br />Water must be neat the surface<br />No rock layers or boulders in the way<br />The point has a steel tip<br />Diameters from 1 ¼ to 4 inches<br />Maximum depth is30 to 40 feet<br />For suction pump, static water level of at least 15 feet<br />
  35. 35. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Jetted Well<br />Soil must be appropriate – not hardpan, boulders<br />Water is pumped down to the point<br />Well screen on smaller diameter pipe is then placed in well<br />Outer casing is withdrawn<br />
  36. 36. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Drilled well<br />Cable tool method<br />Rotary hydraulic method<br />Reverse-circulation rotary method<br />California method<br />Rotary air metho<br />Down-the-hole hammer method<br />
  37. 37. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Cable tool method<br />Percussion drilling – wells of all sizes and depth<br />Clublike chisel is driven into the earth<br />Every 3 to 6 feet, a bailer is used to clean out hole<br />Casing is used as necessary<br />Operator adjusts tool blows for soil conditions<br />At desired depth, a screen is lowered and pump installed<br />
  38. 38. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Rotary hydraulic method<br />Well is drilled with rapid rotation of a bit<br />Drill pipe is hollow<br />Fluid is pumped down – carries borings to surface<br />Clay may be added to liquid to adhere to hole sides<br />Reverse-circulation method<br />As above, fluid circulates in the opposite direction<br />Fluid returns to surface through drill pipe<br />
  39. 39. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />California method (stovepipe method)<br />Used in unconsolidated material<br />Similar to cable tool method but uses a special bucket<br />When bit is dropped, bucket is filled with cuttings<br />Steel casing forced down as well is deepens<br />Rotary hammer method<br />Similar to rotary hydraulic method<br />Air is used instead of water<br />Suitable only for drilling in consolidated rock<br />Large drill rigs usually equipped to do both<br />
  40. 40. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Down-the-hole hammer method<br />Uses a pneumatic hammer<br />Air also cleans away cutting from the bit<br />For most rock, this is the fastest way to drill<br />
  41. 41. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Special types of wells<br /> Radial wells<br /> Gravel-wall wells<br /> Bedrock wells<br />
  42. 42. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Radial wells<br />Commonly used near lakes or rivers<br />Consists of central well with horizontal screened wells projecting outward from the bottom<br />Central well serves as water collector<br />Central cassion is generally 15 to 20 feet in diameter<br />Each horizontal well is constructed with a gate valve<br />Superstructure protects the well<br />Bedrock well <br />Well is drilled into bedrock – water flows through fractures<br />
  43. 43. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well construction procedures<br />Well components<br />Well casing<br />Steel, iron, fiberglass, plastic<br />Some have drive shoe on lower end<br />Rotary drilled well casing installed after drilling<br />
  44. 44. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Gravel-wall well or gravel packed well<br />Best in fine grain material with uniform size<br />Built with large casing with smaller casing with well screen<br />Area around screen is filled with gravel<br />Outer casing is withdrawn<br />There are variations on the above<br />
  45. 45. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well components<br />Well screens<br />Used in unconsolidated formations<br />Proper size:<br />Minimum resistance<br />Prevents sand from entering well<br />Openings between 0.1 and 0.3 feet<br />Must be sized to allow for buildup of headloss<br />Plastic, mild steel, bronze, stainless steel <br />
  46. 46. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well components<br />Grouting<br />Seals out water to prevent surface pollution<br />Seal out water from poor quality strata<br />Protects casing against corrosion<br />Restrains unstable soil and rock formations<br />Annular space is filled<br />Hole larger than casing when corrosion likely for 2’” grout<br />
  47. 47. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well development<br />High rate pumping<br />Surging<br />Increased-rate pumping and surging<br />Use of explosives<br />High velocity jetting<br />Chemical agents<br />Pressure acidizing<br />Hydraulic fracturing<br />
  48. 48. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />High rate pumping<br /> Where no screen is used – flushes out bore and aquifer<br />Surging<br />Employs a plunger or surge block<br />Also achieved by using compressed air<br />Increased rate pumping<br />Develops wells in unconsolidated limestone<br />Pumping rates increased in steps<br />
  49. 49. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Use of explosives<br />May be used to fracture massive rock formations<br />Might be used to clear material that is plugging bore face<br />Light charge used to agitate materials surrounding bore<br />High velocity jetting<br />Uses clean water under high pressure<br />Breaks up compacted materials<br />Wells is pumped in the meantime<br />
  50. 50. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Chemical agents<br />Chemicals frequently enhance some development methods<br />Used with hexametaphospahtes to improve jetting<br />May also be used where to disperse iron or carbonate<br />Pressure acidizing<br />May be used when good isolation from overlying formations to increase well productivity<br />Hydraulic fracturing<br />Fluid under pressure to open strata separations<br />Gelling agents and sand added to hold fractures open<br />
