F2 Drainage of golf course features

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Jason Pick, Olds College
Turfgrass Management, Level I

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F2 Drainage of golf course features

  1. 1. Drainage of Features<br />
  2. 2. Greens<br />USGA specification<br />
  3. 3. Step 1: Site assessment<br />Identify natural drainage route /low areas<br />Identify drain outlet(s)<br />Sketch proposed contours<br />Sketch directional flow<br />
  4. 4. Step 2: Determine drainage pattern<br />
  5. 5. Greens component:<br />Determine tile line pattern<br />location of collector<br />Specify lateral line <br />
  6. 6. Step 3: Choose drainage tile<br />
  7. 7. Step 4: Sketch the grid<br />
  8. 8. Step 6: Collectors and laterals<br />PVC mainline<br />Corrugated 4”<br />
  9. 9. Step 7: Prepare Specifications<br />Required for each drainage feature specified<br />
  10. 10. USGA green: Drain Laterals<br />Laterals<br />4” (100mm) laterals of 45 degrees from main<br />15ft (5m) apart, extend to perimeter of green<br />From first lateral to first lateral <br />
  11. 11. Drainage trenches<br />6” (150mm) wide<br />8” (200mm) depth<br />Minimum slope .5%<br />Rise/run=slope<br />1:100 = 1% slope<br />1:50 = 2% slope<br />1:33 = 3% slope<br />Fill gravel ¼” – 1” for drainage trench<br />
  12. 12. Tee drainage<br />Pipe sizing and laterals<br />
  13. 13. Step 1: Main line<br />Assume 8” sandy loam (topsoil cap)<br />Hydraulic conductivity of .8”/hr<br />Main line <br />Maximum diameter of 4” (100mm)<br />Place along route of maximum fall<br />
  14. 14. Tees<br />Drain spacing <br />6.6ft apart – 16hrs to drain<br />3.3ft apart – 8hrs to drain<br />Maintain slope 1-3%<br />
  15. 15. Interceptor drains<br />4” corrugated to basin, french or collector<br />Slope recommendations 1-3%<br />
  16. 16. Tees: Specifications <br />Subsoil specifications<br />
  17. 17. Drainage of Features: Bunkers<br />
  18. 18. Bunker component: <br />Specify tile and fill<br />Specify liner and inner bank stabilization from washouts<br />Use 6.6ft spacing<br />Use 4” corrugated tile<br />
  19. 19. Specify variation of drain pattern (herringbone, random, etc)<br />Include specifics of discharge:<br /> to collector/ sump<br />
  20. 20. Specify subsoil drainage pattern<br />
  21. 21. Linking trap drainage<br />Combined drainage system<br />Limited discharge areas <br />
  22. 22. Route to basin or collector<br />4” corrugated to basin<br />4” main line<br />6.6ft (2m) centers/spacing<br />
  23. 23. Drainage AWAY from play<br />
  24. 24. Completed bunker drain specifications<br />
  25. 25. Drainage of features: Fairways<br />
  26. 26. Fairways component: <br />Recommend surface slope min 1-3%<br />4” laterals and main<br />Mainline and laterals 6.6ft apart<br />Max combined length of laterals and mainline1170ft <br />
  27. 27. Technical specifications:<br />Drain pipe section<br />Interceptor drains<br />
  28. 28. Drainage feature: Fairways<br />Recognize contour low areas<br />Incorporate catch basins<br />Incorporate french drains if necessary<br />Join laterals to main collector<br />
  29. 29. Drainage features: Fairway<br />Herringbone grid<br />Identify the main collector<br />Utilize natural contours for direction to main collector<br />Multiple patterns are possible<br />Utilize french drains where distances are too great<br />Identify wetland and other discharge areas.<br />
  30. 30. Completed drainage feature: Fairway<br />
  31. 31. Fairway Component: drainage specifications<br />Provide current fairway drainage issues<br />Specify avoidance of subsoil compaction<br />Specify siltation prevention in trenches and catch basins when re-grading<br />Identify catch basins<br />Identify laterals and pattern<br />
  32. 32. Additional info:Include drainage specifications <br />Hand Sketchs, cited web photos acceptable.<br />Open stone drains identified with specs<br />French drains specified<br />Intercept drains specified<br />Catch basins specified<br />
  33. 33. Drainage Specs. :Roadways/cart paths<br />
  34. 34. Slit Drainage<br />http://tdsdrainage.com/articles.html<br />
  35. 35. What is Slit drainage?<br />The remedial method of quickly removing surface water<br />Often done on fairways, or sports fields constructed with heavier soil<br />A means of “fixing” poorly drained sportfields<br />
  36. 36. Slit drainage<br />Series of narrow vertical trenches backfilled with sand<br />Some have pipes in bottom<br />Connected to larger connectors to stormwater outlets<br />Many work for awhile, but then fail<br />A method improving surface drainage<br />
  37. 37. Spacing<br />
  38. 38. Design and planning steps<br />
  39. 39. Typical slit and collector<br />
  40. 40. Lateral direction<br />Typical installation<br />Laterals across slope<br />Larger collector drain<br />
  41. 41. Slit Drainage: Greens <br />
  42. 42. Trenching the surface<br />
  43. 43. Perched water table in trenches? unecessary<br />Grassing trench lines<br />Gravel layer install<br />Prevents drying<br />Perches the table<br />
  44. 44. Summary of Slit drainage<br />
  45. 45. Summary continued<br />