  51. 51. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Pumping tests<br />To confirm that well produces water at design capacity<br />Typically:<br />24 hours for confined aquifer<br />72 hours for unconfined aquifer<br />Pumping rate is held constant<br />Drawdown is measured frequently<br />
  52. 52. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Sanitary considerations<br />For shallow wells, surround with:<br /> 50 feet radius of clay<br />Layer 2 feet deep<br />Grout used to fill in annular space<br />Disinfection<br />Extended pumping removes most<br />With 50 mg/L of chlorine with surging<br />HTH included with gravel in gravel packed well<br />
  53. 53. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Aquifer evaluation<br />Observations wells located on map<br />Routine measure of drawdown in observation wells<br />Steel tape measure<br />Air bubbler tube<br />Electronic sensors<br />Performance evaluated by:<br />Drawdown method<br />Recovery method<br />Specific capacity method<br />
  54. 54. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well operation and maintenance<br />Important base line data<br />Static water level<br />Pumping water level<br />Drawdown<br />Well production<br />Well yield<br />Time required for recovery after pumping<br />Specific capacity<br />
  55. 55. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Well abandonment and sealing<br />Goal is restoration of geologic and hydrologic conditions<br />To prevent physical hazard<br />To prevent groundwater contamination<br />To conserve the aquifer<br />To avoid mixing water from different aquifers<br />Work is best done by company who constructed the well<br />
  56. 56. Water Sources - Groundwater<br />Summary<br />Wells often supply water to smaller communities<br />Water quality generally consistent<br />Minerals can be a problem<br />Droughts may not effect as much as surface sources<br />Proper maintenance and record keeping are important<br />
  57. 57. Water Sources – Surface Water <br />Surface water<br />Primary source for larger communities and cities<br />Cities have grown up around sources<br />Great lakes<br />Major rivers<br />When groundwater insufficient, surface water from a distance carried to cities with aqueducts, pipelines<br />
  58. 58. Water Sources – Surface Water <br />Surface runoff<br />Rain<br />Runs off quickly toward streams etc.<br />Snow<br />Form of water storage<br />Extremely important for western US and Canada<br />Groundwater<br />Springs and seeps<br />Many streams would dry up without these<br />
  59. 59. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Influences on runoff<br />Rainfall<br /> Intensity and duration<br />Soil<br />Composition and moisture<br />Ground slope<br />Vegetation cover<br />Human influences<br />
  60. 60. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Watercourses<br />Natural <br />Brooks, streams, creeks, rivers<br />Perennial streams<br />Run year round<br />Ephemeral streams<br />Flow occasionally, brief existence<br />Intermittent streams<br />May run for weeks or months at a time<br />Dry at some times<br />
  61. 61. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Constructed watercourses<br />Ditches, channels, canals, aqueducts etc.<br />Used to divert water from one watershed to another<br />May be used to prevent ponding from impeding growth<br />Other uses<br />Potable water<br />Shipping, boat access<br />Irrigation<br />Water Bodies – Lakes, ponds and reservoirs <br />
  62. 62. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Considerations for public use<br />Quantity of water available (allow for growth)<br />Required amount must be available<br />Summer usually greatest use<br />Safe yield<br />Amount used during lowest flow<br />Source<br />Impoundment<br />Watershed<br />Rain or snow fall<br />
  63. 63. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Considerations<br />Water quality<br />Almost any water can be made potable<br />Expense considerations<br />Political and legal issues<br />Whose water is it?<br />Supply and demand<br />Salt water<br />
  64. 64. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Considerations <br />Water quality continued<br />Temperature<br />Taste, odor, color<br />Algae<br />Turbidity<br />Microbiological contamination<br />Chemical/radiological contamination<br />
  65. 65. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Water storage<br />Natural storage<br />Impoundments<br />Dams<br />Utility is responsible for maintenance<br />Failure<br />Water loss<br />Downstream destruction<br />Maintenance record keeping important<br />
  66. 66. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />
  67. 67. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Groundwater recharge<br />Create basins to provide recharge aquifers<br />Injecting water into aquifer<br />Must equal drinking water standards<br />Turbidity an clog injection area<br />EPA making it difficult to create new impoundments<br />
  68. 68. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Surface intakes<br />Spillway<br />Disadvantages<br />Warm water<br />Ice in winter<br />Floating debris<br />Varying water levels<br />
  69. 69. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />
  70. 70. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Submerged intakes<br />Best water usually at some depth<br />Do not obstruct surface activity<br />Floating debris not a problem<br />Raised off of the bottom – prevents intake of silt/sand<br />Typically water is pumped to treatment plant<br />
  71. 71. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Operating Problems<br />1. Stream contamination<br />Spills from barges and ships<br />Spills from industrial installations<br />Fertilizer<br />Broken pipe lines<br />Swamps after heavy rain<br />
  72. 72. Water Sources – Surface Water<br /> Operating Problems<br />2. Lake Contamination <br />Vulnerable to human and natural contamination<br />Nitrates from farmland<br />Algae growth, aquatic weeds<br />Organisms – zebra and quagga mussels<br />Lake straification<br />
  73. 73. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />
  74. 74. Water Sources – Surface Water<br /> Operating Problems <br />3. Icing<br />Rapid cooling to freezing – frazil ice<br />Small, disc shaped crystals<br />Can plug intake<br />Favorable conditions<br />Clear sky at night<br />Air temperature less than 19.4 degrees<br />Day time temperature less than 32.4 degrees<br />Winds greater than 10 mph<br />
  75. 75. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Operating problems – icing continued <br />Overcoming frazil ice problems<br />Backflush with:<br />Settled water<br />Air <br />Steam<br />Switch intakes<br />4. Multiple intakes for slow flow<br />Use of non-ferrous intake materials <br />
  76. 76. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Operational problems<br />5. Evaporation<br />Large surface can lose 6 to 8 feet to evaporation<br />Cover with plastic or other material<br />6. Seepage<br />Through bottom and sides<br />Line reservoir<br />
  77. 77. Water Sources – Surface Water<br /> Operational Problems <br /> 7. Siltation<br />Streams carry sediment<br />Serious problem for dams<br />Cannot be prevented but can be limited<br />Good farming procedures<br />Controls on logging, road building<br />Artificial wetlands<br />Correction<br />Dredging<br />New source<br />
  78. 78. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Emergencies and alternative sources<br />Supply to public – continuous and uninterrupted<br />Loss of pressure = contamination<br />Lack of water for sanitation = spread of disease<br />Emergency plans are important<br />Below is discussion of possible situations and solutions<br />
  79. 79. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Use and conservation of water<br />Water, our most important natural resource<br />Use has declined since 1980<br />Less used by agriculture, industry, power companies<br />More is used by public water suppliers<br />Domestic use about 105 gallons per day per capita<br />Fire use<br />Small across the country<br />Maybe largest flow met by any given utility <br />
  80. 80. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Causes of source disruption<br />Natural disasters<br />Earthquakes<br />Storms<br />Landslides<br />Vandalism<br />Spills<br />Leaks<br />Contamination<br />Equipment failure<br />
  81. 81. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Source contamination<br />Chemical spills<br />Some short term, some longer term effects<br />Most chemical contamination can be dealt with<br />Carbon adsorption<br />
  82. 82. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Loss of water source<br />Short term<br />Conservation, rationing<br />Use tank trucks<br />Bottled water<br />Water from neighboring system<br />
  83. 83. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Long term options<br />Drill new wells<br />Construct new surface water sources<br />Clean up contamination<br />Connect to near-by town<br />Impose permanent conservation requirements<br />Reuse wastewater for non-potable uses<br />Dual potable- nonpotable system<br />New reservoir<br />Aquifer recharge<br />
  84. 84. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Evaluate the options<br />Required procedures to implement option <br />Is technology available <br />How much water can option provide<br />Can it meet systems total needs<br />Can it be expanded to meet future needs<br />What equipment and supplies are needed<br />
  85. 85. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Reliability<br />How reliable is option<br />Does it require special operation and maintenance skills<br />Political considerations<br />What administrative procedures are needed<br />Is property ownership a problem<br />Will option be accepted by public<br />
  86. 86. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Cost considerations<br />What is initial investment<br />What will be operating costs<br />Who will pay for:<br />Design<br />Construction<br />Operation<br />
  87. 87. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Alternative water sources<br />Surface water<br />Two or more intakes at different locations<br />Intakes in more than one source<br />Construct wells for back up<br />Groundwater<br />Provide extra wells<br />Locate wells in different aquifers<br />Provide emergency source water supply<br />All systems tie in with other systems<br />
  88. 88. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Use and conservation of water<br />Variations in water use<br />Time of day and day of the week<br />Climate and season of the year<br />Type of community <br />System water pressure<br />Presence or absence of meters<br />Quality of water<br />