  46. 46. Slit drainage on Fairways<br />
  47. 47. Types of Golf Course Drains<br />Collector<br />Interceptor<br />Catch basin<br />
  48. 48. Natural drainage<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  49. 49. Collection and Transport<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  50. 50. Golf Course Drainage<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  51. 51. Collector drains<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  52. 52. Collector drains<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  53. 53. Collector discharge<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  54. 54. Collector Basin<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  55. 55. Catch Basin<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  56. 56. Open Stone drains<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  57. 57. French drains<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  58. 58. Flat tile green drainage<br />Multi-flow system<br />Hybrid drainage pattern<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  59. 59. Multiple laterals meet collector<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  60. 60. Head Wall<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  61. 61. Sump wells<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  62. 62. Mole Drains<br />Effective relief of impermeable base<br />Temporary<br />Risks<br />irrigation lines/wire cut<br />Can tear through other drains not mapped<br />Raises the soil<br />Requires an open channel to subsoil<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  63. 63. Mowable swale<br />Fairways are graded to a collector <br />Slopes are between 1-3%, unnoticed by golfers<br />Mowable with cutting units<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  64. 64. Commonly used drains<br />Interceptor ditch <br />Sump style drain<br />Sump drainage<br />Drill of dig past impermeable layer <br />Facilitates drainage through to porus layer <br />May need to be very deep<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  65. 65. Intercept drains<br />Intercept drain specs <br />Intercept drain detail<br />Turf Managers Handbook, Charles "Bud" White, Ann Arbor Press 2000<br />
  66. 66. Drainage Routes<br />Irrigation source site<br />Collectors, laterals and catch basins<br />
  67. 67. Main Collectors<br />Impounding water and discharge areas<br />
  68. 68. Main Drainage Collectors<br />8”-24” in diameter<br />Often smooth PVC pipe<br />Subsurface drain, deep install<br />Below all irrigation piping<br />Dug into subsoil existing grade to water feature/pond<br />Utilizes original grade, natural slope.<br />
  69. 69. Collector Drains<br />Step 1: Determine lowest areas on map<br />Designate impounded water site<br />Utilize natural drain routes<br />Typically becomes irrigation source site<br />
  70. 70. Main Drainage collectors<br />Mains route along or across each fairway<br />Connects all lateral and basins<br />Main collectors consolidate to deliver to pond, irrigation source or discharge<br />
  71. 71. Main drainage collectors<br />Storm water collection<br />Underground tanks (often used for storm water) to existing facilities<br />May discharge to pond system<br />
  72. 72. Pond construction-sub and surface<br />Supplies valuable topsoil<br />Creates fill<br />Provides additional storage of runoff, storm water<br />Potential to transfer to other ponds<br />Becomes design feature<br />
  73. 73. Pond construction – Sub and surface<br />Functional and aesthetic<br />Located for alternative outlets of discharge<br />
  74. 74. Catch Basins – Surface drainage<br />Collects surface water<br />Connects to a lateral or main collector<br />Installed and graded into low areas, non traffic routes<br />Effective for low areas on fairways, tees, and combined features of greens complex’s<br />
  75. 75. Catch basins – Surface drainage<br />Multiple used prfwy<br />spaced 76ft, at 1% <br />Connect to laterals <br />
  76. 76. Laterals<br />Fairway, tee, catch basins<br />
  77. 77. Laterals<br />
  78. 78. Drainage Laterals<br />Connect features to the main collector<br />Laterals include<br />Fairways<br />Tees<br />Catch basins<br />Bunkers<br />Green complex’s<br />
  79. 79. Laterals to Main collector<br />Drainage contractors specify pipe sizing and laterals to collector<br />Measure of combined friction loss, to combined gpm<br />Fairway lateral sizing 4” corrugated<br />
  80. 80. Lateral to collector drain<br />Number of laterals connected determine collector sizing<br />Utilizing natural drainage to a single lateral herringbone will save costs<br />
  81. 81. Fairway drainage<br />Read contours to determine natural drainage route<br />Design surface catchment at lowest point<br />Design pattern drains to connect to main collector<br />
  82. 82. Tee sites<br />Outlets may connect to basins<br />Often connect to laterals<br />Elevated sites often graded towards catchment<br />
  83. 83. Green sites<br />Determine lowest area off green<br />Away from traffic<br />Often combines with other complex drains<br />Bunkers, approach<br />

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