  89. 89. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Time and day of week<br /> Rapid rise early in the morning<br />Significant rise early evening<br />Industries may not operate on weekends<br />Monday might be “wash day”<br />
  90. 90. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Climate and season<br /> Most places higher in summer<br />Some air conditioners use water<br />Lawn and garden watering, bathing<br />Usually lower in winter unless water is run to avoid freezing<br />
  91. 91. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Type of community<br /> Industrial communities use can be higher than average<br />Type of housing<br />Individuals homes use more due to lawns and gardens<br />Economically depressed areas generally use less<br />
  92. 92. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Water pressure<br />Normal pressure – 25 to 50 psig<br />Increase of 25 psi to 45 psi = maybe 30% increase in use<br />Metering<br />Unmetered customers use 25% more than average<br />Let hoses run<br />Let faucets run<br />Ignore leaks<br />
  93. 93. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Sewers<br />Customers with sewer connections tend to use 50 to 100% more water than those with septic systems<br />Condition of the Distribution System<br /> Leaks result loss of revenu<br />Poor condition results in:<br /> Taste and odor problems<br />Reduced use and customer support for utility<br />
  94. 94. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Conservation<br />Gradual acceptance by public of need to conserve<br />Efforts most effective in areas on minimal supply<br />Benefits<br />Reduced demand on source<br />Energy savings<br />Reduction in wastewater flow<br />Reduced costs<br />Protection of environment<br />
  95. 95. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Drawbacks to conservation<br />Loss of revenue<br />Possible delay in developing new source<br />Possible stimulation of water service growth<br />Difficulty in dealing with drought conditions<br />
  96. 96. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Loss of revenue<br />Some offsetting expenses - power, chemicals<br />May require increased rates<br />Financial planning necessary before program starts<br /> In case of drought, hard to raise rates on short notice<br />Delay in developing new sources<br />If conservation successful, lack of public support for new source<br />Delay can increase cost of new source development<br />
  97. 97. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Stimulation of system growth<br />More water available can attract more users<br />Can be a system until new sources developed<br />Drought conditions<br />Drought after conservation is hard to explain asking for even less use<br />Emphasizes need for good planning<br />Utility must plan for future use<br />
  98. 98. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Supply management techniques<br />Careful management of all resources<br />Analysis of water use data<br />Complete source and customer metering<br />Reduction of unaccounted for water<br />
  99. 99. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Demand management techniques<br />Public education<br />Distribution of water-saving devices<br />Management of water use demand<br />Modification of rate structure<br />Promotion of low water use agriculture and gardening<br />Promotion of conservation by industry and business <br />
  100. 100. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Drought conditions management<br />Response<br />Conservation<br />Additional supply<br />Emergency plan in place<br />Identify additional sources ahead of time<br />In extreme cases, fines for misuse of water<br />
  101. 101. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Allocation of Water rights:<br />Riparian Doctrine<br />Appropriation Doctrine<br />Most eastern states have a combination of the two<br />Western and dry states tend to use Appropriation Doctrine<br />
  102. 102. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Riparian Doctrine<br />Common law doctrine based on civil cases<br />Rule of “reasonable sharing” by abutting land owners<br />Sharing rather than a right to a specific amount of water<br />Uses not allocated a specific amount<br />Use cannot interfere with others use<br />Drought conditions<br /> Length of ownership or previous use is not a basis for use under these conditions<br />
  103. 103. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Greater water use has resulted in:<br />More frequent conflicts especially during droughts<br />Increasing number of state statutes<br />Gradual move toward Appropriation Doctrine<br />
  104. 104. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Appropriation Doctrine<br />“First in time, first in right”<br />Water for irrigation greatest use in west<br />Most laws relate to this type of use<br />Two basic principals<br />Priority use<br />Beneficial use<br />
  105. 105. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Priority use<br />When less water than demand, who has used the longest<br />No shared suffering<br />Beneficial use<br />Opposite of Riparian Rights – Land ownership not a factor<br />User must prove used is beneficial<br />Non-use for period of time can lead to loss of right<br />This type of use tends to be settled in courts <br />
  106. 106. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Legal complications<br /> Land boundries are clear, water use is not<br />Water rights are highly independent and relative<br />Many variables to consider<br />Use may have to be adjusted<br />Drought conditions<br />Seasonal use for crops<br />Nature of the source<br />
  107. 107. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Rights for the use of Groundwater<br />Absolute right<br />Reasonable use<br />Correlative rights<br />Appriation-Permit systems<br />
  108. 108. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Absolute ownership<br />Owner of the land owns what is under it<br /> For all practical purposes = law of capture<br />Water can be used for owner’s purpose or sold<br />No liability if dries up neighbor’s well<br />
  109. 109. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Reasonable use<br />Interference with neighbor only ok if use is reasonable<br />Owner is liable if use harms others<br />Off site use is considered unreasonable it if interferes with others use of the water<br />
  110. 110. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Correlative rights<br />
  111. 111. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Appropriation-Permit systems<br />Basically a permit system<br />Most important issue is Rule of Priority<br />Based on who has use the water the longest<br />Adjustments to use not so necessary as with surface water<br />Main control is limiting pumping<br />
  112. 112. Water Sources – Surface Water<br />Summary<br /> The evolution of water rights is more advanced in the western states than if the east.<br /> Control of water sources remains in under the control of the states.<br />
  113. 113. Principles of Source Protection<br />Surface and groundwater in watershed area to be protected<br />Some utilities hire a consultant – work closely with him<br />Federal funding may be available<br />Organize a watershed management team<br />Watershed delineation<br />Potential and existing threats to water quality<br />Set goals<br />Control stategies<br />Implement a source protection plan<br />
  114. 114. Principles of Source Protection<br />Ten steps to preparing plan: <br /> Organize community team<br /> Delineate watershed<br /> Review zoning<br /> Determine critical areas<br /> Inventory potential treats<br />Prioritize potential threats<br />Establish goals<br />Prepare Source Protection Plan<br />Reach out and educate<br />Implement plan<br />
  115. 115. Principles of Source Protection<br />Community planning team<br />Good when financial resources are limited<br />Involves community people and their expertise<br />Begins to educate the public to the need for source protection<br />Public education may be most important part of plan<br />Team might be:<br />Municipal officials <br />Public organizations<br />Appropriate agency staff<br />Farmers, developers, residents, business leaders<br />
  116. 116. Principles of Source Protection<br />Delineate your watershed<br />Some states have done this with GIS<br />Topo maps may be enough for small systems<br />Use large scale map i.e. 1:5,000<br />Watershed may include other towns<br />Physically go out an inspect boundary lines<br />Some towns put up signs indicating watershed area<br />
  117. 117. Principles of Source Protection<br />Review zoning<br />Get information from code enforcement officer<br />Evaluate restrictions already in place<br />Consider:<br />Permitted land uses<br />Conditional land uses<br />Town’s long range plan for directing growth<br />Existing performance standards<br />
  118. 118. Principles of Source Protection<br />Determine critical areas<br />Identify sensitive areas – personal tour important<br />Steep slopes<br />Unvegetated or disturbed areas<br />Various soil conditions<br />Forest areas<br />Streams, brooks, ponds and lakes<br />Wetlands <br />Review USGS history of precipitation and stream flow recordsL= <br />
  119. 119. Principles of Source Protection<br />Inventory potential threats<br />Important to identify pollutants and their sources<br />On a 1:5,000 map mark out areas<br />Use zoning maps and town master plans<br />Double check information from state agencies to be sure information is current<br />Update information over time<br />
  120. 120. Principles of Source Protection<br />For potential pollution sources:<br />Permitted discharges<br />Solid waste facilities<br />Residential development<br />Industrial/commercial development<br />Agricultural activities<br />Water demand<br />Use lists of relative risk from various uses<br />
  121. 121. Principles of Source Protection<br />Prioritize potential threats<br />Use list of potential sources of pollution<br />Consider<br />Amounts of pollutants<br />Toxicity<br />Water quality impacts<br />Cooperation needed from abutting towns<br />Review periodically<br />
  122. 122. Principles of Source Protection<br />Source protection plan should consist of:<br />Control measures<br />Education and outreach strategies<br />Implementation strategy<br />Control measures may be regulatory or non-regulatory<br />Regulatory – bylaws, ordinances<br />Non-regulatory – buffer zones, detention basins, erosion controls<br />
  123. 123. Principles of Source Protection<br />Reach out and educate<br />Non-regulatory measures rely on education and outreach<br />Regulatory measures rely on support from public and town officials<br />Use of “Best Management Practices” good guideline<br />
  124. 124. Principles of Source Protection<br />Implement the plan<br />Need PUBLIC SUPPORT<br />Establish individual who will enforce the plan<br />Pick people with proper expertise (spetic systems, zoning)<br />Consider a “Water Supply Advisor Committee”<br />Review projects that threaten watersupply<br />Work closely with the Planning Board<br />Keep program updated<br />
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